RESISTING GLOBALIZATION THROUGH GRAMMATICAL TOOLS: USING SOME ASPECTS OF RUSSIAN GRAMMAR AS A CASE STUDY

Abstract


The paper examines globalization within the framework of translation. The paper maintain that with technological advancement in the world, translation acts perfectly as an agent to disseminate information to all the corners of the dynamically changing world.As an interconnectivity between cultures, languages, and businesses, information cannot be conveyed to these sectors of society only through one international lingua franca. Much as the influence of the English language in global communication network is evident, it maintains that translation makes it easier for many languages access the bulk of information that results from various interactions in society as a result of globalization. Translation resists globalization of the international lingua franca through the use of grammatical structures of the source language (SL) and the translated language (TL).It maintains that there are typological differences between languages manifested through its grammatical features. These differences are manifested through the source language and the translated text.

Research methodologyThe theory of equivalence, The Grammar Translation Method, Communication approach .Data for analysis were gathered from my interaction with the level 300 students of Russian. Data were gathered through a classroom interaction and outside the classroom as well. The grammar translation method which allowed students to enhance on their writing skills was complimented by the communication approach which allowed students to test their oral skills in translation.IntroductionGlobalization in the language sense would mean a communication link between people cultures, business. Translation can facilitate the promotion of this link between people from different countries, tribes and nationalities. Translation has accelerated globalization processes and globalization processes have also accelerated translation activities. Translation activities increase as a result of increase in goods, services and production.Unfortunately, globalization seems to be associated with Americanization and for that matter ‘Anglicization’ which seems to counteract the promotion of multilingualism and multiculturalism. Translation offers an opportunity for speakers in the minority languages to have access to the global information bank. The only indiscriminate means that allows people to be involved in the global communicative network is translation.Translation promotes intercultural relations and pushes the world from the rails of cultural uniformity. Translation itself implies globalization, since it allows diversification of means through which information can be disseminated.Specifically it points to the need to resist the influence of the international lingua franca, the English language through the application of grammatical skills required to distinct between Russian and the English Language. This will also require reading, vocabulary and translation skills.Globalization means the removal of linguistic barriers between people. Translation removes this barrier and establishes a common platform for communication through the proper and correct application of grammatical forms in Russian and English languages.The paper discusses the need for the Russian language to resist globalization of the international lingua franca, the English language. It draws our attention to the typological differences between the Russian and English grammar in the translation process. Languages have developed along different historical lines and that no global linguistic revolution can change the concept, typology.Theoretical frameworkThe study focuses on translation and globalization with special emphasis on using grammatical tools to resist globalization of what has been termed the “international lingua franca”. Anthony Pynn defines globalization as “a consequence of reducing the costs of communication.” This reduction has led to the rise of English as the international lingua franca [8. P. 1]. The study accepts that globalization attempts to bridge the gap between cultures. The concept of translation in a globalized world is evident. The impact of translation in the globalization process is manifested through the diverse and easier ways global communication has been enhanced. The notion that languages change as a result of technological advancement is partially in the context of this study (Said M. Shiyab, Marilyn Gaddis Rose, Juliane House and John Duval) [3]. The fact remains that in the context of lexis, languages could change in accordance with the translation market. The market needs reflects on the language and the translation of the materials. The degree of threat the international lingua franca poses to language and globalization is limited by the role of translation, specifically the role of grammar in the translation process.Grammar is the vehicle that catalyses good communication in the globalized world. Not under any circumstantial linguistic consideration can globalization influence the grammar of any language. The communicative competence .of every bilingual depends on his excellent construction of sentences in the two languages. In written or oral interaction, the bilingual must have a good command of the languages under study, could be two or more languages.Effective communication in the globalization process will require competent bilinguals who have acquired grammatical skills and knowledge in the languages to be used in all spheres endeavours; political, economic, pedagogical and other areas.In our global communication network, the translator who is a bilingual must attain sufficient control, competence and knowledge of the languages intended to be used in global communication network [9]. Globalization can be defined as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” [3. P. 61]The intensification of worldwide social relations thrives on language, the main vehicle for global communication. Translation serves as a process that connects various ideas, in all our human activities. Against this background, Mazmi defines globalization as “process by which regions of the world become linked at various levels of society, through an expanding network of exchange of peoples, goods, services, ideas, traditions, etc. across vast distances” [6. P. 1]To achieve this result in the globalization process, translation becomes a cornerstone. Translation which disseminate information through the receptor language requires that information that should accelerate the development of science and technology, trade and various trade relations, political and international relations should conform to certain rules and norms of the language involved.A better way to achieve an effective communication network is through the use of appropriate grammatical rules and regulations in our various interactions with people. Grammar is defined as “a set of rules that define how words are combined or changed to form acceptable units of meaning within a language” [10].The phrase in acceptance units of meaning within a language implies that grammatical structures of languages differ. Words are combined to form sentences that are acceptable in the language in question. This characteristics of grammar makes every language unique. One cannot be imported into another language in most cases. The translator has a dual roletwoto play in the globalization process. He or she must preserve the original nature of the grammatical structure of the source language and the translated language (receptor language). Because of the importance of the grammar in the global communication process, translators attach much importance to grammar. Grammatical structure of Russian and English languages attests to the originality of the two languages.A translator becomes a native or a native-speaker of the receptor language. It is his duty to protect the originality of the two languages making sure that there is no interference from the other language. In the case of this study, the English language.The purpose of studyGlobalization is to be seen as an excellent phenomenon. Resistance does not mean in this paper, resisting the influence of globalization in all its facets, it points to the need to resist the influence of the International lingua franca, which is the English language.Translation has been seen as a strong weapon to resist the seemingly overwhelming influence of the English language in the global communication network.The paper aims at limiting he seemingly overwhelming influence of the English language. While there is the thirst to learn this international lingua franca, it does not negate the application of the right grammatical forms in the translation of Russian to English. and vice versa. The International lingua franca has even become a prestigious language, and with the advancement of technologies communication costs have been reduced with the larger population of the world speaking English language. While this fact has been established, it is also important to accept the fact that the interconnectivity between Russian and the English languages can be accomplished through translation. The paper does not intend to give holistic analysis of the Grammar Translation Method.Indeed authors like Brandl [1], Lightbownand, Spada [5], Omaggio Hadley [11], V Cook [2], Rutherford and Sharwood Smith [12], Rivers [13] and Lado [4], do not treat translation independent from the treatment of the Grammar Translation Method.Inspite of the fact that this method does not enhance students communicative ability jn the two languages (Brown, 2007), the Communicative approach has been employed. The exercises given to the students exhibits the characteristics of the two methods. While the main purpose of the paper is not to elaborate and teach students the two mentioned approaches, it aims at preparing students as present and future players in translating and interpretation in the globalization process. This will be complimented by bilingual competence which will mean the removal of linguistics and communication barriers between people. Translation promotes the interests of all nations through globalization. Globalization necessitates translation.The relationship between Grammar and the Translation processGrammar is the yardstick with which to measure a correct translation. A good translation implies a sentence with a good grammar. The grammar of the source language is independent from the grammar of the translated text. A proper arrangement of certain grammatical elements makes the translation a proper one. All languages have their codes and it is always important to know what codes the source language possess and how it can be effectively used to transmit a meaning to the receptor.Some examples to prove the resistance processThis section deals with the resistance process, simple phrases and sentences below are some examples.Я читаю книгу. - I am reading a book. Oн читал книгу. - He read a book.Она читала книгу. - She read the book. Мы читали книгу. - We read a book. Они читали книгу. - They read a book.In the Russian language, the past tense of the verb “read” changes with gender, it changes with the singular and changes with the plural. In the English language (T.T) or target language the verb “read” is stagnant and does not change according to gender, singular or plural. The second observation is that ‘книга’ book changes to ‘книгу’.It is however important to note that much as English verbs are not marked for singular or plural, in the third person singular, it is always said he//she reads. For example,Я вижу девушку. - I see a girl.Он видит девушку. - He sees a girl. Она видит девушку. - She sees a girl. Мы видим девушку. - We see a girl. Они видят девушку. - They see a girl.The conjugation of the verb changes with the personal pronouns in the Russian language: вижу, видит, видят.In the English translation or the T.T, the changes that we observe have to do with the personal pronouns, I, he or she, we, they.The conjugationis typical of Russian and the French languages. Such conjugations are absent in the English Language. The other case study that helps to drive home our position is the grammatical functions of the particle ‘ся’ in the Russian language. The particle “ся” is used to form the passive of the imperfective verbs.Президент читал доклад на съезде. В нем говорится о том, что работники долж- ны работать с самоотдачей. - President spoke at the session. In his speech, he said that workers should sincerely work.Another form of translation could be:The President spoke at the session and he mentioned the need for workers to work sincerely.Сокровища охраняются государством. - The wealth is preserved by the state or The state preserves the wealth.Двери закрываются, следующая станция - «Калужская». - The door is closing the next station is “Kaluygskaya” (Metro or underground station in Moscow).The fact remains that transitive and in transitive verbs are grammatical features in the English language. The fact that the action is being accomplished by the subject in both languages is identical with the two languages in all the examples. Whereas for instance in the first example ‘дверь закрывается.’ Implies ‘the door closes,’ or the door is closing, there is the presupposition that the door’s closure is caused by somebody, but the subject has not been named. In the English language, one could say “the door closes”. This can be referred to an opportunity missed. It has been used metaphorically. “The door closes by itself”. The use of the particle ‘ся’ in the Russian language brings out a meaning embedded in the ‘ся’. It implies that the “metro” door has been closed by a means not mentioned. Particle ‘ся’ is stagnant and cannot be done away. The English language has various ways of expressing the meaning in the translated text. The other examples maintain the same standards in Russian, that is the particle ‘ся’ is stagnant and cannot be isolated. That is the norm and that is the standard that has been established by the history of the language.The particle ‘ся’ is linguistically and grammatically obliged to be connected to perfective or imperfective transitive verbs where no object can be used in the given context. In this perspective its action is directed at the subject. The fact has also been established that such verbs with the particle have only the 3rd person form which brings them closer to the passive [7. P. 17].Урок начинается в 9 часов. - The lesson starts at 9 am.These examples are derived from the general information of the verb.Specific cases of aspectual usageThis part deals with imperfective aspect and perfective aspect. The import of the imperfective aspect is to convey customary actions; for instance, “Обычно он берет (брал) книги в библиотеке, быстро их читает (читал) сдает (сдавал)”.The other part deals with the perfective, specifically it is used to convey single concrete facts. For instance:Вчера он взял в библиотекe книгу, прочитал ее и написал статью. - Yesterday, he took a book from the library, read it and wrote an article.Other functions of the participle “-ся”The participle “-ся’’ shows that the subject performs the action for himself, herself or itself in his, her or its own interest. The following verbs belong to that category: учить- ся, заниматься, интересоваться.В прошлом году я хорошо учился. - Last year I studied well. На ошибках мы учимся. - We learn from our mistakes.The other function of the participle “-ся’’ shows that the speaker’s entire attention is directed to the subject, specifically his state.Мы собираемся на экскурсию [7. P. 18]. - We are gathering for the excursion or We are preparing to go for an excursion.Мы радуемся солнцу [Ibd 18]. - We enjoy the sunshine.Some of the verbs that belong to this category are: собираться - to gather, отправ- ляться - to go, to set off, возвращаться - to return, волноваться - to be afraid, to shiver, удивляться - to be surprised:Группа должна собираться. - The group must gather.Ты должен обязательно вернуться. - By all means or at all cost, you should return. Я удивился тому, что меня не избрали. - I was surprised that I was not chosen.The particle “-ся’’ has the potential of changing the meaning of some verbs. For example,Книга состоит из трёх глав. - The book comprises of three chapters. Собрание состоится завтра. - The meeting takes place tomorrow.Вещи занимают много места. - The things occupy a lot of space or The things occupy bigger space.Они занимаются литературой. - They study literature or They are studying literature. Он всегда находит время для разговора. - He always has time for talks.Спортзал находится на первом этаже. - The sports hall is found on the first floor orThe sports hall is situated on the first floor.Учитель обратил внимание ученика на ошибку. - The teacher drew the attention of the pupil to the mistake or The teacher drew the pupl’s attention to the mistake.Учитель обратился к ученикам. - The teacher spoke to the pupils or The teacher related to the pupil.Родители прощают детям их ошибки. - Parents forgive children their mistakes.После занятия они прощаются с преподавателем. - After the lectures, they parted with the teacher.Looking at the grammatical function of the participle “-ся”, it is observed that “-ся” is added to perfective and imperfective transitive verbs. In this instance its action is directedat the subject. Such verbs have only the 3rd person form an it brings them closer to the passive:Урок был начат учителем в 9 часов. - The lesson was started by the teacher at 9 o’clockor The lesson started at 9 o’clock.Translation resists globalization, and that is expressed in the definition of translation which states that the process involves the understanding of a text, and expressing the text in another language (Lederer, 2003). The concept transitive and intransitive is present in the English and Russian grammar but the morphological specifics differ from from each other.The function of every grammatical element should be clearly defined, what it is about?, what does it represent in the meaning of the sentence?Globalization has to deal with communication and translation in a globalized world calls for exchange of ideas, goods and services.The language is to facilitate interaction between people in business, politics, and other social set ups.Я не могу спать. - I cannot sleep.Мне не спится. - I cannot sleep.1 and 2 have the same communication agenda. “Мне не спится” or “Я не могу спать” is the norm accepted by Russian speakers.The semantic significance of the participle “-ся” is clearly manifested in all the examples given. Piragov gives five semantic functions of the participle “-ся” and goes on at the sixth stage to denote how the participle “-ся” changes the meaning of some verbs.It is observed that each of the points represent a specific semantic meaning coming to the sixth point words change their meanings. For instance,Книга состоит из трёх глав. - The book has three chapters. Собрание состоится завтра. - The meeting comes on tomorrow. Вещи занимают много места. - The goods are taking a lot of space. Они занимаются литературой. - They are studying literature.There is a wider disparity between these two sentences. The same word has been used but with completely different meaning, the meaning changed entirely as a result of the participle “-ся”.Exercises given to level 300 students of Russian to test the resisting Globalization through translationFrom Russian to English“Я из семьи сильных людей. Мой дед, по рассказам родственников, боролся с Иваном Поддубным, отец был неслаб физически” (Самозащита без оружия, № 6 (35) 2008:2). - “I come from a strong family, my grandfather upon the story narrated to me by my relatives, fought with Ivan Paddubniy, my father was not weak physically” (Ibid).“Он вокруг бегал, а я только поворачивалась” (Ibid 2). - “He run around me, but I just turned around” (Ibid 2).В России тренируются более 100 тысяч футболистов. - Russia is training more than 100 thousand football players.“Я защищаю не преступника, а человека” (Ibid 10). - “I don’t defend a criminal but a person” (Ibid 10).“Противоречия между Россией и США по поводу грузин” (РБК, 2008:18). - “The controversy between Russia and the United States on Grusin (Georgia)” (Ibid 18).Те, кто управляет страной, не учли тот факт, что инвестиционный климат во всем мире заметно ухудшился (Ibid 50). - Those who govern this country; have not taken into consideration that, investment climax in the whole world is getting worse (Ibid 50).Наш класс сильный, мы хорошо учились в прошлом году. - Our class is a strong class, last year we studied very well.Кофи решил писать такие же письма, как Кваме. - Kofi decided to write the same letters as written by Kwame.Амма решила писать такие же письма, как Афуа. - Amma decided to write the same letters as written by Afua.В конечном счёте, существует лишь одна раса: человечество. - In summation, we only have one race: humanity.From English to Russian- The meeting started at 10 am. - Собрание началось в 9 часов.- Janet and her friends are preparing to go to the theater. She wants to invite Stephen to join them. - В воскресенье Жанет с друзьями собирается пойти в театр. Она хочет пригласить Стивена пойти с ними.- Marina, I met Kirill yesterday. - Марина, я вчера встретила Кирилла.Who is that Kirill? - Какого Кирилла?The one we got acquainted with yesterday at the apartment meant for people who need resting. - С которым мы познакомились в доме отдыха.- There is yet one question Americans are interested in - freedom in Russia. - Но есть и ещё один вопрос, который интересует Америку: свобода в России.- Where is the university? - Где университет?The university is situated closer to your house. - Университет находится поблизости от вашего дома.- Kofi, I want to buy a new shirt. Yesterday I was in the shop but I was not interested in the shirts displayed. - Кофи, я хочу купить новую рубашку. Вчера я был в магазине, но мне там не понравились рубашки.- James, will you be attending the lectures of Professor Johnson today? - Джемс, ты сегодня идёшь на лекцию профессора Джонсона?- You have written three books from the notes in your/diaries. - Вы написали три книги по материалам дневников. (Самозащита, № 6(35), 2008:41).- We are working for you and your victory. - Мы работаем для вас и вашей победы (Ibid 49).- You have never seen my wife? I will show you her photograph. - Ты никогда не видел мою жену? Я покажу тебе её фотографию.Analyses of the translated exercises in the context of the resisting process. Translation was performed bearing in mind Russian and English grammatical rules.Translation is basically a change of form but meaning is maintained. The form of a language refers to words, phrases clauses, and sentences (Bell, 1991).What makes translation complete is that all the structures are in place, the sentences constructed are intelligible both to the receptor and translator. Grammatical functions of all the words are in place.In example 1, from Russian to English, “… с Иваном” corresponds to “…with Ivan”, understanding clearly that the form of the source language is replaced by the form of the receptor language implies that meaning has been preserved, but no other case could replace the instrumental case which put the source language, Russian into the correct perspective. The preservation of form implies the preservation of the right grammatical structure. Meaning is transferred from the source language to the receptor language not relegating to the background the right grammatical elements that makes both the source and the receptor language intelligible to bilinguals. Translation process separates the two languages.In example 2, “… толькопо ворачивался” corresponds to “… just turned around.” In example 3, “… тренируются более 100 тысяч…” is translated “… training more than 100 thousand…”Meaning is being transferred and there must be consistency in the transfer. The form of the source language is maintained but the meaning is transferred to the column of the receptor language. It is important to reiterate the definition of translation again, “Translation, then consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation and the cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and the grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language”, according to Larson.Students did not compose “тренируются” and training , though they have a lot of things in common as far as lexical semantic sense is concerned. They have identified the function of the participle “-ся”. They have differentiated between what is present and what is past “поворачивался”.Students are bilinguals, and bilinguals are supposed to use the two languages in such a way that they can be considered as native speakers or native-like speakers, as Bloomfield notes.A good knowledge in the grammar of the source language and the translated texts is a sufficient testimony of one’s bilingual competence. He or she must have a sufficient and specific knowledge of the source and the receptor language. He must have reading skills, and writing skills in both the source language (SL) and the receptor language. Writing skills implies that the performer has a good and sufficient knowledge in the grammar of the two languages.In example 4, “я защищаю не преступника” “I do not defend a criminal”. In Russian, the conjugation of ‘defend’ tells or indicates to every reader that, the issue is about singular, the English version also gives the same grammatical indication. In example 6, “инвестиционный климат” “investment climate” is clearly defined in both the source language text and the translated text. Orthographically, students were able to differentiatebetween the two languages, sticking to the prescribed grammatical rules and regulations in the two languages. Though the same words are found in the two languages, there is no confusion on the part of the students to mismatch the source language text to the translated language text. As speakers of the English language, “investment climate” is clearly explained, and the ability to do a written translation in Russian without interference from the English alphabets indicates the level of the resistance process. There is no distortion of facts.In example 5, it is observed that the word “противоречия” is used in connection with the instrumental case. The use of “Between Russia” the morphological status of “Рос- сия” to “Россией” indicating that it is almost impossible for any translator to produce a text in the source language which grammatically and lexically matches with the translated text. It is important to note that Russian language in terms of the way grammatical devices are used to express meaning. Students ability to differentiate between what is masculine and feminine in relation to the instrumental case is also significant. The word “between” could have been joined with any other word without any special grammatical or _syntactic feature.For instance, “between boys” “between girls” “between men”. The word “between” does not have any significant grammatical effect on boys, girls, and men, as compared to Russian. In Russian, all the translations would have to take into consideration the gender aspect of the word.From English to RussianTranslation revolves around a basic principle, the principle of equivalence. It means therefore that translation from English to Russian is still based on the same principle as from Russian to English. Analysis is carried out in the context of translation and globalization. The central issue comprises of the study and the application of the right grammatical rules and regulations while translatinga text from the source language to the translated language.Two methods were employed in this exercise because in globalization, there are two issues, the volume of materials increases corresponding to the demand for translation. Translation of materials in the area of commerce, business, politics, medicine, religion, and other sectors of our society should be put in the right grammatical perspective. It will be required that translation should be in a written form. The other side is that because of the development of science and technology, education, economic issues, climate change, and many other areas, conferences and seminars, and other group meetings are held, and there will be the need for conference interpretation or oral translation. For instance, with the emergence of market economy in Russia, Russians will need some English materials translated into the Russian language while the West or English speaking business community would have materials translated from Russian to English.At the level of interactions between persons with different linguistic backgrounds, the requirement for interpretation or interpreters is evident.With the growing multiplicity of global problems, conference interpretation, becomes an agenda of priority in globalization. The demand goes with the need to train translatorsand interpreters, and the training of interpreters requires that the individual achieves a level of interpretation skills. Whether written translation or interpretation which is invariably termed as oral translation, bilingual competence is a requirement. Bilingual competence implies excellent knowledge in the grammar of the two languages, excellent knowledge in the right choice of words to suit the receptor’s understanding.Anything short of these is a failure in the field of translation and interpretation.In interpretation, the interpreter may not be able to grasp the meaning of a particular word, from the source language, he may quickly come back to interpret after interpreting the previous sentence from the source language or from the speaker producing the source language.Written translations are seen in print, and any grammatical error can be easily detected. This will not auger well for important documents, such as, government papers, committee reports on global issues, report on international economic issues, et cetera. In either way, translation and interpretation plays a vital role in the globalization process, and all are achieved on the basis of good grammar, proficiency in the two languages implying proficiency in grammar. There is a wider opinion that globalization is linked with business, politics, scientific issues, technological advancements, and issues relating to culture.These phenomena can triumph within the domain of language. Exchange of ideas with people with different linguistic background can be achieved through translation. All the terminologies that emanates from the above listed areas, can be properly expressed to the global village through language, irrespective of its syntactic structure. Looking at the examples in the translation exercises given to the level 300 students, it is observed that each of the assignments is related to some circumstance, others could be related to more than one circumstance.The first assignment could be related to a meeting dealing with socio-political and economic issues, it could be related to cultural issues. The third instance deals with an ordinary conversation, that is the first expression but Kirill could be an international figure, engaged in climate issues, once nothing has been said about his profile. There can be any assumption about him. On number four, it is evident that it is dealing with human right issues, which takes a global character. On question number five, the university could be situated in Japan, probably the United Nations University. This of course is at the centre of globalization. Wherever the university is situated, it is linked with globalization. On number six, buying of shirt is linked with trade, business, exchange of goods. This is linked with globalization. On the face value, one may think it is just ordinary.On number seven, there is no information about the discipline the professor teaches, in any case it is related to globalization. To write “three books from your diaries” could imply that onethe of the books talk about marriage, one about politics, the other about religion. On number nine, “working for you and your victory” could mean anything including the victory of globalization in a particular sector. And finally, “You have never seen my wife? I will show you her picture.” Who could she be, a house wife, a human rights activist, a business woman. All are linked with globalization. The diagram indicates a “GLOBALIZED WORLD OF LANGUAGES” indicates that there are no specific lexicon related to globalization. All human activities are made transparent through the use of languages in the era of globalization. In our daily communication network, language serves as the web of relationship and translation accelerates the globalization process. Tobring meaning to the doorsteps of people involved in the globalization process, communicators must have a good command over the grammar of the language to be used.Analyses in the context of the resistanceTranslation theories are debatable, there are many pioneer theories whose position have met with bitter scholastic opposition. This does not mean that their position is out of the “conceptual rails” as far as translation is concerned but that the “intellectual bank” in the world of knowledge and the new theories are being mentioned, and new theories are attempting to replace old theories.Classical theories are always resisting “intellectual assaults”. There is no old theory but rather new theories to complement the old ones. As a result of the history of languages, grammatical structures are strictly intertwined with the development of every language. Languages as at their present form might have metamorphosized to reach their present state. The history of the language grammar is strictly linked with the history of those languages. At a point in time, scholars have to accept why we have “ого” in Russian, why should we use “видеть” in connection with the accusative case, why “купить” is used in connection with the dative case, why should “читал” be used for the masculine gender and “читала” be used for the feminine. There are so many questions one could ask. There are some of them that one could find answers to, for others, scholars have to accept them as they see or as they are being used. Grammar has become a formula that has been carved out by grammarians or experts decades ago and contemporary scholars will have to conform to that. Why should it be “I read”, “He reads”, “We read”, “I saw the girls”, “They saw the boys”. “I am eating”, “He is eating”, “They are eating”, all in the same English grammar. The same applies to all languages.Through new terminology, words, and phrases have surfaced in the lexicon of Russian and English as a result of socio-political and economic processes in the society they have no influence on Russian and English grammar.In example one “собрание” corresponds to “началось” the ending of the word dictates the conditions of the infinitive “начаться”. It could have been “2 часа” instead of 10 часов, but “two o’clock” and “10 o’clock” in the English language. In the English and Russian, the speakers or writers representing the source language (SL) and the hearers and the readers representing the translated text (TT) are aware of the facts being unfolded (Bell, 1991) In the grammatical sense, there are no options for “2 часа” and “10 часов”. In the second example, “она хочет пригласить” “wants to invite” conforms to a grammatical model in Russian and in the English languages. The suffix “ить”, “ать” in Russian indicates perfection of imperfection. In example number three “мы познако- мились” corresponds to “we got acquainted with”. This reminds the translator of the participle “СЯ”. In this instance, the plural form avoids “СЯ”. In number four, “один вопрос”, “два вопроса”, “пять вопросов”, “one question”, “two questions”, “five questions”. No interaction in any conference can change the status quo in the Russian or English grammar.It is important for the translator, a bilingual to identify the meaning of an idea, opinion expressed through the grammatical structures of the source language text and be able to render an appropriate translation in the receptor language (Bell, 1991). In the semantic sense, meaning has been preserved in the two languages, while the grammatical modelsremain peculiar to the Russian and English languages. In meaning, the words, phrases, and structure must be aligned, while preserving their forms. The roles of the grammatical structures are converted to suit that of the English language.In number 5 and 6, “поблизости от вашего дома” “closer to your house”, “я хочу купить новую рубашку” “I want to buy a new shirt”. There are two important things to consider in any translation; first, the translator must accept the fact that grammar is not separated from semantics. The second thing one has to consider is that, a misunderstanding of a word may lead to a wrong grammatical application of that word in a sentence formation. In Russian language words are related to cases, the use of words are equated to a special grammatical formula. It is therefore important to understand first the word, then identify each case the word is related to. In Russian once “поблизо- сти” is used must correspond to “вашего”, “нашего” et cetera. This is in the genitive and there is no explanation of why “его” is equated to the application of the genitive case.In the same vein “купить”, “to buy” is related to the accusative case “купить ру- башку” “to buy a shirt”. There is the need to have significant linguistic knowledge to articulate the meaning of these words and to be well-versed in its application. “Идёте на лекцию” or “going to lecture” on number 8. “по материалам дневников” “from the notes in your diaries” in other words, “taking some information from your diaries to write three books”.In the semantic sense there could be other ways to express the idea to the English language or in the English language as the receptor language. There is no alternative in Russian than to use ‘no’. This is a requirement of the dative case in Russian and to attempt to bring in other alternatives may render the whole idea senseless.In the context of bilingualism, there is a persistent demand from the natives of the source language and the translated text to create a cohesive text. The two languages with their grammatical structures are distinct: source language (Russian) and the receptor language (English) have their distinct forms manifested through the use of the grammar.On assignments 9, “Мы работаем для вас” “We are working for you” on assignment number ten, “не видел мою жену”, “have not seen my wife”, “я покажу тебе её фото- графию”. The goal of every translation process is to achieve equivalence. The equivalence can be achieved through the communicative competence of the performer of the translation act. Translation offers communicative opportunities for the two sides, the beneficiary of the source language (SL) and the translated text.Examples to bring out correct grammatical usage and right pronunciation trough pairing method:GROUP A (SOURCE LANGUAGE); GROUP B (TRANSLATED LANGUAGE)GA - Я давно мечтал увидеть Соединенные Штаты, и вот я нахожусь в Ва- шингтоне.GB - I have been dreaming to see the United States, now here I am in Washington. GA - Мне повезло, я теперь студент Вашингтонского университета.GB - I am lucky, now I am a student of Washington University. GA - Слава Богу.GB - Thanks be to GodGA - Отец Небесный, благодарю Тебя!GB - Heavenly father, thank you.GA - Учеба на Гуманитарном Факультете интересна.GB - Studying at the Faculty of Humanities is more interesting.GA - Жизнь и учеба иностранного студента в США очень интересна.GB - Life and studying as a foreign student in the United States is more interesting. Here two approaches have been employed; the grammar translation method and the communicative approach. The GTM deals basically with written translation and the communicative approach deals with the application of grammatical skills in oral translation known as interpretation. In our interactions with people in the globalization process, we deal with written or oral translation. In each case grammatical rules if properly applied convey meaning from the source language to the receptor language. The grammaticalrules in the Russian language distinguishes it from the English languageConclusionGlobalization which has been seen as an economic process has a direct relation with languages. Languages have become the vehicle on which globalization can triumph. The success of globalization will depend on an effective global communicative network which should not be monopolized by a single global lingua franca.Translation provides an antidote for this growing apprehension among scholars of languages and linguistics. With the growing multiplicity of global trade, economic and political activities, scientific and industrial activities and other socio-cultural activities translation has become the inevitable agent to accelerate the dissemination of information.Translation from and into Russian resists the influence of the global lingua franca. Translation promotes linguistic and cultural diversity that neutralizes the bubbling influence of the global lingua franca.On the basis of the definition of translation’ as changing the form of the source language without changing the meaning, Russian and many other language are not disadvantaged. The resisting process lies in the definition, while there will ever be a source language and a translated text, Russian language will not be marginalized.A greater number of the world’s population uses English language as their first language and a greater number uses the English language as their second language. With the advancement of technology in this information age, communication costs have been reduced. In any case, the interconnectivity between cultures and people in this information age cannot be achieved only through the international lingua franca, the English language.Translation in the globalization process resolves the language conflict. The promotion of one language definitely leads to the promotion of one culture over others. Transparency in the world socio-political and economic relations could be achieved through the translation of materials into various languages in the world.Resisting the influence of the global lingua franca implies strengthening the concept of identification. The concept of identification is strengthened through the application of the right grammatical rules in Russian and English in translation. Both source and target languages identifies a group of people, specifically an ethnic group. The Russian language as a source language and the English language as the receptor language exhibits some grammatical features that makes the two language what they are. Morphological, lexical and other features of the language, does not change.The term globalization connotes economic, media, technological and social relations. In contrast to the development of languages, languages have developed along different historical lines. Russian language and many other languages have their specifications that cannot be evolved by the process of globalization. A translated text maintains elements or features of the language carved out by scholars. Grammatical features and semantics have been used to enhance on the concept of resistance. Grammatical features of the source language can never be represented on the receptor language. Syntactic structure of the Russian language can never be the same as the English language.Translation deals with the study of the lexicon, the grammatical structures and the communicative situation of the source language text. The elements in the Russian language text as enumerated should be analysed and reconstructed using the lexicon and grammatical structure which is accepted in the English Language. Once there is the idea of ‘acceptability’, it goes without saying that not any grammatical construction can be accepted in Russian and English. Therefore there cannot be any imposition from any language.No foreignization can be accepted in grammatical terms in the translation process. Grammar Translation Method and the Communicative approach were referred. The import of the paper is not to give a holistic unfolding of these methods, but to say that in dealing with translation at any level one cannot escape these methods. Level 300 students of Russian were used as a case study to test the translation and interpretation process in globalization. The students themselves are agents of globalization. The fact that the syntactic features of Russian in the source language cannot replace that of the English language underpins the limitation of the influence of the international lingua franca. Meaning as linguistic concept is universal and can be communicated through the use of the right grammatical forms.Russian language has got its lexical and grammatical specifics that identify it as a language for Russians. Russian grammar is embedded in the Russian language and whether it takes the position of the source language or the translated text, its unique linguistic elements are maintained.Foreignizing in the translation of the Russian language, even if it is permitted, especially from English to Russian should be accompanied by the use of the right grammatical forms of Russian. Bilingual competence backed by the acquisition of the right grammatical skills in translation of the Russian language and many other languages to other languages including the international lingua franca makes it easier for people to communicate easily and efficiently in their day to day activities. Gaining mastery over the Russian grammar can limit the bubbling influence of the international lingua franca.The theory of equivalence was employed in the study. The Grammar Translation Method was used through exercises given to Level 300 students of Russian. The Communicative Grammar Method was also employed. These methods were employed not precisely for the purpose of teaching, but to build in students grammatical skills for effective translation in the globalization process.

Albert Antwi Boasiako

Department of Modern Languages

University of Ghana, P O Box LG 207, Legon

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