Vol 21, No 2 (2019)

POLITICAL PROCESS IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA: TENDENCIES AND PROSPECTS
MODELS OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR OF YOUTH MIDDLE CLASS OF MODERN AGGLOMERATIONS: ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE MAIN REGIONS OF THE NORTH]WEST AND SOUTH SIBERIA
Lagutin O.V., Negrov E.O.
Abstract

The article deals with the peculiarities of the models of political behavior of young people, which can be attributed to the middle class. The relevance of the study is in the combination of a well-founded review of the main directions of research of the role of youth participation in the social and political process and the involvement of a specific empirical study conducted in the autumn of 2018, which allows to highlight various aspects of the situation. The empirical part of the study is based on the study “Ideas of Youth about Possibilities of Youth Leaders and Youth Organizations in Russia”, which was conducted in late September and early October 2018 in four regions of the Russian Federation: Altai, Leningrad and Novosibirsk Regions and St. Petersburg. The method of research was a personal standardized interview, the sample size was 1000 respondents (250 in each of the regions), who were representatives of young people aged 14 to 30 that permanently reside in the territory of the studied subjects of the federation. Based on factor and cluster analyzes, the research presents the main models of the political behavior of young people belonging to the middle class. The article is of interest to researchers of interconnections between the real political process and youth as a significant group of the population.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):157-174
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REALITIES OF THE MIGRATION PROCESS IN RUSSIA: QUANTITATIVE “PROS” AND QUALITATIVE “CONS”
Karadje T.V., Tombu D.V.
Abstract

The article discusses the features of immigration and emigration flows in Russia, their quality indicators. There is a mismatch in the distribution of labor migrants in the country regions, as well as the intellectual and professional characteristics of immigration and emigration flows are being analyzed. The authors pay great attention to the main modern trends of migration processes in Russia and problems of migration’s regulation.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):175-183
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IMAGE OF AN IDEAL RUSSIA IN THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF STUDENT YOUTH
Budko D.A., Lukyanova G.V.
Abstract

The perception of the image of the state by its citizens is believed to be one of the most promising areas for the study of political consciousness. When the object of the research is youth, the obtained data allow us to identify their main expectations from the further development of the country's political system. Basing on the results of six focus groups among students at St. Petersburg State University, in this paper we attempt to describe the image of ideal Russia in the minds of students. We have obtained results demonstrating that 1) the images of the country, the authorities, and the political leader are a kind of projection of the political processes and phenomena that are currently occurring in the world; 2) youth is characterized by categorical and inconsistent in their own views and evaluations; 3) along with patriotism, students feel a sense of responsibility for their future and the future of Russia.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):184-194
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PRIMARIES AS A NEW COMMUNICATION FORMAT FOR INTERACTION BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN VOTER AND THE PARTY CANDIDATE
Rep’eva I.I.
Abstract

The transformation of electoral processes, as well as the introduction of new elements, as a rule, are due to the dynamic development and at the same time the increasing complexity of social relations. One of such manifestations is the active testing party of the mechanism of preliminary intraparty voting to determine the most effective candidates by the United Russia and their subsequent nomination to elected authorities of power. The use of a truly innovative candidate selection mechanism for the Russian Federation, for the first time in which all citizens with active electoral rights could join, was a demonstration of the party’s preparation for participation in the competition for single-mandate constituencies within the framework of the newly returned mixed electoral system in the elections of deputies of the State Duma. In the given conditions, the party declared its readiness to induce its regional organizations to reorient - the main political resource for it should be voter support. The key indirect effect of the use of this tool for the Russian voter was manifested in the expansion of the traditional boundaries of the application of active suffrage. Taking into consideration attention to the emerging practice of both its supporters and critics, as well as attempts to institutionalize, the author analyzed the background of the issue and formulated the advantages and threats brought by the primaries into the Russian electoral process. The basis of the study for the formulation of the problem and the formulation of possible arguments in favor of this procedure were the data of sociological and expert surveys, as well as the existing scientific works of authors who are few in this area of work.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):195-207
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THE MAIN FEATURES OF APPLICATION OF POLITICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE RUSSIAN INTERNET SPACE
Emelianov A.I.
Abstract

The article discusses the impact of Internet technologies on the political process in Russia and in the world. The author draws attention to the emergence of new trends in the field of IT, which bring new to the electoral process, PR-activities, agitation, propaganda and counter-propaganda. It is suggested that political actors should act within the framework of the new rules of the game, without neglecting the transfer of political struggle in the Internet space. The article draws attention to the fact that the Internet activity of political actors can be both positive and negative in perception and goals. Given the impact that the Internet has on the political sphere of society, we can assume that the virtual environment will be the main stage of political struggle. The author emphasizes that modern political technologists should take this factor into account in their activities. Thus, the author concludes that the online space significantly expands the tools of political campaigns and radically transforms the relationship between citizens and the state, forming the real prerequisites for the development of democracy.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):208-217
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INFLUENCE OF MIGRATION POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON DEVELOPMENT OF THE FAR EAST IN 1990-2000S
Lysenko A.A.
Abstract

The article analyzes the Russian migration policy in the Far East Federal District in the period of 1990-2000. The Author researches the evolution of migration policy and its effectiveness in achieving the goals of socio-economic development of the Far East and national security of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of statistical data the article concludes that the current level of socio-economic development of the region does not allow to solve of the problems of leveling economic development, increasing the population of border areas and ensuring the growth of labor potential of the Far East Federal District. The author notes the long-term trend of population decline in the Far East Federal district.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):218-226
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THE PROBLEM OF CHILDHOOD SAFETY AS A PRIORITY OF RUSSIAN NATIONAL POLICY
Polyakov A.V., Unusian U.V.
Abstract

The following article focuses on the problem of childhood safety. The phenomenon of childhood is studied in the context of the national policy of the Russian Federation. In modern society, state and science, the importance of social protection of an individual has been prioritized. One can see systematic changes in the legislation of norms regulating the sphere of social security. Social law as an independent branch in the system of domestic law, however, has not yet developed, therefore certain incoherence exists. All this, nonetheless, has triggered scientific discussions on possible directions of the state’s social policy, and in particular, the policy on children’s safety. The necessity of prioritizing childhood safety and security, defining it as a pivotal direction in the national policy is determined primarily by certain crisis phenomena taking place in contemporary Russian society. Moreover, designing and implementation of the most effective ways of guaranteeing children’s wellbeing is regarded as crucial. The article deals with various risk factors that can negatively affect childhood, as well as mechanisms of social protection of children. Particular emphasis is placed on the study of the development of Russian legislation in the field of social policy, including the emergence of fundamentally new institutions (for example, maternity capital). The article offers a definition of the concepts “social security”, “social policy”, and “childhood”, and examines the existing model of national social protection in Russia. Improving the quality of life of the population, strengthening Russian citizens’ health, ensuring stable demographic development of Russia are named among the main long-term national interests in the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation. The above-mentioned objectives are equated with such large-scale interests as strengthening the state’s defense capacity, ensuring the inviolability of the constitutional system, state sovereignty, territorial integrity, etc., which confirms the relevance and importance of the topic in question.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):227-239
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THE PROBLEM OF CORRELATION BETWEEN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL POLICY OF THE USA
THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION FROM VENEZUELA ON THE DOMESTIC POLITICAL SITUATION IN THE UNITED STATES
Belokonev S.Y., Vodopetov S.A., Ivanov V.G.
Abstract

The authors analyze the impact of migration from Venezuela on the domestic policy of the United States. According to the data for 2017, more than 11 percent of immigrants to the United States from South America are Venezuelans, and the same figure for 2016 was close to 9 percent, which indicates a fairly sharp increase in the number of refugees. An active influx of Venezuelans may be one of the key factors in the future US 2020 presidential elections. The largest diaspora of Venezuelans in the United States lives in Florida, which will be one of the key states in the future presidential election campaign. In connection with the potential loss of Republican’s positions in such an important region as Florida, it is necessary for the administration of Donald Trump to reconsider its policy in the state. In addition, representatives of the Democratic party are greatly interested in increasing influence in the state. Thus, the authors conclude that the administration of Donald Trump generally benefits from the crisis in Venezuela, as it will help to carry out a number of domestic political reforms aimed at economic protectionism and tackling of immigration.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):240-253
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POLITICAL ASPECTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION OF THE UNITED STATES: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE
Burda M.A., Shevchenko E.S.
Abstract

One of the big-league participants in major international processes, the US government defines the current agenda of the modern world order, steers the vector of international relations development and affects the distribution of power on the global political arena. A supporter of the Non-Institutionalized Global Governance concept and the idea of Rule of Law, American administration demonstrates its own, specific understanding of the goals and course of action of modern international legislation. It seems to have its own insight on the nature and order of international organizations in regards to formulation and adoption of international law, the US role in determining the key features of global law enforcement, as well as the standards and principles of implementation of international law in the US federal legislation. Despite the recent tendency of the US government to roll back from participation in IO projects and revision of a number of agreements within the framework of interstate cooperation, the United States not only succeeds, one way or another, in guiding the trends of global political development, but also continues to have an impact on the interpretation and application of international law. The given article looks at the status of international law in the American legal system, focuses on the participation of the United States in proposition, discussion and adoption of conventions, declarations, agreements and other documents within the framework of the UN, and determines the main directions, according to which American jurisdiction implements international legal doctrines. The current research also brings a focus on specific issues, problems, relations, and contacts regulated at the international level but not implemented by the US federal legislation. The article analyzes political aspects of formulation and adoption of legal rules by American public administration, which are meant to supplement and specify the dominant principles of international sources of law.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):254-267
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THE ORIGIN OF AN IMPERIAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE UNITED STATES
Spiridonova V.I.
Abstract

The article examines the origins of Imperial discourse formation in American political culture and geopolitics. At the end of XX - beginning of XXI century it took disguised forms - “nonterritorial Empire”, “informal Empire”, “positive Empire”, “cultural hegemony”. The latency of the US Imperial consciousness is due to a number of reasons. First, the historical fact of the struggle for liberation from the colonial rule of Britain left a deep trace in the “political imaginary” of the American people and gave rise to the belief that the United States itself has never been, is not and cannot be an Empire. The second factor was the semantic evolution that occurred in the American interpretation of power. In fact, America has not passed the historical path that developed the idea of a “monopoly on legitimate violence” in Europe. The idea of “dispersal” of power has rooted in the public consciousness the priority of the power factor, coupled with the admissibility of the use of force at own discretion. Inside, both motives were regarded by the public consciousness as democratic. The third component of imperialism became a powerful Messianic argument, the belief in the special destiny of the American nation to create an ideal society This Faith brought with them in the “terra nullis” (on “no man's land”) immigrants of the New World. This thesis has become fundamental to the public opinion and to all the leaders of America. The justification of the concept of “soft power” and “cultural hegemony” did not detract from the importance of the “power factor”, which gave rise to new forms of imperialism - the deployment of military bases and economic dictatorship. The range of American domination is characterized by great flexibility - from mutually beneficial cooperation in Europe (“Empire by invitation”) to direct military intervention into the “rogue States”.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):268-281
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POLITICAL PROCESSES IN CONTEMPORARY WORLD
THE PROBLEM OF SETTLEMENT OF THE SYRIAN CONFLICT AT THE NEW STAGE OF ITS DEVELOPMENT
Vasetsova E.S.
Abstract

The article deals with an urgent topic. The settlement of the Syrian conflict is still one of the biggest challenges of the international agenda of the second decade of the XXI century. Despite the statements of the elimination of the Islamic State, which is prohibited in Russia, the conflict is going on. We are witnessing a new cycle of an armed conflict in Syria. The aim of the article is to analyze the possibilities of the settlement of the Syrian conflict at the current state of its development. The article provides the chronology of fighting with the Islamic State, analyses the current configuration of forces acting in the conflict, studies the forces exacerbating the crisis. The author came to the following conclusions. The Middle East is experiencing a period of a profound transformation. The Syrian crisis has revealed the fundamental differences of interests between the main regional actors and the world center of power. The stabilization of the situation in Syria depends on the actions of the external parties of the conflict.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):282-294
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THE FALSE PROMISE OF COOPERATION IN THE JORDAN RIVER: STATE POLICIES AND DETERMINANTS
Muchie Z.
Abstract

The study examines the false promise of cooperation in the Jordan River basin through the prism of state policies and determinants. The study is underpinned by the significance of pivotal riparian states. Based on their preeminence in determining the course of cooperation, the study considers Israel, Jordan and Palestine as pivotal riparian states. In terms of research methodology, qualitative approach was used. The study identified that domestic politics, regional dynamics and international water regimes are major determinant factors making cooperation to be a fantasy. Israel’s doctrine of exceptionalism both in the sense of statehood and government type and the reciprocated denial of co-basin states in this regard are domestic political factors that impede the course cooperative events. Israel’s geopolitical calculations via territorial expansion alongside of the Jordan River affect the cooperative milieu. The mere existence of water regimes either in the form of legal agreements or institutional attempts, does not bring effective cooperation. The finding of study shows that, domestic politics, regional dynamics and international water regimes are indeed determinant factors for the cooperative and conflictive nature of water sharing in the basin. The level of their impact however is neither equal nor constant. Importantly, these three factors affect and condition one another.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):295-310
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CHINESE PERCEPTION OF INDO]US NEXUS: IMPLICATIONS FOR CHINA IN SOUTH ASIAN REGION (Brief Overview)
Nisar R.D.
Abstract

After the collapse of the USSR, the US changed its policies, shifted its priorities and started viewing China’s economic emergence as a great threat to US interests. Due to the rapid economic growth and military development, the People’s Republic of China has become a rival for the US in the global arena. Meanwhile, as the US is reshaping its policy in accordance with the modern geopolitical reality, it starts regarding India as a powerful ally for holding China back. The close rapport between India and the USA is being established on the account of economic liaisons and combined efforts against security threats. Currently, India and the US are redefining their affiliations and building a potent nexus to secure their common interests, particularly in keeping China at bay. The formation of amicable Indo-US relations has resulted in the collective agenda for achieving the two countries’ common objectives in Asia. According to A. Tellis, the two foremost strategic goals of the two countries in Asia are: firstly, to contain the growing influence of China in Asia and its adjacent territories and establish Indian hegemony in the region; secondly, to promote friendly relations with other major actors in the region in order to garner support for India. The two countries’ strategic plan towards China is to isolate the country from the rest of the region. The presence of the US naval forces in the Indian Ocean and recent military exercises in Malabar have increased the US-India ties and have helped to establish control over Chinese naval and trade routes and sea lines of communication. Senior US officials have openly declared their intentions of strategic containment of China. As was noted by one of India’s leading political analysts John Cheian, “Washington’s primary goal is developing alliance with India in order to contain China”. The given article presents an outlook on the Chinese perception of the US-India nexus.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):311-322
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CROSS]BORDER SECURITY OF THE MEDITERRANEAN: AFRICAN AND ASIAN MIGRATION VECTORS
Bistrina M.G.
Abstract

The current European migration crisis outlined the problems of cooperation between the EU countries in the search for solutions in emerging multilateral conflicts. Therefore, the purpose of this analysis is to identify the role of the regional information exchange network and cooperation in the field of illegal migration and to reduce cross-border crime between the countries of North Africa, Asia and the EU. Cooperation can include assistance with the authorities to implement national strategies to address the causes of illegal migration by encouraging local economic development and providing access to jobs for migrants and host communities, and to strengthen protection for the most vulnerable. It is extremely important to increase the capacity of the authorities in North Africa and Asia to combat illegal migration and human trafficking by strengthening their border surveillance systems. Other areas of support with EU countries include an inter-agency visit to the European Border Guard and the Coast Guard Agency in Warsaw, the designation of a contact point for Operation Sophia and the study of information exchange opportunities within the Seahorse Mediterraneo project. Key issues include changes in the legal and institutional framework, knowledge base, channels for legal migration, border control, prevention of illegal migration.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):323-332
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THE PROJECT «ICE SILK ROAD» WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE INITIATIVE «ONE BELT AND ONE ROAD» AS THE REALIZATION OF THE INTERESTS OF RUSSIA AND CHINA IN THE ARCTIC REGION
Mikhaylichenko K.M.
Abstract

The article discusses the place and importance of the Arctic region and the Northern Sea Route on the geopolitical map of the world. The author defines the interests of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China in the Arctic, characterizes the project “Ice Silk Road” within the framework of the initiative “One Belt and One Road”, analyzes the existing Russian-Chinese cooperation and identifies the most promising areas of cooperation. The author comes to the conclusion about the global potential of the Arctic cooperation between the two countries.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):333-345
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CURRENT PROBLEMS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
TRANSPORT POLICY ABROAD: TRAINING CENTERS AND MAIN RESEARCH AREAS
Fedyakin A.V., Fedyakin I.V.
Abstract

The article based on the analysis of public sources examines the structure, goals and main directions of works of foreign scientific and educational centers in the field of transport policy - an independent area of the state activity that has (due to the infrastructural nature of the object of its regulation which is transport) characteristics of universality and reveal the close relationship and overlapping with many other areas (economic, social, innovation, industrial, regional, etc.). Transport policy as a field of research has links and intersections with the goals of a number of other political science areas and sub-disciplines (primarily with public policy and management, political regionalism, international relations and geopolitics, etc.). The authors state that theoretical and applied research in this complex and interdisciplinary field are carried out by organizations that are structural units of educational institutions and by independent institutions. The main trend of their research on general and special issues of transport policy is interdisciplinary approach used during the analysis. As for training, it is carried out by a number of foreign universities - both classical and specialized (mainly technical) universities. At the same time, it is primarily interdisciplinary in nature, based on a combination of areas such as politics, public administration, strategic management, transport economics, etc., which is reflected in the curriculum and in the content of individual disciplines. However, such training has not yet become a widespread phenomenon, and the diverse possibilities of political science in many courses remain underused. The article makes a general conclusion that theoretical and applied research, as well as training in the field of transport policy retain significant reserves, which are still very far from being exhausted. This is especially true of political science, whose heuristic and educational potential for the needs of the transport industry remains undiscovered.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):346-357
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RESILIENCE CONCEPT AS A METHODOLOGICAL BASIS OF A NEW APPROACH TO COUNTERING INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM
Tulupov D.S., Kotsur G.V.
Abstract

The aim of this article is to identify actual and prospective opportunities for the use of “resilience” concept in counter-terrorism warfare. The resilience is usually defined as an ability of an individual, society or ecosystem to recover or adapt after a shock. Discourse-analysis of the local periodical press enabled authors to draw two important conclusions. Firstly, resilience as a strength feature of a (city) community is internally generated, rather than imposed from top down. Secondly, the resilience of urban population to terrorism both in Russia and in European countries has similar features, namely the high degree of low-level civil self-organization and active use of social networks potential. The relevance of resilience serves as an indicator that this concept has become a core element of a new public security paradigm in the West. At the same time, resilience is not featuring in the Russian social-political discourse at all. However, authors have identified a number of provisions in the 2009 Concept of combating against terrorism, which might be considered as feasible prerequisites for the articulation of resilience in the Russian discourse in the future. Filling this gap might be a strategically important task in context of enhancement of the Russian Federation’s strategy of counter-terrorism activity.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):358-372
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METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY OF POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL ASIA
Iskakov I.Z.
Abstract

Studies of political systems and political processes in the post-Soviet states of the Central Asian region are based, as a rule, on institutional and neo-institutional concepts. Attempts to mechanically apply certain ready-made western description schemes and even the corresponding conceptual apparatus to the Central Asian material rarely lead to convincing results. Many important factors affecting the political development of the region remain beyond research. By the beginning of the 2010s institutionalization and pluralization of the political space outside state control also included the development of the necessary legislative framework. Such a framework implies the consolidation of the legal basis for the creation and effective functioning of public associations and organizations, and the formation of legitimate and viable representation institutions. Russian authors are much more familiar with the material of the political reality of the CAR, therefore they give more balanced and accurate assessments. The disadvantage of Russian studies is the fact that, methodologically, they follow the approaches developed by Western political science. This encourages one to concentrate on some aspects of the political development of the Central Asian states and to underestimate or even completely ignore other, no less, and sometimes much more significant ones. In recent years, this deficiency is gradually being replenished. The findings of the researchers are becoming more objective, which helps to overcome erroneous political decisions and strengthen interstate cooperation. Over time, such studies will have the results of the development of new systematic and well-reflected approaches, adequate to the subject of political science studies.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):373-380
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INTERNATIONAL SPORTS EVENTS AS A POLITICAL NEWSBREAK
Borkhsenius A.V.
Abstract

The article examines the on-growing role of international sports events as some newsbreaks which are actively used within the current political agenda. Several examples reveal the use of biased and fake information to form a negative image of Russia in front of the world community. The author indicates several trends of the coverage of international sports events as well as opportunities to improve the country's image through their implementation and the effective delivery of content.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(2):381-388
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