Vol 21, No 1 (2019)

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF EURASIAN INTEGRATION
THE EAEU IN A CHANGING GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT: PRIORITIES FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
Meshkova T.A., Izotov V.S., Demidkina O.V., Kofner J.C.
Abstract

The article focuses on the international activity of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) as an actor in the global economy with a full-fledged legal standing. It analyzes the current state of Eurasian integration within international cooperation and spotlights its correlations with intergovernmental organizations and integration associations. By means of examining the Eurasian Economic Commission’s (EEC’s) regulatory documents, the Main Directions of the EAEU International Activities for 2019 and the agenda of the Russian EAEU presidency in 2018, the author determines key conceptual approaches to evaluation and prognosis of the EAEU integration strategy. By applying comparative analysis, the author studies the experience of other integration associations relevant to the EAEU. The article determines the highestpotential models of EAEU international cooperation with due regard to the unstable global economic and geopolitical context. The author points out priority directions of the EAEU cooperation with an eye on strategic interests of the Russian Federation, differentiating them according to geographic areas of focus and taking into account the current state, risks and opportunities. The author concludes the article by giving recommendations on the implementation of the international agenda of the EAEU on a long-, midand short-term horizon. The author offers her ideas on further development of the EAEU international cooperation with a view to maximizing economic benefits for both Russia and the Union with future partnership in mind.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):7-33
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THE KURDISH QUESTION IN WORLD POLITICS
TERRITORIAL AUTONOMY AND NATIONAL MINORITIES’ RIGHTS: THE KURDISH QUESTION
Mescheryakova O.M.
Abstract

In the article, the author analyzes the Kurdish question and national minorities’ rights. The aim of the article “Territorial Autonomy and National Minorities’ Rights: the Kurdish Question” is to analyze national minorities’ legal problems and the effect of religion on their solution. Territorial autonomy as an element of the territorial structure of a state is traditionally regarded as part of the state’s jurisdiction regulated by the national constitution. The research is based on a set of scientific methods, historical and comparative-legal approaches being the key ones. The historical method, used in the study, allows us to trace the evolution of approaches to territorial autonomy standards. The comparative-legal method, in its turn, permits us to compare different law enforcement norms. The article looks at the current problems related to the Kurdish question and its resolution.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):34-42
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DIPLOMACY OF THE KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ IN THE AGE OF TERRORISM
Dalsooz J.H.
Abstract
In this paper, we empirically study the effects of terrorism on the para-diplomacy of Kurdistan Region of Iraq during the last two decades. The research paper analyses the form of diplomacy, in the current age, has covered new style, in particular, when the new actors (non-state actors) are playing significant roles. In this regard, the Kurdistan region government as non-state actor has successfully used terrorism as a great instrument to attract the attention of the world community and created broad its paradiplomatic relations with actors around the world. In turn, we find suggestive evidence that the Kurdistan Region Government should further enhance the ability of its foundations to sustain its relations with world community. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the threat of terrorism is never going to be end, thereby it is not easy for the state-actors to keep their eyes away from the role of any world actors (including non-state actors).
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):43-55
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POLITICAL PROCESSES IN CONTEMPORARY WORLD
CHINA’S INVOLVEMENT IN THE SYRIAN CRISIS AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF ITS NEUTRAL STANCE IN THE WAR
Zreik M.
Abstract
China today is a powerful state and an influential player in the global arena, as was demonstrated during the Syrian crisis, when China took a counterposition to the United States’ stance in Syria and supported the Assad regime. Beijing put a veto on the international resolutions related to the Syrian crisis and abstained from voting, as it did in the past when dealing with the crises in the region. In a move that marked a new page in China’s foreign policy, Beijing backed what was known as the sixpoint plan, calling for a ceasefire and settlement of the crisis through internal dialogue and proclaiming the inviolability of Syrian national sovereignty. In a subsequent move, China sent its envoy Li Huaqing (former Chinese ambassador to Syria) to Damascus to encourage the initiation of a dialogue between government forces and opposition. Following that, China sent Assistant Foreign Minister Zhang Ming (who had previously visited Egypt, Saudi Arabia and France) to the region to discuss ways of approaching the Syrian crisis. For the first time in its modern history, China renounced its policy of non-interference in crises outside its direct interests and immediate geopolitical space. The following paper will focus on China’s stance in the Syrian crisis (supporting its peaceful settlement and keeping equal distance from all the parties in the conflict) and the future of Sino-Syrian relations based on the common history of the two countries.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):56-65
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TRIANGLE “RUSSIA-TURKEY-IRAN” IN THE CONTEXT OF US STRATEGY IN THE MIDDLE EAST
Khanaliyev N.U.
Abstract

The article is an attempt to identify and analyze some key principles of the US foreign policy in the Greater Middle East region, which, concurrently, factor into the rapprochement between Russia, Turkey and Iran in their opposition to the policies of the West as a whole and Washington in particular. The main attention is focused on the complex and controversial nature of the relations in the Russia- Turkey-Iran geopolitical triangle and, at the same time, the relations of each of the countries with the United States. As a result of the analysis, a conclusion was made that the very logic of Washington’s aggressive policy pushes the three countries to coordinate their efforts in ensuring national security and protecting national interests in the region. However, certain doubts were expressed regarding the possibilities of forming any strong long-term alliance between the three of them.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):66-77
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CAMEROON’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE AFRICAN UNION’S SECURITY PLAN (2000-2018)
Kouma J.C.
Abstract
The article addresses the question of how a regional approach to dealing with current safety threats could contribute to the consolidation of security and stability in Cameroon, and Africa as a whole. The problem with states like Cameroon is that they are no longer able to fulfill some of their official functions and are consequently powerless against new security threats. Some of those threats are temporary phenomena, however, other dangers, such as poverty growth or environmental degradation, are more chronic issues. Therefore, in order to cope with the latter, efforts should be made to reinforce regional structures. The author presents a different approach to explaining the relevance of cooperation, particularly in the field of security, and looks at it from the perspective of the institutionalist theory. Relying on the anarchic conception of the world, which is similar to the realistic conception, institutionalists see the role of co-operation in reducing uncertainty and mistrust between states. As confrontation and struggle for power lead only to a situation of constant uncertainty, states have to seek an appropriate way to reduce this insecurity by establishing institutional structures, common rules and standards in order to further regulate their coexistence and interactions. However, the evolution of international relations from unilateralism to a system of stable alliances would only be possible if cooperation is more advantageous than the unilateral approach. In other words, Cameroon's decision to integrate community structures and adhere to a number of principles and rules is, in the first place, in its national interests.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):78-89
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CURRENT PROBLEMS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
RUSSIAN NATIONAL-STATE IDENTITY: FACING CHALLENGES OF THE EARLY 21ST CENTURY
Belokonev S.Y., Titov V.V., Usmanova Z.R.
Abstract

The authors offer their definition of national-state identity: a macro-political construct that projects the image of “us” (an “imaginary community”) to various dimensions (value-based, temporal, spatial, and symbolic). This image is supported by state institutions as well as the political and cultural tradition of national sovereignty. In the article, special attention is paid to the four systemic challenges of the Russian national-state identity. The first challenge - internal political - stems from the costs and contradictions of the institutional organization of state identity policy in modern Russia. The second national identity challenge is due to information globalization and, as a result, a drastic change in the information and political landscape of Russian society. The third challenge is determined by weakness and vagueness of the collective image of the future in the political consciousness of Russian citizens. The fourth Russian identity challenge is geopolitical in nature and is associated with memory wars, which actively unfolded in the post-Soviet space in the 2000s-2010s. The authors conclude that an effective response to the Russian national-state identity challenges could be a complex state identity policy. This policy can be described as a long-term strategy for the formation of a conventional all-Russian identity “matrix” through building and promotion of a balanced, internally consistent image of “us” and a set of social and political views, attitudes and values associated with it.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):90-98
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THE GREATER MEDITERRANEAN IN THE DISCOURSE OF RESEARCH AND EXPERT ANALYTICS CENTERS
Chikharev I.A., Yarmak O.V.
Abstract

The article presents the analysis of current research trends and analytical developments in studies of the Mediterranean as a multi-component region by research and expert analytics institutions. The macro region of the Greater Mediterranean in contemporary world is a hub of international social, cultural and media communication network. Due to the increasing interest in the region, the demand for analyzing specifics of semantic flows and discourse strategies of key think tanks and research institutions of the macro region increases, which, eventually, allows us to update the model of Russia’s use of “soft power” in the region. The authors of the article emphasize that modern Russia is an active player in the macroregion of the Greater Mediterranean. In this regard, Russia’s “smart power” is crucial in the process of building the Greater Mediterranean macro region and promotion of Russia’s image as an important and effective stakeholder in the Mediterranean.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):99-109
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REHABILITATION OF THE NAZI REGIME, ITS SUPPORTERS AND ACCOMPLICES IN THE EUROPEAN CINEMATOGRAPHY: CURRENT STATE AND NEW TRENDS IN DEVELOPING MEMORY POLICIES
Belov S.I.
Abstract

The presented study is dedicated to the rehabilitation of the Nazi regime, its supporters and accomplices in modern cinema as part of the memory policy. The relevance of this work is determined by the growing influence of ultra-right politicians in a number of economically developed countries, an increase in the number of memorial wars due to the rehabilitation of Nazism accomplices and the spread of right-wing radicalism in the United States and European Union states. The aim of the study is the evaluation of the rehabilitation practices of Nazism and its supporters in new motion pictures, which have not been previously studied by representatives of the expert community from this perspective. Indirect apologetics of the Nazis and their adherents, including representatives of organizations recognized as criminal in accordance with the decision of the Nürnberg Tribunal, are widespread in modern cinema. The thesis is being promoted that even numerous members of organizations recognized as criminal secretly opposed the Nazi regime. Cooperation is considered as a necessary measure. The audience gets the impression that even highranking representatives of the army leadership were not aware of war crimes. People who for many years supported Hitler’s regime are shown as its victims. There have been attempts to re-evaluate certain aspects of the Nazi regime as a positive experience, in a way of referring to actual matters nowadays.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):110-117
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THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOCRACY IN THAILAND
Sathita D.
Abstract

The article examines the role and peculiarities of the internet in Thailand as well as its influence on the development of democracy in the country. At present, information technology is becoming an essential communication tool and the internet plays an important role in political communication. The author uses comparative political method to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of using the internet as a communication instrument in democratic society. Also, the article focuses on the function of the internet as an information transmission channel. The analysis results show that the main advantage of using the internet as a political communication tool is low cost of information distribution as well as allround access to various information sources. This encourages citizens to participate in political activities of the state. On the other hand, the mass distribution of the internet as the main source of information has its disadvantages: unreliability of data, wide access to false information and discordance of opinions. In Thailand, citizens do not have free access to the Internet, so it is doubtful that it will have a great impact on the development of democracy in the country.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):118-128
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POLITICAL PARTIES OF BANGLADESH AND THE CULTURE OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE
Md Sazedul I.
Abstract

Political parties are crucial for the development of democracy in Bangladesh. They represent interests of different social groups and, by means of participation in elections, affect the development of political and socio-economic power strategies. Thus, political parties provide guarantee of equal rights of all the country’s citizens and contribute to their involvement in the democratic process. The democratic institutions in Bangladesh are represented by 40 officially registered parties, among which the largest and most popular are the Awami League, the Nationalist Party, the Jatiya Party and the Jamaat-i-Islami. The article studies political parties’ participation in the life of the country since the establishment of Bangladesh and compares the four main political parties in terms of their ideology, organizational structure, leadership and popular support during elections. Throughout the country’s political history, the winning party has always enjoyed the monopoly of power, which has contributed to the aggravation of conflict between opposition parties and authorities. This situation significantly hinders the country’s socio-economic development. Strikes, often accompanied by extremist violence, are taking place in different parts of the country. The author uses the historical method to analyze the nature of the opposition of various political forces in Bangladesh.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):129-139
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ON THE LIMITS OF STATE AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TAX POLICY OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT: THEORETICAL VIEWS OF A.I. VASILCHIKOV
Zharov A.S.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of A.I. Vasilchikov's theoretical views on the political traditions of the Zemstvo self-government regarding the definition of the limits of state and local authority in matters of taxation of local self-government, formed on the basis of understanding the experience of the Russian Empire in the post-reform period in the second half of the 19th century and in foreign countries (England, Prussia, France, Switzerland, Belgium and the USA). The urgency of the analysis of the theoretical approach of the researcher is conditioned by the need to improve the local self-government sphere, in order to increase the efficiency of tax provision for municipalities. According to the results of the study, A.I. Vasilchikov formed a system of views on political traditions and the limits of state and local authorities in matters of the tax policy of local self-government. In particular the important conclusion of the researcher is that separation of state and Zemstvo (local management) should be a division not in the subjects of departments, but in the limits of power between the state and Zemstvo. This principle finds its confirmation in distribution of power between the supreme and local authorities. The first establishes the law and the tax, the second, in turn, applies and executes the established law through the functioning of local institutions. It should be noted that A.I. Vasilchikov's theoretical deductions do not lose their significance in the context of their adaptive application to the process of transformation local self-government of contemporary Russia, and could be useful in the process of improving the tax policy of local selfgovernment.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2019;21(1):140-148
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