Vol 15, No 3 (2018)

PSYCHOLOGICAL ETHICS
CONTEMPORARY VIEWS ON THE TERM ‘DISCOURSE’ IN PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES
Grebenshchikova T.A., Zachiosova I.A., Pavlova N.D.
Abstract

Various branches of science that study homo loquens, а talking man, have made an important contribution to the development of the term ‘discourse’. It is obvious that most definitions have much in common. Firstly, discourse is realized in speech; secondly, it is formed in a wide communicative context as a result of interpersonal communication and interactions between people and society; and finally, discourse has significant impact on social and personal representations and can establish group norms. The paper discusses different approaches to discourse studies, including speech act theory, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, social and cognitive psychology. Special attention is paid to Intent-analysis which considers the basis of discourse as a hierarchy of its speech intentions and their different psychological determinants. These include interpersonal relationships, personality traits, social statuses, roles and the problems speakers solve in the communication process. Several terms related to discourse are given: discoursive practice, discoursive thinking, discoursive abilities etc. The urgent issues of discourse research such as the typology of discourses, the psychological impact and interpersonal interaction mechanisms connected to the various fields of the current reality are presented.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(3):239-254
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SELF-REGULATION AND SELF-REGULATORY CAPACITIES: COMPONENTS, LEVELS, MODELS
Ozhiganova G.V.
Abstract
In the article various definitions of self-regulation are considered. The task is to examine the notion of self-regulation and its perceptions in the Western and Russian psychology; the notion of self-regulatory capacities; the components, levels and models of self-regulation. A review of the representation of self-regulation in the Western and Russian psychology reveals that self-regulation is studied in relation to different facets of life: self-regulated learning, professional activity, health management, well-being, etc. Self-regulation is generally defined through the term “capacity” or “ability”. It makes researchers comprehend the concept of self-regulatory capacities itself more deeply. The theoretical analysis of the components, levels and models of self-regulation allows us to speak about their variety, but there are the components which are general and crucial: motivation, standards (including values, morality), goal-setting, planning, ability for monitoring and self-control, capacity to evaluate and correct the results, to persist in goal attainment. It is revealed that a very important component of self-regulation - spiritual - is missing in the reviewed models, and the author proposes the two models of self-regulation where the spiritual level is included: 1) a four-level model of selfregulation; 2) a four-level model of self-regulation and self-regulatory capacities. Both models imply a higher spiritual level of self-regulation which is related to higher moral principles and based on the highest values and meanings of being. The higher self-regulatory capacities help to liberate the potential of energy for disinterested selfless service to the society. The higher self-regulatory capacities allow individuals to increase the energy resource for self-regulation and contribute to the productivity and quality of life.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(3):255-270
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PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
SPECIFICITY OF SELF-REALIZATION OF TEACHERS WITH VARIOUS LENGTH OF PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
Kudinov S.I., Davydova N.I., Kudinov S.S.
Abstract

Self-actualization and self-realization in modern psychology are considered as the most important indicators of a person’s successful development. At the same time, some studies show that teachers with increasing teaching experience are experiencing more problems with psychological health and self-realization. This article presents the results of an empirical research aimed at establishing the specifics of the self-realization of teachers at different stages of professional activity. A total of 137 teachers (77 women and 59 men) aged 27-60 years took part in the study. According to the length of their pedagogical activity three groups were singled out: the first included 46 teachers with experience from 5 to 10 years, the second group was presented by 46 respondents with an experience of 11-20 years and the third group included 45 teachers with an experience of 25-35 years. As a working hypothesis, it was suggested that the group of teachers with the experience of 11 to 20 years would reveal a more optimal implementation of self-realization, since these teachers have sufficient experience and knowledge on the one hand, and on the other hand they still have some motivation for professionalization and activity. The diagnostic methods included the Multidimensional Questionnaire of Personality Self-Realization (MQPSR) by S.I. Kudinov, the author’s questionnaire “Self-assessment of satisfaction with professional activities” and a free association test. There were revealed some differences in the hierarchical structure of the components of selfrealization in the groups of teachers with different professional experience. It was found that the most optimal self-realization is characteristic of the teachers with 11-20 years of work experience in comparison with other groups. The greatest difficulties in self-realization were revealed in the group of teachers with a work experience of 25-35 years. The results of the questionnaire and the associative test showed that higher satisfaction with professional activity is observed in the first two groups of teachers with experience from 5 to 20 years. At the same time, in the third group of teachers with more than 25 years of work experience there is a tendency to dissatisfaction, and in some cases, extreme dissatisfaction with pedagogical activity. The received results help us to understand some patterns in the successful self-realization of teachers at different stages of their professionalization and can form the basis for the development of psychological support programs.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(3):271-286
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DYNAMICS OF VALUE AND MEANING CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL ACTIVITY OF MODERN YOUTH
Arendachuk I.V.
Abstract

The aim of the research presented in the paper is to conduct the comparative study of the value and meaning characteristics of the different types of social activity in the groups of young people that differ in age. The system-diachronic approach developed by R.M. Shamionov is the methodological base of the research. The research was carried out on a sample of young people divided into two groups depending on the stage of age development: young students aged 18-21 (youth, n = 40) and young people aged 22-25 (early adulthood, n = 40). The study of the forms of the manifestation and characteristics of the social activity of the young people was performed with the help of a specially developed questionnaire; its life-purpose characteristics were studied with the help of the Life-Purpose Orientations Test by D.A. Leontiev, The Existence Scale by A. Längle and C. Orgler, the methodology “Life purpose” by O.I. Motkov. Value orientations were studied using the methods “Diagnostics of the real structure of value orientations of the personality” by S.S. Bubnova and “Personality Profile” by Sh. Schwartz. It was revealed that leisure, network and educational spheres dominate in the structure of young people’s social activity, and and in the case of students it is also the spiritual sphere. It was found out that life-purpose and existential orientations define the leisure, civic, socio-economic and educational activity at the age of 18-21; the system of values and life orientations aimed at supporting other people determine the altruistic and religious types of activity. At the age of 22-25, the focus on personal attitude toward one’s own life, finding the meaning in life, the orientation towards social relations and traditions defines the manifestation of altruistic, leisure, social, political, network, civic, educational, spiritual and religious types of activity. The socio-economic activity is determined by the focus on the implementation of life purposes and the orientation towards hedonism; the same focus reduces the degree of the manifestation of protest activity. In the dynamics of the young people’s age development, the tendency of decreasing the importance of life-purpose characteristics of social activity and increasing the significance of the value orientations and the person’s orientation toward the implementation of life purposes is revealed.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(3):287-307
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CONTENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE “SUBJECT FIELD” OF DISCRIMINATORY ATTITUDES
Bocharova E.E.
Abstract

The aim of the research presented in the article is the theoretical and empirical study of the content of the subject field of discriminatory attitudes. The study is based on the sample ( N = 168), the average age is 27.63 years, the sample is predominantly female (78.6%). The following approaches were used in the study: “Scale of basic beliefs” by R. Janoff-Bullman adapted by M.A. Padun and A.V. Kotelnikova (Padun, Kotelnikova, 2008); the characteristics of the discriminatory attitudes and attributes were collected using a specifically developed questionnaire. The ratio of the expressiveness of the fundamental beliefs was analysed in the study. It generally indicates the subjects’ beliefs in the benevolence of the surrounding world, in the value of their own Self against the background of doubting the world’s justice and the ability to control life events. The fact of the situational manifestation of the discriminatory attitudes is recorded. The content characteristics of the discriminatory attributes of the cross-group discrimination are established, including “ Unusual behaviour ”, “ That he/she does something worse than I do ”, “ That he/she does something better than I do ”, the content of which is described as “ Danger to people ”, “ He/she does everything badly ”, “ Disingenuity ” (respectively). The content characteristics of “the subject field” of discriminatory attitudes are identified including the unusual behaviour of the Others different from the generally accepted social norms, the supremacy of “my group”, adherence to a different culture or subculture. A significant “contribution” to the content of discriminatory attitudes - the fundamental belief “conviction of the need for control” - has been revealed in relation to the “unusual behaviour” described by the subjects as socially dangerous. The applied aspect of the investigated problem can be realized in the development of the preventive programs to reduce the risk of discriminatory behavior.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(3):308-322
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PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION
MOTHER TONGUE OF ROMA CHILDREN FROM SPECIAL SCHOOLS
Kyuchukov H., New W.
Abstract
The article presents research demonstrating that Roma children placed in special schools for ‘defective’ children in post-communist countries suffer not from learning disabilities or mental retardation, but from the tendency of such schools to misclassify minority students on the basis of their language knowledge. The research was done with Roma children from Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Slovakia. Results from data suggest that Roma children, with appropriate bilingual educational methods, can achieve proficiency in both Romani and official school languages. The children in the study (all together 111) - pupil in the first grade from Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are tested with language comprehension test translated to national languages of the countries and to the Romani dialects spoken by the children in the respected countries. The testing was done in the school environment with each child separately (the first week in Romani and the second week in the official language). The results show that the children perform the test better in the official languages of the countries. The Bulgarian children show best results in both languages, the children from Slovakia know better Slovak, but they also have good knowledge in Romani and the children from Czech Republic show good results in Czech but very low results in Romani. The study shows that the system for selecting the minority children to special schools in those countries should be changed. In Czech Republic and in Slovakia still the Roma children are tested with culturally inappropriate tests only in the official language of the children. There is no testing in their mother tongue. The knowledge of the children in their mother tongue is not considered important.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(3):323-333
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TEACHERS’ INNOVATIVE READINESS AND SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE OF PEDAGOGICAL COLLECTIVES OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
Avakyan I.B., Vinogradova G.A.
Abstract

In connection with the changes taking place in the modern education system, there is a growing need for the development and use of innovative technologies by university professors, who, however, are not always ready for such innovations. The main objective of the study presented in the article is to identify the relationship between the level of the innovative readiness of university teachers and the peculiarities of the socio-psychological climate of pedagogical collectives of higher educational institutions (which is considered as one of the possible factors of innovative readiness). The study involved the pedagogical collectives of nine higher educational institutions of Russia. The total number was 2036 teachers with experience of pedagogical work from 5 to 40 years (1252 women, 784 men). The psychodiagnostic toolkit included various methods: the express methodology “Evaluation of the socio-psychological climate in the team” (A.Yu. Shalyto, O.S. Mikhalyuk), the Inventory of innovative staff readiness (V.V. Panteleeva, T.P. Knysheva), the diagnostics technique of the personality motivation for success by T. Ehlers. The mathematical and statistical methods of processing the obtained data included the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, the linear regression method. The conducted research made it possible to identify the presence of a favorable socio-psychological climate, an average level of the innovative readiness and a sufficiently high level of motivation for success in the majority of the pedagogical collectives of higher education institutions that are represented. A positive correlation between the innovative readiness and the socio-psychological climate of pedagogical collectives of the higher educational institutions has been established, which is confirmed by the results of the linear regression analysis (the higher the level of the socio-psychological climate, the higher the level of innovative readiness). The results obtained can be used as a basis for purposeful work on the psychological and pedagogical support of the innovative activity of teachers in the conditions of maintaining a favorable social and psychological climate in the pedagogical collective.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(3):334-349
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PERCEPTIONS OF SOFT SKILLS BY RUSSIA’S UNIVERSITY LECTURERS AND STUDENTS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE WORLD EXPERIENCE
Raitskaya L.K., Tikhonova E.V.
Abstract

The changing nature of the economy and society at the information stage of the civilization development has led to a deep transformation of the labour market and new employability requirements. In addition to professional competencies, those cover a number of transversal skills that are termed as ‘soft skills’. As a consequence, the market economy countries actively pursue educational reforms that align soft skills with university curricula for bachelor and master students. As its market economy has been developing only for about 30 years, Russia is to face a challenge of working out a similar educational policy. To grasp the understanding of soft skills infusion into Russia’s university education, the authors conducted a study with a view to finding out the academic community’s perceptions of soft skills. The research entailed a theoretical and empirical stages, with the first one covering an analysis of literature on soft skills via comparative methods in order to come to a uniform definition and prevailing classification of soft skills (as a basis for questionnaires), and the surveying stage with 135 lecturers and 312 students involved. The findings implicate the participants’ perceptions of soft skills, most efficient academic disciplines and teaching/ learning techniques for fostering students’ soft skills and confirm the hypothesis that in Russia there are random soft skills inclusions in curricula and few practices to nurture the skills that justify the need for developing a new governmental policy to cover the gap.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(3):350-363
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CROSS-NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION
ERASMUS+ INTERNATIONAL STAFF EXCHANGE WEEK IN VILNIUS
Maslova O.V.
Abstract
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RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(3):364-367
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