Vol 15, No 1 (2018)

PSYCHOLOGICAL ETHICS
References to Human Rights in Codes of Ethics for Psychologists: Critical Issues and Recommendations. Part 1
Gauthier J.
Abstract
There are codes of ethics in psychology that explicitly refer to human rights. There are also psychologists interested in the protection and promotion of human rights who are calling for the explicit inclusion of references to human rights in all psychology ethics codes. Yet, references to human rights in ethics documents have rarely been the focus of attention in psychological ethics. This article represents the first part of a two-part article series focusing on critical issues associated with the inclusion of references to human rights in the ethical codes of psychologists, and recommendations about how psychological ethics and the human rights movement can work together in serving humanity. The first part of the article series examines issues pertaining to the interpretation of references to human rights in codes of ethics for psychologists, and the justifications for including these references in psychological ethics codes. The second part of the article series examines how the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists can be used to extend or supplement codes of ethics in psychology, how ethical principles and human rights differ and complement each other, and how psychological ethics and the human rights movement can work together in serving humanity and improving the welfare of both persons and peoples.
RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(1):7-21
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PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS
Operationalization of the Russian Version of Highly Sensitive Person Scale
Ershova R.V., Yarmotz E.V., Koryagina T.M., Shlyakhta D.A., Tarnow E.
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to operationalize a Russian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS). The empirical data were collected in two ways: active, through oral advertising and inviting those who wish to take part in the study (snowball technique) and passive (placement of ads about taking part in a research in social networks VKontakte and Facebook). As a result, 350 university students (117 men, 233 women, an average age of 18,2 (± 1,7) applied to a research laboratory and filled out the HSPS questionnaire, and another 510 respondents (380 women, 130 men, average age 22,6 ( ± 7,9) filled the HSPS online. The results of the study did not confirm the one-dimensional model of the construct, proposed by Aron & Aron (1997), as well as the most commonly used in the English-language studies three-factor solution. The hierarchical claster and confirmatory analyses used in the operationalization procedure allowed us to conclude that the variance of the Russian version of HSPS is best described in the framework of a two-factor model including the two separate subscales: Ease of Excitation (EOE), Low threshold of sensitivity (LTS). Sensory Processing Sensitivity may be defined as an increased susceptibility to external and internal stimuli, realized through negative emotional responses and deep susceptibility (distress) to excessive stimulation.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(1):22-37
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PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Axiological Background of Vietnamese Students Adaptability
Kudinov S.I., Kudinov S.S., Ho Vo Q.C.
Abstract

This article analyzes the ratio of axiological orientation of Vietnamese students and their adaptability. The article demonstrates that the ratio of certain values, attitudes and needs forms a specific type of axiological orientation. The article finds out that the different types of orientation are interrelated with the selective personality adaptive indicators of Vietnamese students and can be regarded as predictors of the adaptation process. The article identifies the current trends of adaptability studies within the context of the system paradigm. The article points out the main determinants of the personal adaptability manifestations. The methodological basis of the research was the dispositional concept of personality and individual traits investigation by A.I. Krupnov, as well as the provisions of the theory of personal potential by D.A. Leontiev, developed within the framework of positive psychology. The aim of the study presented in this article is to identify the relationship between the indicators of axiological orientation and adaptability variables in Vietnamese students. At the first stage of the study, different types of students’ axiological orientation based on the results of cluster analysis have been identified and described: vocational-career, egocentric, socio-communicative orientation types. Statistically significant differences between the selected types were recorded for most of the components. The meaningful characteristics of these types at the behavioral level differ in their attitude to training activities, relationship with other people and personal self-conception. At the next stage the features of adaptability among the representatives with different types of axiological orientation were revealed. The correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation between the axiological variables and adaptability. It turned out that all the three groups are pressed by uncertainty, nostalgia and asthenic feelings. At the same time the representatives of the vocational and career axiological orientation type were more successful in adaptability, as compared to other groups. The students with egocentric orientation turned out less successful in adaptability. They are distinguished by the highest severity of negative background mood, uncertainty, difficulties in communication. As a conclusion, we defined the role of axiological orientation as the primary predictor of personal adaptability in multicultural environment.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(1):38-52
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Values and Moral Foundations as a Basis for Attitude toward Mentally Retarded People in Students
Sychev O.A., Trofimova E.M.
Abstract

An important factor of the successful integration of mentally retarded people is the readiness of the society to accept such people as equal members. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the attitude toward mentally retarded people depends on values and moral factors. The sample comprised 169 students of technical college and pedagogical university. The attitude toward mentally retarded people was measured using a modified version of Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory (MRAI-R by Antonak & Harth), values were tested using Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2 by Schwartz), and moral foundations were measured using Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ by Graham et al.). We elaborated modified Russian version of MRAI-R, showed its factor structure and good psychometric properties. The main moral factor of the attitude toward mentally retarded people was the importance of fairness: the higher it is the higher is the readiness to diminish the social distance with the mentally retarded. The importance of authority was associated with the low approval of inclusive education for the mentally retarded. The most important predictor of the attitude toward mentally retarded people was gender: girls demonstrated a more positive attitude towards the mentally retarded.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(1):53-66
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Time Prospects and Migratory Attitudes of Magadan Students at Different Stages of Education
Kuznetsova S.A.
Abstract

The relevance of the study is due to the insufficient knowledge of the influence of conditions the migration-mobile region on the formation of time perspectives for young people. The purpose was to study the correlation of time perspectives and migration attitudes of Magadan students at different stages of education. Methods: a questionnaire for studying the time perspectives of ZPTI F. Zimbardo in the adaptation of A. Syrtsova and the “Scale of Migratory Personality Attitudes”, based on the author’s concept of migration attitudes. Conclusions: the study showed that as learning in the university decreases the role of assessing the past in the territorial self-determination of Magadan students and the role of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the present increases. The younger students, satisfied with the past, are more committed to the place of residence, and the students of the senior courses are satisfied with the present. The dual role of meaningful people in forming the time perspectives of the undergraduates is revealed: expectations from relatives and support for the student’s migratory attitudes open up a future time perspectives for him, and vice versa, the absence of such leads to frustration, a sense of hopelessness described in the terminology of ZPTI as a “fatalistic present”. The lack of a link between their own migration attitudes and the time perspectives of the future means that some of the purposeful students connect their perspectives with the actual place of residence, some with a possible move.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(1):67-78
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Coping and Protective Behavior of Residents of Radioactive Contaminated Territories Depending on Age and Gender
Borisova I.V., Gulakova E.S.
Abstract

The article examines the results of an empirical study of the coping and protective behavior of the residents of radioactive contaminated territories, depending on age and gender. The specifics of coping and protection are revealed depending on age and gender. It is shown that young men and women more often use non-constructive ways of coping behavior to cope with difficult life situations, in comparison with adult men and women. Men are worse than women at relieving stress and maintaining self-esteem in difficult life situations through the use of coping strategies. It was established that the residents of radioactive territories do not want to take responsibility for their lives, but passively expect assistance without any independent actions aimed at resolving their problems. It was revealed that substitution as a mechanism of psychological defense is more pronounced in adolescent and mature men than in girls and women, respectively. The relationship between defensive and coping behavior in adolescence and adulthood was described. It was established that in adolescence, confrontational coping, manifested through aggressive efforts aimed at actively asserting one’s opinion and desires in relations with others and trying to have one’s own way, through chaotic activities that do not change the situation, is closely related to the mechanisms of psychological defense. Substitution does not allow the use of constructive ways of coping both in adolescence and in adulthood. The results of the study can be used to provide psychological assistance to residents of radioactive contaminated areas.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(1):79-93
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Peculiarities of Coping and Mechanisms of Psychological Defense in Persons with Alcohol Dependence
Chkhikvadze T.V., Beliaeva E.N.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of the features of the defensive-coping behavior of alcohol dependent personality in the context of the necessity to optimize addiction therapy methods. An analysis of the range of coping strategies and mechanisms of psychological defense in alcoholism was conducted. The study involved 120 men and women between the ages of 30 and 60; 62 of them are patients with alcohol dependence, registered with the narcological clinic, and 58 people who do not have alcohol dependence. The following psychodiagnostic methods were used: “Strategic Approach to Coping Scale - SACS” (S. Hofball), “Life Style Index - LSI” (R. Plutchik, H. Kellerman & H.R. Conte). In the course of the analysis, it was found that behavioral pattern “aggressive actions” is expressed at a higher level in individuals with alcohol dependence. The leading coping strategies for both dependent respondents and the control sample are “seeking social support”, “cautious actions”, “coming into contact”. When assessing the gender characteristics of coping behavior, it was revealed that alcohol-dependent women use coping “avoidance” and “impulsive actions” more often than alcohol-dependent men. The dominant mechanisms of psychological defense for both dependent respondents and the control sample are “projection”, “intellectualization” and “negation”. There are differences between the group of respondents with alcohol dependence and the control group in the degree of tension of the defense mechanisms “substitution” and “compensation”: higher rates are observed in patients with alcoholism. The mechanism of defense “intellectualization” is more often and more intensively manifested in alcohol-dependent men, “reactive formations” - in alcoholdependent women. Identified in the course of the empirical study, the features are considered as possible “targets” for the psychological correction of an alcohol-dependent personality, its way of responding and behavioral stereotypes under stress.

RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(1):94-108
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CONFERENCES
The Applied and Scientific Conference “The Contemporary Field of Family Psychotherapy”
Budinayte G.L., Varga A.Y., Chebotareva E.Y.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(1):109-116
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29th Greater New York Conference on Behavioral Research
Takooshian H., Congress E.P., McKnight M.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Psychology and Pedagogics. 2018;15(1):117-120
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