Vol 15, No 4 (2018)

PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Social Activity of Personality and Groups: Definition, Structure and Mechanisms
Shamionov R.M.
Abstract

The problem of social activity of the personality and groups becomes central in modern social, economic and political psychology. The innovative processes in the society, maintaining a dynamic balance in it, entirely depend on the release of the social activity of the individuals and groups, on its freedom and diversity, constructiveness and responsibility. The article presents a theoretical analysis of the problem of operationalization of the phenomena of social activity of the individual and groups, the synthesis of the disparate data on its foundations, motivators, mechanisms and social effects. The definition of social activity as a special case of initiative impact of social actors on the social environment, as the actions aimed at changing and transforming social objects as a result of which there is a change in the personality and the entire social situation, the problem of its operationalization is discussed. It is shown that social activity is the effect of socialization and development of the individual. The differences of social activity in different age periods and its importance for the individual and its sociopsychological status are singled out. The multi-component structure of the social activity, including the cognitive, emotionally-evaluative, motivational, and behavioral components are highlighted. The incentive mechanisms of social activity (motivation, satisfaction/dissatisfaction as an indicator of diachronic mismatch of personality and the social environment) are analyzed. The empirical research aimed at finding out the predictors and basis of the dominant types of social activity of the individual is outlined.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):379-394
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Spiritual Capacities and Productive Life Activity of the Family
Ozhiganova G.V.
Abstract

In the article the role of spiritual factors in the productive life activity of the family is considered. A particular attention is given to the description of the construct “spiritual capacities”. The influence of a moral aspect of motivation, value orientations on the satisfaction with marriage, the success of the family life is analyzed. It is shown that the family well-being is promoted by the moral motives of marriage, spiritual value orientations related to the awareness of the meaning of life, selfimprovement, altruism. The importance of spiritual capacities and spiritual orientation for the family productive life activity is noted. The detailed descriptions of such spiritual capacities as moral, reflexive, self-regulatory, creative, which the author attributes to the category of the higher ones, are given. These capacities make it possible to lay a solid moral foundation for the family relations and the successful upbringing of children, create the opportunity for the creative development, the manifestation of wisdom and spiritual self-improvement of the family members. It is emphasized that a healthy, happy family can be considered as the result of the productive life activity of its members, aimed at maintaining and developing the family. A productive life activity of the family can be also related to the success and productivity of its members in the field of educational, professional and other activities. In both cases, spiritual capacities can serve as a guarantor of the wellbeing and the productive life activity of the family.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):395-409
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Modifications of Semantic Space of Interpersonal Perception of Bilingualism at Different Levels of Discursive Abilities
Voronin A.N.
Abstract

The article is devoted to psychosemantic research of interpersonal perception of bilinguals by people with different level of discursive abilities. The construct “discursive abilities” was introduced in the study of the formation of artificial bilingualism. Discursive abilities allow a person to effectively initiate, support, deploy and complete the communication process. The influence of discursive abilities on the structure of the semantic space has not previously been explored. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the modification of the semantic space of interpersonal perception of bilinguals and its dependence on the level of development of discursive abilities. The reconstruction of the semantic space of interpersonal perception of bilinguals on the two contrasting samples showed that the dimension and content of the semantic spaces of people with high and low level of discursive abilities are significantly different. For the sample with a high level of discursive abilities, four significant factors of semantic space were identified: enthusiasm, sympathy, friendliness, caution. The semantic sample space with a low level of discursive abilities turned out to be three-dimensional: enthusiasm, sympathy, openness to experience. To compare both spaces, the “pooled data method” was used. This allowed us to identify two areas of significant differences in the interpersonal perception of bilinguals in people with a low and high level of discursive abilities: the higher the level of discursive abilities, the more people tend to perceive bilinguals as more active and open in communication.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):410-430
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Relationships of Victimization, Machiavellianism and Conflict Behavior
Sheinov V.P.
Abstract

The article establishes the mutual links between the victimization, personal Machiavellianism and the conflict-handling modes. Many of these relationships depend on gender and age. A total of 732 subjects participated in the study: 285 women, 110 men, 180 girls and 157 boys. The victimization of subjects was evaluated using the author’s test of victimization for adults, Machiavellianism was evaluated with the help of the Mac-IV test, conflict-handling modes was evaluated with the TKI test. Victimization is associated with Machiavellianism, which correlates positively with general victimization, aggressive and uncritical behavior in men, women, boys and girls. In addition, the Machiavellianism in men, women and young men is positively associated with the addictive behavior and with realized victimization, the Machiavellianism of young men and women is associated with self-destructive and non-critical behavior, in young men it is associated with dependent behavior and with realized victimization. The nature of the relationship between victimization and conflict-handling modes is different for the components of victimization and modes. The Competing in men and women, boys and girls is positively associated with general victimization and aggressive behavior. The Accommodating in women and men is negatively correlated with general victimization and aggressive behavior, and in women it is associated with self-destructive and non-critical behavior. The Avoiding in women is negatively correlated with self-destructive and non-critical behavior and with realized victimization, in men it is positively associated with dependent behavior, and in young men it is associated with self-destructive behavior. Compromising in men, women, boys and girls is negatively correlated with general victimization and aggressive behavior. The Collaborating is negatively associated with general victimization and with aggressive behavior in young men and women, and in young men it is also associated with uncritical behavior. The Machiavellianism of men, women and young men is positively associated with Competing and it is negatively associated with Accommodating.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):431-445
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About Tools for Management of Fashion and Fashion Communication
Odintsov A.A., Odintsova O.V.
Abstract

The problem of fashion as a social phenomenon was studied by the classics of philosophy, sociology, economic theory, starting from the XVIII century. In modern science, fashion is considered as an interdisciplinary phenomenon in the context of culture. There is a growing interest in the research of fashion, which is reflected in the increasing number of Ph.D. thesis in Philology, Sociology, Psychology, Philosophy, Cultural Studies, and Art History, in Russian science in recent years. One of the current trends is the consideration of fashion in the context of communicative processes, i.e. “fashion communication”. At the same time, not enough attention is paid to the possibilities of fashion management, since many researchers understand fashion as a spontaneous phenomenon. This article presents the rationale for the consideration of the main subjects and tools for management of the fashion and fashion communication. The state, commercial structures, “living emblems of fashion”, ruling classes, spiritual leaders are considered as subjects of fashion management. In the long term perspective, the management tools of the fashion communication include, first of all, ideology, culture, politics, education; in the medium term - branding, image, marketing, advertising, etc.; in the short term, - both traditional media and cinema, as well as social networks and other network resources, whose role is rapidly increasing in recent years. It has been concluded that currently the potential of fashion communication management tools is not being used enough constructively.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):446-457
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CLINICAL AND JURIDICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Worries and Fears in the System of Attitudes to Personal Security of Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases
Ivanov M.S., Solodukhin A.V., Pomeshkina S.A., Seryy A.V., Yanitsky M.S., Gorbunova E.V.
Abstract

This paper presents the results of studying the psychological aspects of attitudes to personal security of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart defects. The research involved 40 patients aged 45 to 81 years (47.5 % male, 52.5 % female): 20 patients with ischemic heart disease with stable angina and 20 patients with acquired heart defects. In the course of the research conducted with the help of the techniques based on subjective scaling, the attitudes to personal security, including the sources of threats, the consequences of the realization of threats and the assessment of efforts on the counteraction to these threats, posing in the author’s theoretical model as the components of the system of the attitudes to personal security, have been studied. The results show that in the patients with heart diseases, the assessments for a variety of threats, the consequences of their realization and the efforts on the counteraction to them are significantly higher, than in the patients with CAD. In general, the estimates for all the parameters in the group of the patients with CAD were closer to the estimates of healthy people, obtained in the previous studies. In the patients with heart defects, characterized by a greater duration and disease severity, the results of the indicators of the attitudes to personal security, in general, are higher and less differentiated. The conclusion is made that the attitudes to personal security as a part of the system of the psychological attitudes in general, can act as a diagnostic criterion and the indicator of the efficiency of the adaptation in cardiovascular diseases and also can be an independent target of the correctional work in a psychological consultation and psychotherapy of the patients with cardiovascular diseases. In the conclusion the recommendations for the experts who are engaged in the psychological help to the patients with cardiovascular diseases in diagnostic and correctional work with the attitudes to personal security are formulated.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):458-472
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Defense Mechanisms in Case of Repeat Offenders
Bovin B.G.
Abstract

Recurrent crime in Russia over the years remains stable and is at least 50 %. With rare exceptions, rehabilitation programs do not have a significant impact on recidivism. After being released the professional criminals return to the previous criminal activity and everything goes in a vicious circle. It is assumed that the system of excessive or deficient functioning of defense psychological mechanisms, to a certain extent, interferes with corrective action and affects the psychological development of this type of offenders. Based on the concept of psychological defense mechanisms developed by Anna Freud, we understand the psychological defense mechanisms aimed at achieving the consistency of the inner world and the realistic adaptation of the subject to the surrounding world in order to avoid affect in a particular situation. The study involved males repeatedly convicted under various articles of the Criminal Code, i.e. convicted offenders who are in various correctional institutions of the penitentiary system of Russia. Sample size - 381 males (aged 25 to 55 years). The diagnostic questionnaire used was the Life Style Index (LSI) test, created by R. Plutchik and intended to measure the basic mechanisms of psychological defenses associated with the eight basic emotions in accordance with in the psycho-evolutionary theory of emotions. According to the theory, the defense mechanisms are understood as derivatives of the basic emotions, for the containment of which the defense mechanisms develop in the process of ontogenesis. The study identified the most primitive and the least recognized projective defense mechanism. A strategy of correction of this fixed defense based on the ideas of gestalt therapy is discussed in the article.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):473-487
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COGNITIVE AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
Interference in Working Memory is not Displacement nor Competition - It is Limited Destruction
Ershova R.V., Tarnow E.
Abstract
Free recall of 499 Russian college students was measured using the Tarnow Unchunkable Test (Tarnow, 2014) consisting of sets of 3 and 4 double digit items. Most students can remember 3 items but not 4 items and when the 4th item is added the total recall decreases (Ershova & Tarnow, 2016a). Here we describe the interference that results when adding the fourth item. First, we find that interference affects the items differently, evidence that working memory does not consist of identical “slots”; primacy is found to be an important stabilizer. We model the four item experiment as a superposition of the three item result and a perfectly recalled 1st or 4th item and find that the 4th position is affected 2.5 times as much as is the 1st position. Second, contrary to the displacement/competition theory, recall correlations of the added item with the old items (apparently reported for the first time in a free recall experiment) are typically positive. Third these correlations decay exponentially with item-item presentation distance and are symmetric with respect to time reversal. Small negative recall correlations only appear for subjects with the smallest working memory capacities. Third, also contrary to displacement/competition theory, the fourth item is the least likely to be recalled, thus there is not much need for it to displace the other items. This creates a paradox: while displaying the N+1 item decreases the probability of recall of the N items, actually recalling the N+1 item is positively correlated with recalling the other N items: the N+1 item destroys some of the underlying memory system and then functions as a gauge of its own destruction.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):488-499
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PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION
Assessing Academic Texts Authenticity in EFL Classes
Chuikova E.S.
Abstract
To present Russian science at the international level scientists should possess certain specific skills. However, research works in an integrative nature of academic writing recognize the skills that are common for various research fields and specific for academic context. Some works are currently investigating methods to develop academic skills, while a few papers are devoted to the problem of assessing the outcomes. Traditionally the quality of an academic text is measured by the requirements to text organization, context and language proficiency. However, this model does not form a unity until a new idea is introduced into the process of teaching and assessment. The possible solution is to focus on the quality of students’ texts authenticity. Academic text authenticity indicates to what extent the initial norms of authentic academic writing - in organization, context and language use - are modified by students belonging to a different writing culture. The paper defines the category “authenticity” for academic texts and presents examples of assessing the text quality with a set of descriptors. The results could be implemented in professional language studies and in the postgraduate training of students aimed at publishing the results of their research work.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):500-511
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REVIEWS
Book Review: Visions and Resources for International Psychology: 75 Years of the International Council of Psychologists
Novikova I.A., Chebotareva E.Y., Novikov A.L.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(4):512-523
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