Vol 21, No 4 (2019)

POLITICAL PROCESS IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA: TENDENCIES AND PROSPECTS
Political Views of the Youth: Loyalty or Protest?
Popova O.V., Lagutin O.V.
Abstract

The article analyzes the state of mass political consciousness of Russian youth based on the results of the study conducted in the spring of 2019 in four regions of the Russian Federation: Altai Kray, Leningrad and Novosibirsk Regions, and St. Petersburg. As a result of the analysis, the authors were able to identify several groups of young people that significantly differ in their attitudes regarding their potential political activity and the methods they actually use to realize the interests of their socio-demographic group, as well as trust in political and social institutions. Young people are differentiated into 8 groups according to the dominant type of political behavior and into 4 groups according to their level of institutional trust.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):599-619
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Religion and Politics in the Post-Soviet Russia (Example of Islam)
Pochta Y.M.
Abstract

In the article, the author uses the example of Islam to examine the interconfessional relations, developing in the Russian Federation in the context of return of religion and religious beliefs to public life (revival of religion). This process affects both institutional aspects (evolution of the state’s federal structure, political system, formation of civil society) and value aspects of religion, such as its influence on the political culture of society, ideology of federalism and change in the content of secularism of the state. J. Habermas’ theory of deliberative democracy, the concepts of post-secular society and federalism, as well as the civilizational approach are used as the methodological base of the research. The author justifies his conclusion about the necessity to ensure respect for religious values while preserving the secular nature of the Russian state as an asymmetric Federation.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):620-632
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POLITICAL PROCESSES IN ETHIOPIA
The Problem of Internally Displaced Persons in Ethiopia in the Context of 2020 Parliamentary Elections
Ivanov V.G., Kassae Nigusie V.M.
Abstract

In 2019, Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiyah Ahmed won the Nobel peace prize. His government is praised for releasing political prisoners, partially opening Ethiopia's political space to the opposition, and making peace with neighboring Eritrea. At the same time, in recent years nearly 3 million people have fled their homes in Ethiopia, mainly because of ethnic violence. Human rights organizations accuse the country's authorities of forcing people to return to their homes, where many still do not feel safe. In 2018 and 2019 alone, more than a million Ethiopians were forced from their homes by ethnic violence. Ethiopia currently ranks first in the world in the number of internally displaced persons. The authors analyze the controversial socio-political situation in Ethiopia in the context of the upcoming parliamentary elections in 2020.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):633-641
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Developmental State of Ethiopia: Reflections on the Costs of Viewing Economic Growth as a Governance Criterion
Bayeh E.
Abstract

The paper examines the achievements and losses of the Ethiopian state following the introduction of the developmental state model. In his research, the author relies mostly on secondary sources, upon a thorough analysis of which he draws the following conclusion: Even though the developmental state model has led to a remarkable economic growth and made the country one of the fastest growing economies in the world, it has also caused several detrimental effects, including eroding the value of pluralism, compromising human rights, and consolidating a single-party authoritarian rule, which spurred a rampant corruption and intensified arbitrary intervention in the citizens’ lives. The author suggests that economic growth and political transformation (democratization) should be valued equally and pursued side-by-side, which requires a genuinely patriotic, determined, and civic-minded leader.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):642-660
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The Pitfalls of Ethnolinguistic-Based Federal Experiment in Ethiopia
Gardachew B.D., Kefale G.M., Kumie G.A.
Abstract

In 1991, when Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) became a leading party within the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), Ethiopia introduced a system of ethnic-based federalism, which had never been practiced in the political history of the state before. The recognition of Ethiopian ethnic diversity became one of the country’s fundamental principles, with the federal system largely consisting of ethnic-based territorial units. Since its inception, Ethiopia's ethnic federalism has been the subject of heated debate among various political organizations in the country, as well as among observers and scholars both in and outside the country. The key objective of this paper is to appraise the pitfalls of ethnic-based federalism in Ethiopia, which has been functioning in the country for more than two and half decades. The authors believe ethnic-based federalism to be a political arrangement that succeeds to maintain balance of centrifugal and centripetal forces. They see it as an appropriate and viable strategy for a sustainable nation-building effort in the context of Ethiopia’s ethnic diversity. At the same time, the authors observe that in the case with ethnicity-based political arrangements, unless they are implemented with maximum care, the risk outweighs the benefit. When a state like Ethiopia, which had been highly centralized for many years, is trying to experiment with a seemingly federal arrangement, the equilibrium of diversity and unity should be maintained. If the political environment focuses primarily on diversity and ignores shared values and common identity, it leaves room for the elites to manipulate the differences and pursue their own parochial political interests, which would eventually serve against the public benefit. The pioneers of Ethiopia’s ethnic federalism believe that the contemporary ethnolinguistic-based federal arrangement is a panacea for problems related to identity politics. However, the authors argue that, from a practical perspective, for the past two and half decades (probably in the future too, unless re-designed) ethnic federalism in Ethiopia has been highly politicized (manipulated by political dealers promoting their own selfish interests).

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):661-672
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POLITICAL PROCESSES IN CONTEMPORARY WORLD
Institutional Foundations of Intraparty Coalitions in Presidential Systems: Case of Uruguay
Varshavsky A.Y.
Abstract

The article analyzes the institutional foundations of the emergence and functioning of the major party factions in Uruguay and their influence on maintaining the stability of the presidential regime. The Uruguayan parties are historically characterized by fragmentation and consist of many ideologically diverse movements, which allows us to view them as coalitions. The factions competing among themselves for the influence on the political agenda ultimately form the party’s common strategy. Coalition tendency within parties is largely determined by the peculiarities of the electoral system established in Uruguay. The elected president with a broad mandate, being a representative of his faction, must build coalition relations with other factions of his party, giving them various concessions in the executive branch. Based on the factors considered, the author concludes that the electoral characteristics of the Uruguayan political system create the necessity for coalitions among party factions, thus affecting the stability of presidential rule.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):673-686
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Terrorist Threat in the Former Soviet Union in the Face of ISIL’s Defeat in Iraq and Syria
Khanaliyev N.U.
Abstract

The article attempts to identify how methods, strategies and primary activities of Islamist extremist and terrorist organizations have recently evolved. According to the author, this subject has not received adequate coverage in Russian political science. The author uses ISIL as an example of such groups and seeks to prove his thesis, according to which, after being defeated in Iraq and Syria, the organization was forced to search for areas of refuge in order to survive and carry on its terrorist activities. As was expected, ISIL chose Afghanistan as their hideout territory with the purpose of launching terrorist acts against Russia and the countries of Central Asia. For this purpose, the so-called “Caliphate”, or “Vilayet Khorasan”, was created: a branch of ISIL, which operates on the territories of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran, as well as in Central Asia. The article also highlights the similarities between the Central Asian states and the Russian Federation as potential targets of terrorist attacks. After analyzing the main ideological and political guidelines and practical actions of ISIL, as well as several other terrorist groups, the author comes to the conclusion that the organizations in question have been experiencing crisis, but, at the same time, are characterized by vitality, especially with regard to ideology and religious values.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):687-705
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Procurement Mechanism of Goods and Regional Government Services in Accordance with the Principle of Good Governance in Banjarbaru
Sompa A.T.
Abstract

The procurement of goods and services by the regional government is part of the principle of regional autonomy implementation. However, one should be aware that the practice of regional autonomy is vulnerable to abuse of authority. Thus, it is necessary to implement the principle of Good Governance in order to establish the limits of authority. The article aims at describing the mechanism of procurement of goods and services by local governments in accordance with the standards of good governance. A qualitative approach is used in the research. Data collection is conducted in three steps, namely: observation, interview, and documentation. The Miles and Huberman model of data analysis is used in order to achieve accuracy of information in the presentation of narrative texts. The author carries out the data validity test by means of careful and continuous observation, as well as triangulation. The research shows that the regional government in the face of the Banjarbaru City Procurement Services Unit (ULP) has generally been abiding by the principle of Good Governance in terms of transparency, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness (stipulated in Presidential Regulation No. 54 of 2010 and its amendments). However, several obstacles still exist, the main ones being: 1) human resources, which greatly affect the work of the state system, representing the largest risk; 2) the dependence on information technology in the implementation of goods and services procurement, which is carried out using online features ( e-procurement ); 3) the deficiency of budget, needed to guarantee network quality and internet security in Banjarbaru City ULP, 4) incomplete procurement proposal documents.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):706-717
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Cooperation with Russia and the Current State of the RussianLanguage Community on the Agenda of the 2018 Election to the Seimas of Latvia
Krishtal M.I.
Abstract

The article discusses the opinion of the relevant participants in the 2018 elections to the Seimas of Latvia in regards to the Latvian-Russian relations and the situation of the Russianspeaking community in the country. The issue sprung up in the period between the elections as a result of foreign policy (confrontation between Russia and the West to regards to the events in Ukraine) and internal political factors (adoption of the law stipulating the transfer of ethnic minority schools to teaching in the Latvian language). In the light of the ethnic conflict between Latvians and the Russian-speaking population in Latvia, the authors have based their research on S. Lipset and S. Rokkan’s theory of demarcations. Drawing on this theory, the authors use the scoring method to highlight ideological contrasts of political parties. As a result, three different approaches to the current situation have been identified. The first approach is focused on creating conditions for ethnic equality in Latvia and cooperation with Russia. The second approach, on the contrary, stands for limiting the rights of the Russian-speaking population in Latvia and continuing confrontation with the Russian Federation. The third approach, being ideologically close to the second, nevertheless allows for some latitude towards Russian-speaking residents. Based on Pearson’s correlation method, the analysis of the voting geography showed that the ideological contrasts existing between political forces coincide with their electoral divergences.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):718-728
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RIGHT-WING POPULISM IN THE USA AND EUROPE: ORIGINS AND MODERNITY
Leo Strauss and His Neoconservative Disciples (on the Problem of the Sources and Genesis of Neoconservatism)
Blokhin K.V.
Abstract

The article discusses the problem of Leo Strauss’ influence on the political culture of the United States and analyzes the current historiographic situation pertaining to the problem. The authors demonstrate that both in the USA and in modern Russia the question of the degree and nature of L. Strauss’s influence on the neocons remains open. Meanwhile, it is obvious that Strauss had a significant impact on the formation of neoconservative ideology, which is manifested in the similarity of the basic ideas of the philosopher and his disciples. The formation of the philosopher’s views took place during the crisis of the Weimar Republic and the Nazis’ rise to power in Germany, which postulated Strauss’ idea about the need for strong democracy and its ability to defend itself against tyranny. The concept of strong democracy that can withstand totalitarianism and authoritarianism is one of the key ideas of neo-conservatism. The similarity of Strauss’ philosophical views to those of the neoconservatives is seen in criticism of the liberal world order and moral foundations of the West, which gave rise to relativism and nihilism. The conformity of neoconservative worldview, including and its variants, such as straussianism, to the ideas of Strauss is manifested in advocating the interests of Israel, which the founders of neo-conservatism view as an outpost of the Western world.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):729-744
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“Clash of Civilizations” Concept in the EU Right-Wing Populists’ Discourse
Byshok S.O.
Abstract

The concept of “clash of civilizations”, proposed by S. Huntington in the early 1990s, has been controversial, yet has found a solid following, primarily among the right side of the political spectrum in Europe and the US. Since such humanitarian aspects as culture, religion, civilization and national identity are central to modern political debates in the West, it is essential to delve more deeply into civilizational discourse of political actors. This article examines the idea of “clash of civilizations” in the rhetoric of three key right-wing populist parties of the EU: the French “National Rally” (“Rassemblement National”), the Hungarian “Fidesz” and the Dutch “Party for Freedom” (“Partij voor de Vrijheid”). While Huntington wrote about clashes of nations, representative of different civilizations, the right-wing populist focus on civilization clashes at national levels, primarily between Muslim immigrants coming to the EU, whose beliefs are pictured as intrinsically hostile to western values, and native-born Europeans who supposedly hold “JudeoChristian” civilizational identity. Judeo-Christian identity can de described as an “imaginary community” comprising some aspects of Christianity, Enlightenment & humanistic philosophy, which implies secularism and respect for human rights.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):745-754
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The Concept of Populism in Modern Anglo-Saxon and German Political Science
Meshcheryakov D.Y.
Abstract

The article examines and compares main approaches to defining populism in modern Anglo-Saxon and German political science. The author points out some similarities between two schools: increasing interest of research communities in the USA, United Kingdom and Germany in examining right-wing populism due to the electoral success of right-wing populist parties. Furthermore, among the key features of populism, both schools see the allusion to “the will of the people”, as well as juxtaposition of “the people” against “the elite”. The article emphasizes the existing reciprocal influence of the two research traditions. On the other hand, the author outlines certain differences in the two schools’ approach to populism, such as historical dissimilarities in its interpretation (in the USA the concept used to bear a more “neutral” character, while in German political science, due to the Nazi regime carryover, it was regarded mostly negatively for a long time). Also, German academic works on populism have applied rather than theoretical nature and aim at stopping the expansion of the phenomenon.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):755-764
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Methodological Approaches to Studying the Personality of a Politician-Populist
Aybazova M.M.
Abstract

The article discusses the main methodological approaches to studying the personality of a politician of the populist type. The author conducts a brief survey of domestic and foreign experience in using methodologies and methods for drawing up personal psychological portraits of political figures. The choice of theoretical and methodological tools, research methods and conceptual framework plays a special role in the process of studying a politician’s personality. To create a psychologically and ethically appropriate portrait, the author reflects on the dominant behavioral characteristics of a politician, as well as their less pronounced personality traits.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(4):765-776
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