Vol 14, No 2 (2017)

LANGUAGES IN CONTACT: THEORY AND PRACTICE
TRANSLINGUALISM AND ITS APPLICATION
Proshina Z.G.
Abstract

The article dwells on the concepts of translingualism and transculturalism that are under wide discussion now. The author reveals the reasons for the emergence of the terms and differentiates them from synonymic designations. Based on the quantitative analysis by means of the Google search in the internet corpus of texts, the author demonstrates the usage of these terms and their synonymic designations, as well as their relationship to certain types of discourse. A brief review of domains the terms are used in is provided: in sociolinguistics, literature studies, pedagogy, applied linguistics, translation studies, and advertisement.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):155-170
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GLOBAL ENGLISH-LOCAL DIGRAPHIA: TRANSLINGUAL ASPECT
Rivlina A.A.
Abstract

The paper aims to outline the major strategies of translingual English-Russian practices in Russia today. Based on widespread Russian-English/Roman-Cyrillic digraphia, these strategies generate ambivalent, language-neutral units, which cannot be unequivocally assigned to either of the languages or written systems in contact, in modern written Russian-based discourse. The article analyses the examples from two communicative spheres where English-oriented translingualism is most pronounced in modern Russia: the sphere of Russian linguistic landscape and the names of Russian Internet sites. Translingual practices creating “fuzzy” zones between Russian and global English in their written interaction include nonce English-Russian transliteration, ludic “code-ambiguation” and “code-meshing”, bilingual lexical variation and graphic restoration of cognates, international words and borrowings, truncation and abbreviation of overlapping lexis

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):171-180
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IDIOMATICITY OF USING LEXICAL BORROWINGS IN POLYLINGUAL ENVIRONMENT
Krasina E.A.
Abstract

Lexical borrowings-inclusions imminently and permanently invade conversations of modern people. In line with professional or terminological usage, one can discover a certain fund of universal usages which could be revealed in various modern languages. Those came into usage both from classical languages - Latin and Greek and from modern languages - French, English, Italian, German and others. Their composition isn’t uniform: they make up discourse connectors (à propos), typical addressing nominations (Madame, Sir), standard expressions (Honoris causae, multa cum lauda) and further on - up to paroemia (Dum spiro, spero et al.).Goal and tasks of the research are due to the demand in analyzing usual senses of such inclusions; to make clear their status proceeding from their semantic and functional multidimensional nature. They reveal conservative senses, known in the source-language and preserved in modern usage in various languages, and on the contrary, they are flexible in meaning as a number of interpretations demonstrate it, especially in the paroemia sphere.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):181-186
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ON THE NEED TO HARMONIZE THE LANGUAGE OF INTERACTION IN A CLOSELY RELATED BILINGUALISM
Zaitseva I.P.
Abstract

The article analyzes the current state of the bilingual linguistic space of Ukraine, which citizens are currently using in all spheres of communication two closely related Slavic languages: Ukrainian and Russian. Attention is drawn to the fact that, taking into account the achievements of modern linguistics and a complex of areas adjacent to linguistics (in particular, the theory of intercultural communication, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, etc.), it became possible to form a more solid theoretical basis, which fully confirms the need for all-round approach. On the need for all possible support in the implementation of language policy in a country with clear biculturalism and bilingualism of balanced bilingualism and, accordingly, categorical inadmissibility of violating the linguistic rights of Russian speakers in this country.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):187-191
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ETHNO-LINGUISTIC SITUATION IN THE RESPUBLIC OF BELARUS AND IT’S REFLECTION IN THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
Rychkova L.V.
Abstract

The article deals with the reflection of the ethno-linguistic situation in the Republic of Belarus, taking into account the provision in the multinational state the rights of ethnic and linguistic minorities. The necessity of complex sociolinguistic research and development of the concept of multilingual education are substantiated.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):192-198
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BELARUSIAN-RUSSIAN STATE BILINGUALISM AND PROBLEMS OF NORMALIZATION OF BELARUSIAN ONOMASTICS
Mezenko A.M.
Abstract

The article examines the problematic aspects of the normalization of the modern Belarusian onomastics, conditioned by the situation of the state Belarusian-Russian bilingualism; under consideration there is a transfer of toponyms and anthroponyms from one state language to another. It is emphasized that the area of researchers’ interest should include the problem of preservation of the national onomastic system of Belarus and its authenticity.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):199-204
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LANGUAGES WE CHOOSE: LITHUANIA’S EXPERIENCE
Lichačiova A.B.
Abstract

The paper discusses the situation of Russian language in Lithuania. The current educational system, attitude of the Lithuanian society towards local cultural and linguistic pluralism, historical and present geopolitical problems - all these factors have a direct influence on modern Lithuania’s Russian-speaking population’s awareness of their ethnic language as either native, heritage or foreign, as well as on the selection of the language of school instruction for children from Russian-speaking families.Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly clear that the politics on language and education of the last two decades, aimed at strengthening the positions of the state language and at assimilating national minorities, needs amending. To achieve change, it is necessary to thoroughly study the possibilities of modern family and state language policy and to educate the society about these possibilities. The paper makes use of data from official statistics and sociolinguistic research.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):205-210
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CAN NATURAL BILINGUALISM BE HARMFUL?
Alexandrova N.S.
Abstract

Based on literature analysis and own numerous (over 200) observations of the development of the natural Russian-German bilingualism, the following situations of risk in which bilingualism can become a factor inhibiting the linguistic and the general intellectual development of children are described: 1) Bilingual upbringing of 12-36 months old children with the division of languages by place of usage and roughly equal time of introduction of each language (e.g. a child from a Russian-speaking family at the age of 12 months starts to attend a full-day German kindergarten). With such arrangement of education neither of the languages can advance, development of phrasal speech is significantly delayed. Possible are such unhealthy reactions as temporary speech failure. Another variation of bilingual development, when one language dominates and the other remains weak for a long time, is typical for children from Russian-speaking families attending bilingual German-Russian kindergartens and it is also found in children from mixed families. In general, this variation is more favorable. 2) Change of language of instruction at school age. Receiving knowledge in the unknown language is impossible, therefore there can be negative influence of this situation on learning capacity, and psychological discomfort is also possible (to the point of suicidal attempts).Risk populations in bilingual education are 1. Children with normal intellect but with weak cognitive abilities (memory, attention etc.) requiring a milder learning mode. 2. Children with retarded or disturbed language development.It is necessary to add that the described negative manifestations are not inevitable or compulsory but simply possible. The predestination of the bilingual development depends on a multiplicity of factors and is practically unpredictable.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):211-216
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ON THE EVOLUTION AND EMANATIONS OF MODERN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
Afanasieva N.D., Zakharchenko S.S., Mogileva I.B.
Abstract

The article is about the state of modern Russian language, analyzes the factors affecting the negative changes in speech. The authors consider the loan words in the Russian speech, changing the rules of the Russian language, the media language impact on the culture of speech.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):217-223
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BILINGUALISM AND BILINGUAL PUPILS AT THE RESEARCH OF DANISH SCHOLARS
Popova M.V.
Abstract

The language policy in modern society in Denmark reflects the processes of globalization, changes in social development and satisfies the demand of the current labor market. This article presents research of Danish scholars in the field of bilingualism and offers examples of several projects as well as the prospective course of Danish scholars’ work.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):224-232
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CHANGES IN THE RUSSIAN SPEECH OF ETHNIC GERMANS IN MODERN GERMANY
Nedopekina E.M.
Abstract

The community of the German-speaking population is heterogeneous in its ethnic, cultural and religious composition. Along with immigrants from all over the world, it includes immigrants from the former Soviet Union, ethnic Germans or their distant relatives. The solidarity of the community thus is ensured by the use of the Russian language within the family and in the friendly, neighboring environment. However, the degree of the Russian language preservation in this community is different, as the language is separated from its metropolis and functions in a constant contact with the German language as the title language of Germany. Our research of the emigrant language belonging to the settlers from the CIS at different times and due to different reasons shows how significant this heterogeneity is.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):233-238
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TYPES OF FRENCH-OCCITAN BILINGUAL EDUCATION: EXPERIENCE, RESULTS, PERSPECTIVES
Moskvitcheva S.A.
Abstract

This article examines possible models of bilingual education for the program “French as a regional language”, provides the legislative framework allowing to arrange this type of teaching, and describes the basic subjects of such education. The potential of bilingual education is analyzed in its relation to the general social and linguistic situation in the areas of the Occitan language use, and it is linked to such parameters as the social image of the language and the language loyalty. The article analyzes the difficulties faced while organizing this type of education and shows its perspectives.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):239-245
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LANGUAGE REFORMS AND INTERCULTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE POLYLINGUAL SPACE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
Zharkynbekov S.K.
Abstract

The article is devoted to studying the functioning of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages in the multicultural space of Kazakhstan. There is an analysis of the use of the languages in business communication and in visual texts of the socio-communicative space of Astana. The results of the sociolinguistic research methods (questionnaire, interview) showed the language preferences of citizens, as well as the factors influencing the choice of a language. The results obtained allowed to identify problems existing in terms of the new language policy of the state, track language development processes in the communicative environment and predict trends in the spread, strengthening, cooperation and coexistence of the languages in the future.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):246-252
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LANGUAGE CONSCIOUSNESS
COGNITION AND LANGUAGE (USING THE EXAMPLE OF TRANSLATION BETWEEN RUSSIAN AND TURKISH)
Zhigulskaya D.V.
Abstract
This article discusses the relationship between cognition and language.According to the cognitive linguistics approach, the study of language is the study of language use. The languages of the world vary dramatically. They encode fundamentally different logics and structures. This paper also focuses on the phenomenon of linguistic pictures of the world, and using the Russian and Turkish languages as an example, demonstrates that absolute equivalence in translation is never possible. The results of the analysis of this issue has shown, that language does not “represent” meaning, but instead constructs meaning in particular contexts with particular cultural models and cognitive resources, while translation is the replacement of the signs encoding a message by signs from another code.The difficulties of translating from Russian to Turkish and vice versa are primarily due to the dissimilar nature of the two languages. However,the difficulty of translation does not only exist between distinctively different languages. Surprisingly, even more complexity may sometimes arise when translating between two languages within the same family with much in common.Thus, one may conclude that languages are structuring structures, which influence the way people think, and create linguistic habits for language users, resulting in fundamentally different ways of understanding the world.
Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):253-259
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STEREOTYPE IN LANGUAGE CONSCIOUSNESS: PSHYCHOLINGUISTIC ASPECT
Razumkova A.V.
Abstract

The main purpose of the article is to systemize different approaches to the understanding of the term “stereotype” in the framework of psycholinguistic researches. V.V. Krasnyh gives her vision of the concept “stereotype” and the classification of stereotypes. Y.A. Sorokin reveals the meaning of the term under study in relation to the concepts “stock phrase” and “clichés”. V.A. Ryzhkov analyses the international stereotypes in the framework of the theory of speech activity.E.F. Tarasov gives the definition of social stereotype through the analysis of fragments of language consciousness of Russians and foreigners. N.V. Ufimtseva underlines the role of interethnic communication in the formation of stereotypes. The originality and the relevance of the study are determined by a comprehensive analysis of the concept of “stereotype” in the framework of the interdisciplinary scientific direction.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):260-266
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ARSENAL
COLLABORATION WITH PARENTS IN BILINGUAL ACQUISITION
Protassova E.Y.
Abstract

Parents of bilingual children are the main agents of the early development of their languages during the first socialization, while day care and school catch up during the second socialization. Parents want to have an expert advice from the pedagogical staff and try to influence and control the process of language acquisition. The article deals with parents’ attitudes and the ways to make adults in child’s surroundings collaborate with each other. It demonstrates the international and the Finnish experience of partnerships between home, kindergarten and school in multilingual settings and its results for the balanced use of languages. The study shows how the Finnish-Russian parents understand their goals concerning the wellbeing of children and what they are ready to invest in interactions with the educational institutions.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):267-275
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BILINGUAL EDUCATION IN GERMAN SPEAKING COUNTRIES: A TRANSCULTURAL MODEL OF TUITION
Caspers O.V.
Abstract

This article presents the innovative model of education for students bilingual in Russian and German based on transcultural principles. The author gives the example of a method, that uses contemporary films for didactic purposes paying special attention to the analysis of both cultures. This model meets current modern standards of European education at university level and considers the special needs of bilinguals.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):276-286
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THE STUDY OF RUSSIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: DISCUSSIONS ABOUT ETHNIC ORIENTED METHODOLOGY
Sinyachkina N.L.
Abstract

The article devoted to the analysis of linguists’ positions to teaching methods oriented to ethnic peculiarities in the practice of Russian high schools. The author believes that two main different approaches have developed to this ethnomethodology. Starting from approaches to current trends in English language teaching for foreigners, the author examines the polar points of view on the practice in some Russian universities the methodology of teaching Russian language and concludes that there is a need for a more balanced approach to the methodology. There are no people living within only one state, so there is a need to create a discussion platform to discuss two different approaches

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):287-293
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CONTRASTIVE EXERCISES IN MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION
Malykh L.M.
Abstract

Many modern languages of the world are forced to give ground in the competition with more prestigious languages. In response to such an unbalanced language situation as this many researchers and methodologists offer a new educational approach to languages - the so called multilingual education. It facilitates language learning by introducing at least three languages simultaneously. The important requirement is that one of languages under study is the mother tongue of the students. One of basic principles of this educational trend is the principle of co-studying various languages on a contrastive basis. The goal of the article is to show the possibility of implementing this principle through the system of contrastive exercises. The possibility of introducing contrastive exercises in the process of multilingual education of different age groups is studied. The introduction of such a system of exercises results in the positive transfer from the previously studied languages, native tongues including, into a new language. A systematic comparison of language units in form and meaning makes it possible to considerably expand the amount of language memory, develop imagination and creativity, facilitate the process of positive transfer, enhance motivation to study less prestigious languages.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):294-298
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INNOVATIVE APPROACHES IN TEACHING RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN MODERN UNIVERSITY
Orlova E.V.
Abstract

The article examines the teaching of Russian as a foreign language and Russian language and culture of speech from the point of view of modern innovative approaches. The relevance of this work defines it. Modern approaches in education are communicative competence, student-centred and professionally oriented training. The aim is to analyze the content of communicative competence, student-centered and professionally-oriented approaches in teaching Russian language at the University, and to consider tutorials that implement these approaches.The author used two groups of methods in the writing of this article: methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization, and special: system-structural, functional and cognitive approaches.The basis of the communicative competence approach is communicative-oriented language teaching. It involves the formation of communicative competence. Communicative competence includes linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic components. Special attention is given to the analysis of these components.Student-centered teaching assumes the recognition of the student as the main actor in the learning process. Implementation of student-oriented learning system requires a change of vectors in pedagogy: from a severely regulated learning, built as a normative process, to study the individual activity of the learner with the support of the teacher. Implementing this approach at the lessons of Russian as a foreign language and Russian language and Culture of Speech contributes to the use of interactive conversational learning.Professionally oriented teaching at the University involves teaching Russian language as a means of obtaining a degree and teaching Russian language as a means of professional business communication. Professionally oriented teaching language in high school must be implemented through integrative, interdisciplinary connections through the cooperation of Russian compatriots with the subject teachers.In conclusion, the author writes that the implementation of modern approaches in teaching Russian as a foreign language and Russian language and Culture of Speech gives good results.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):299-309
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THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TRANSLATION
FROM THE HISTORY OF TRANSLATION ACTIVITY IN CENTRAL ASIA (XVI-XIX)
Kulieva S.A., Tavberidze D.V.
Abstract

The history of translation activities from Russian into other languages is not researched enough, but has scientific value to describe the theory and practice of translation from Turkic languages into Russian and vice versa. The present article opens a series of articles in which the authors intend to present the research on the little-known pages of translational activities in Central Asia since the accession of this region to Russia (XIX century). Directly this work is devoted to pages of history, reflecting the development of translation studies (Russian - Kazakh) in Kazakhstan from the XVI to the XIX and beginning of XX century before disintegration of the Russian Empire.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):310-318
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TRENDS OF USING PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNSIN LITERARY TRANSLATIONS FROM ENGLISH INTO RUSSIAN THROUGH THE LANGUAGE SPECTRUM THEORY
Turinova O.O.
Abstract

According to the language spectrum theory (term introduced by Maria Litvinova), every language has a set of its characteristic feature average usage frequencies. The sum of these frequencies may be considered as a criterion for assessing fiction translations into the language in question. The paper focuses on the general frequency of personal and possessive pronouns in low-quality translations from English into Russian, as seen through the language spectrum lens. The scientific relevance of the paper is justified by the author revealing several features of low-quality translations, as well as analyzing such translations, which results in supporting the author’s hypothesis. The hypothesis is that the number of personal and possessive pronouns in low-quality Russian translations is closer to that in original English texts, whilst ‘good’ Russian translations have considerably fewer pronouns than the originals. Moreover, the author considers certain translation solutions while analyzing two different translations of one English text, and explores various trends that may further become the basis of fuller and more accurate pronoun models in English and Russian.

Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):319-329
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ABSTRACTS
COURSE “BILINGUALISM AND MOTHER TONGUE (RUSSIAN)” IN THE PROCESS OF EDUCATING RUSSIAN TEACHERS
Moissejenko I.М., Maltseva-Zamkovaja N.V., Tshuikina N.V.
Abstract
The authors introduce the grounds and principles of the course „Bilingualism and Mother Tongue (Russian)“ for MA students of Tallinn University. The investigations of different research projects and MA dissertations under the authors’ leadership have resulted in the mentioned course. The paper also include information on the aims of the course and description of the students’ autonomous work.
Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices. 2017;14(2):330-333
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