Vol 20, No 3 (2018)

Regional Politics in Russia
ISLAM IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE REGIONAL POLITICAL DESIGN OF CONTEMPORARY TATARSTAN
Sagitova L.V.
Abstract

For Russia, as a multicultural and multi-confessional state, ethnic and religious factors play an important role in state building and identity formation of its citizens. The post-Soviet history of the Russian Federation has demonstrated their importance in shaping the political identity of Russian regions, especially in the national republics. Thus, for many republics with Muslim population, Islam becomes one of the most important components of everyday life, while for the local elites it is an element of formation of the region's identity policy. The case study of the Republic of Tatarstan is intended to show the factors and incentives for the actualization of the religious factor in the life of the local community and in the political structure of the region. The research, conducted with the help of historical and sociological methods, traces the dynamics of the religious factor: a) at the level of mass consciousness of the Tatar Muslim community; b) at the ideological level. The latter includes the activities of the political and spiritual elites of the region, as well as external influences(Russian domestic and foreign policy, Islamic globalization) on the use and interpretation of the Islamic factor.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):313-322
views
“KRYASHEN QUESTION” IN THE ALL-RUSSIAN CENSUS OF 2002: THE ATTEMPT TO POLITICIZE ETHNICITY
Denisov A.E.
Abstract

The article analyzes the phenomenon of the “Kryashen question” during the 2002 census. The events related to the mentioned phenomenon generated a large-scale national relations crisis in the Republic of Tatarstan. The aim of this study is to answer the question: “Does the Kryashen question really exist or was it artificially constructed?” To answer this question, the author uses the method of event analysis in this research, obtaining information from the media (both from informational sources and socio-political publications). Another method used in this survey is the retrospective situational analysis of the data: the reconstruction of events post factum relying only on factual presentations and actions of the parties. This method is used to establish interrelations between the interest groups and possible development of the situation. In the research, the author identifies key actors in the campaign for developing the Kryashens’ aspirations to register themselves as a separate ethnic group (separate census category). The research also presents the pattern of their interaction and clarifies the positions of different parties engaged in the Kryashen occurrence. The author also highlights the intervening factors reinforcing the development of the crisis in interethnic relations. In conclusion, the author points out the delusiveness of “Kryashen problem” and the pointless nature of dispute between the conflicting parties (by using different explanatory models of ethnicity and the actual recognition of Kryashens as a special subconfessional group by all parties).

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):323-333
views
CONCEPTUAL BASIS OF THE REPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF POWER AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL
Rozanova N.N.
Abstract

One of the priorities of the current reform of Russian public administration, including the regional authorities, is the creation of an optimal system for assessing its effectiveness. The author suggests a reputational approach to assessing the efficiency of regional administration. In this approach, reputation is seen as a kind of “resulting criterion” for social effectiveness of government agencies. The author presents basic provisions of new and novel balanced system of methods for assessing executive authorities’ efficiency in federal subjects of Russia. This system makes it possible to identify both successes and failures in implementing state regional policy, taking into account the so-called “coefficient of public opinion”. The key idea of the reputational approach to assessing the efficiency of regional power consists in identifying both objective and subjective factors, which directly correlate with each other. Public opinion, influencing the objective factors, plays a crucial role in the assessment. The socially oriented assessment system has top priority in the efficiency evaluation, which consists in adjustment of objective factors in accordance with public opinion. The author presents an algorithm for the development of evaluation methods, which includes five basic steps and key principles for building a system of indicators to assess the effectiveness of regional authorities based on the reputational approach.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):334-350
views
Political processes in the modern world
CHALLENGES TO RUSSIA’S NATIONAL SECURITY IN THE CONTEX OF RUSSIAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS UNDER THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION
Blokhin K.V.
Abstract

The article deals with the issues of Russia's national security, conditioned by the trends of the development of Russian-American relations during the administration of D. Trump. The author analyzes the factors that influence the US foreign policy toward Russia in 2017-18. The article proves that the tendency to deterioration of relations has a long-term character, which is caused by fundamental processes in the American elite. The main trend in its development is the strengthening of neoconservative forces and the growing influence of the so-called deep state. The influence of the neocons was manifested in the staffing of the American foreign policy course. Leading positions in the US government were taken by persons associated with neoconservative think tanks - the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), the Brookings Institution, the Atlantic Council, and others. The author determines the nature of American foreign policy as a combination of foreign policy idealism and elements of realism. The process of developing a new American strategy in a changing world, a realistic realization of the US limits of its power predetermines turbulence and instability in US-Russian relations, the alternation of elements of containment and dialogue in mutual relations. The basis of the US national strategy remains the neoconservative principle of “peace through strength”, which is currently manifested in the modification of the US nuclear component and the destruction of the existing structure of strategic stability.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):351-364
views
SEPARATISM IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY
Basmanova A.A., Mussaui-Ulianishcheva E.V.
Abstract

The article analyzes the problem of separatism in the Basque Country of Spain, which has a several hundred years’ history. Basques are one of the largest divided peoples of modern Western Europe, which live in two EU states: Spain and France. The authors critically interpret the historical evolution of the struggle for self-determination of the region, emphasizing the ideological and political components of this process. The problem is considered in the context of the separatist sentiment that has permeated Europe in the recent decades. The authors note that at the present moment the struggle of Basque nationalist organizations has lost the extremist component (the terrorist organization ETA has self-dissolved) and acquired a political character. This change can be related to the democratization of the Spanish state in relation to the problems of the Basques, which manifested itself in granting autonomy to the region after the collapse of the fascist dictatorship of F. Franco. At the same time, the change occurred after the tightening of the policy of the United States towards regional nationalists in European countries-satellites of the US, which was expressed in the targeted persecution of the leaders of nationalist movements. The global economic crisis, which hit Spain especially hard, also contributed to the downfall of radical nationalists in the region and their terroristic methods of fighting for self-determination. The article draws parallels between the problem of separatism in the Basque Country and Catalonia, points out the differences and similarities between the two regions, comparatively analyzes the approaches of the leaders of the two provinces to the problems of national autonomy and sovereignty. It examines the future prospects for the Basques’ independence and identifies the potential bifurcation points of this process in regards to the efforts of the Catalan and Basque peoples, respectively. Also, the effect of the referendum in Catalonia and the resultant aggravation of the political situation will be examined in regards to the prospects of Basque independence. The situation is looked at in the general context of European trends and the geopolitical situation in the world, characterized by the rapid slide of nominally pro-American and pro-Russian global blocs into a new Cold War.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):365-375
views
BRIEF REMARKS ON PRESIDENT R.T. ERDOGAN AND HIS ALLIES’ METHODICAL USE OF LOGICAL FALLACIES
Melakopides C.
Abstract
This article has several aims. First, it is focused on revealing the disconcerting recent policies of President of Turkey R.T. Erdogan and his associates towards Greece and the Republic of Cyprus. These policies are characterized by aggressiveness and bellicosity, constituting a paradigm case of Turkey’s broader geopolitical ambitions. Second, an attempt is made to account for R.T. Erdogan’s probable political intentions and geopolitical ambitions via a number of explanatory hypotheses rationalizing their “incomprehensible” nature. And third, the article will determine the principal methods and means used in the foreign policy decision-making of Erdogan’s regime, and will expand on his skillful employment of logical fallacies that have remained undetected in Erdogan-related bibliography.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):376-385
views
A GLANCE AT IRANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM FROM BEGINNING TO NUCLEAR DEAL 2015 AND THE ROLE OF RUSSIA
Naveed U.S., Rabnawaz -.
Abstract
Iran’s nuclear program was launched in the 1950s with the help of US president Dwight D. Eisenhower as part of the UN “Atoms for Peace” project. During Raza Shah’s Era, many developments occurred in the Iranian nuclear program. After the Islamic revolution, the nuclear program experienced a halt but was shortly resumed again, this time with a wide range of sanctions imposed. The development of the Iranian nuclear deal is beneficial for the world in general, as well as the Middle East’s security and stability. It is a diplomatic victory, demonstrating how issues can be resolved in a peaceful way. The negotiation process started in 2003, with the EU3 and Iran early in the game, and China, Russia and the US subsequently joining in. After a brief discussion, an agreement was reached. Russia described the consensus as a “huge sigh of relief” for the world. The neighboring countries, however, have a different take on the things. Saudi Arabia and Israel, for instance, feel threatened by the nuclear program and call the deal a “historic mistake”.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):386-396
views
THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY’S METHODS OF SUPPORTING STATES TO SOLVE REFUGEE PROBLEMS
Al-Zubaidi A.N.
Abstract
This article looks into solutions offered by the international community to the countries suffering from a constant influx of refugees and which require international assistance. Refugee migration is a type of forced migration. Since the introduction of international refugee law, the international community has been using one of the three solutions to the refugee problem: voluntary repatriation, local integration and resettlement in a third country. The article regards resettlement in a third country as the main solution to the global refugee problem, which should be used on a large scale. The article also reviews the cases of interference in the developing countries’ internal affairs and the role of such interference in aggravating the refugee problem. Despite the benevolence of the intentions, such as the protection of the refugees’ human rights, this intervention demonstrated the opposite effect in certain cases in Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya. Consequently, the author touches upon the importance of the peaceful ways in solving and preventing the problem of refugees. Finally, the article points out the international community’s new approach to the problem: integration of development projects and refugee support programs in countries needing this type of assistance.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):397-407
views
Some actual problems of political science
CULTIVATING IMAGES OF POLITICAL FIGURES OF THE PAST IN THE MINDS OF THE BROADER POPULATION
Belov S.I.
Abstract

The article analyzes the process of cultivating images of politicians of the past and determines its specifics as well as factors influencing the formation of the images. It concludes that the image of a politician of the past is formed mainly within the general framework of political image making. In this process, mechanisms of stereotyping, categorization and casual attribution are used. The image is created by means of visualization and verbal practices. It is formed on conscious and subconscious levels, due to which its nature is ambivalent. The image exists in the form of verbal codes and symbols and contains both rational and emotional components. Image characteristics of political figures of the past are manifested greatly through visualization. In most cases, the lack of authentic visualization of a person’s appearance causes the audience to refer to stereotypes in order to complete the image. Moreover, building the image of a historical figure is significantly less often based on the personal experience of the target audience. Finally, the image creator has access to a wider set of nominations, within which the character is positioned. This becomes possible due to the elements of national mythology, based on the archetypes of mass consciousness, and the sacred nature of the historical epic stories centered around the political figure in question.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):408-416
views
THE USE OF “SOFT POWER” TOOLS IN FOREIGN POLICY
Efanova E.V.
Abstract

Process of globalization has led to change of models of the global competition. During a new era a key way of impact on other state, than possession of nuclear weapon and military power, are tools of ”soft power”, namely economic success, cultural appeal of the country, ideological persuasiveness. The analysis of a number of national models of “soft power” (the USA, South Korea, China, Japan, the EU, Russia) shows that various states to seek to find unique instruments of influence on world system for the purpose of realization of national interests. As a result, on the basis of assessment internal (quality of life, safety) and external (investment attractiveness, a position on the international scene) resource potential in realization of tools of “soft power”, the available universal ratings of the states are designated.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):417-426
views
THE PRESIDENCY INSTITUTION IN THE POST-SOVIET STATES: PECULIARITIES OF FUNCTION AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS
Gadzhiev K.A.
Abstract

The presidency institution is of special importance to the majority of Post-Soviet States and plays a key role in their respective political arenas. At the same time, the existing institutional mechanisms of presidential power significantly differ from the "classic" world models which they were initially based on. This is true for the nature of the presidency institution and, to a greater degree, to the peculiarities of its function. Even though the institutional design of their political systems differs significantly, the presidential power in Post-Soviet countries functions in fairly similar ways. With that said, it appears necessary to identify patterns of development of the presidency institution in the Post-Soviet countries that developed over almost three decades. Pursuant thereto, this article attempts to analyze the dynamics of development of the presidency institution in these states, their respective peculiarities of function, the existing institutional mechanisms of interaction between the head of state and other public authorities, as well as its influence on the political system as a whole. The author looks at the presidential power not only from the formal-institutional perspective but also takes into account the most frequent informal practices.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):427-435
views
FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF LOCAL TAX POLICY: PROSPECTS OF APPLICATION IN RUSSIA
Zharov A.S.
Abstract

The article examines the main trends of local tax policy in foreign countries (United States, Canada, Germany, Britain and France) and the prospects of applying foreign experience to Russian policy. The analysis is necessary due to the need to improve the effectiveness of the current local tax policy in Russia and the fact that in modern domestic political thought not nearly enough attention is paid to this question. The assessment of foreign tax policy was based on the following main characteristics of the tax system: levels of the tax system, nature and method of taxation, local tax structure, the degree of independence of local governments in imposing local taxes. The analysis of foreign tax policy illustrates the benefit of observing the following main trends in the development of local tax policy in Russia: the development of independent tax policy at the local level that contributes to the financial and economic independence of local governments, as well as the implementation of the principle of budget federalism.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):436-446
views
NEW PROBLEMS, OLD SOLUTIONS? A CRITICAL LOOK ON THE REPORT OF THE HIGH LEVEL EXPERT GROUP ON FAKE NEWS AND ON-LINE DISINFORMATION
Bebić D., Volarević M., Ivanov V.G.
Abstract
This article discusses the actual contemporary problems of the spread of fake news, information wars and disinformation campaigns. The authors analyze recent European initiatives in the field of opposing disinformation on the Internet, among which are the report of the High level expert group of the European Commission on fake news and online disinformation (HLEG) and the “Act to improve law enforcement in social networks” (NetzDG). Based on a wide range of political theories and approaches to the problem of fake news, the authors propose to enhance and amend the key principles of HLEG 5.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(3):447-460
views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies