Vol 20, No 1 (2018)

Political processes in the modern world
Global Political Aspects of Putin’s Speech at the 43-th Munich Security Conference. One Decade Past
Parkhitko N.P., Martynenko E.V.
Abstract

In February 10th 2007 President of Russia V. Putin held a speech at the 43th Munich Security Conference. The speech included both the matters of security and global policy. Researchers in Russia together as well as their western colleagues (political scientists, journalists, historians and other analysts) obviously came to the same opinion - that was the speech of the Russian president that attracted all the attention to this annual conference not being so traditionally popular as, for example, the “G-8” or the APEC summits. And though the estimations of the ideas advocated by Putin in his speech predictably differ depending on political creed and engagement of the analysts (sometimes that was also the matter of their erudition), the importance of the event was undisputable. Today one decade past the event we have the opportunity not just to analyze the crucial principles which Putin tried to clarify to his foreign partners, but also to verify them through the prism of approbation, as the scientists say. But before we start to study the speech itself, we should reveal the global political circumstances, in which the Conference took place. What was Russia as a global power in the beginning of the XXI century and was it a true global power in 2007? Was the political weight of the Russian president enough for bringing the influence into the world? Finally, what was the perceptions of Russia in the western community 15 years after the greatest transformation of the global political role of the country in Europe and in the world? After finding the answers on these questions we will reveal the main theses of the Russian presidents’ speech and will try to give them possibly candid estimation. In the work the authors used a wide methodological list. The historical-analytical method made it possible to reveal the evolution of the problems outlined in the speech of V.V. Putin for the specified time period (10 years). The comparative method allowed us to compare the basic conditions in which Russia was at the time of the president’s speech in Munich in 2007 and the conditions in which our country is today. The method of political forecasting underlies the construction of the main conclusions and forecasts, which determine the scientific and theoretical novelty of the study.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):7-20
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Geopolitical Significance of the Crimea
Petrov V.P.
Abstract

The article examines the main geopolitical aspects of the reunification of the Crimea with Russia from the point of view of the policies of the Russian Federation and Western countries in the Black Sea region and specifically in the field of energy security and cooperation. Russia’s desire to consolidate its positions as an influential center of the emerging polycentric world requires it to build constructive and meaningful relations primarily with partner countries in the region of the Middle East, the Caspian-Black Sea region, and also in Asia within the BRICS taking into account the “Chinese factor” in the 21st century. The establishment of cooperation in the bipolar world is a prerequisite for preserving peace and prospects for the socioeconomic development of all countries of the regions mentioned and one of the main strategic priorities of Russia’s foreign policy. An important place in this regard is occupied by the problems of ensuring energy security and cooperation in the Black Sea region.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):21-30
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The Challenges of Implementing Russia’s Security Strategy in the Arab Gulf Countries after the Arab Spring
Almaqbali M.S.
Abstract
The paper deals with the Russia’s policy in the Middle East. Considered Russia’s security strategy and interests in the Arab Gulf. Illuminated the influence of the Arab Spring events on the relationship of Russia and Gulf states.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):31-35
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Russia’s Policy in the Middle East in the Context of the Crisis in Syria: Challenges and Opportunities
Vakhshiteh A.N.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation in the Middle East’s region. The author examines the evolution and transformation of this policy in the context of the Syrian crisis. The theoretical basis of the study was the theory of realistic school, the theory of “balance of power”, the concept of “balance of threats” by Stephen Walt and “securitization” of the Copenhagen school. The author comes to the following conclusions: Russian foreign policy in the Middle East after the collapse of the Soviet Union has gone through several stages of development from almost complete suspension in solving regional problems to an active role not only as a player, but also as a mediator of many regional processes, and above all the Syrian crisis. The article also attempts to forecast the situation in the Middle East from the point of view of opportunities and challenges for Russia.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):36-42
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Separatism in Casamance: How to End the War? Constitutional Federalism or Autonomy?
Diallo S.
Abstract

The article is devoted to analysis of the military conflict in the southern region of Senegal, Casamance. The conflict for autonomy in the region continues for more than thirty years between MFDС separatist group (Movement of democratic forces of Casamance) and the government of Senegal. The emergence of this crisis is due to historical, cultural and social specificities of the region. The author shows that the conflict is also largely affected by political instability in neighboring countries: Guinea Bissau and Gambia.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):43-50
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GEOPOLITICS OF THE NEW SILK ROAD
Interaction of Russia and China in the Framework of the “Silk Road”
Lysenko A.A.
Abstract

The article considers the issues of strengthening the integration of the Russian Federation in the Eurasian transport system on the basis of the project of the New Silk Road in the context of broadening cooperation with China. The author identified and summarized the motives of cooperation between the countries, the current status of the project implementation, the problems of its further development. Author's position is justified by the ratio of the interest of Russian and Chinese sides to accelerate the practical implementation of the project.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):51-59
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Africa’s Role in Chinese People's Republic Initiative “One Belt and One Road”
Mikhaylichenko C.M.
Abstract

The article analyses the role, place and forms of African countries’ participation in the new China’s strategy “One Belt and One Road”. The author describes the existing partnership between China and African countries and their future interaction within the New Silk Road. China’s initiative pays special attention to identification of positive and negative sides of China-Africa cooperation.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):60-68
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CONTEMPORARY MIGRATION PROCESSES: POLITICAL DIMENSION
Activity of Non-Governmental Organizations in the Integration Policy of France by the Example of the Occitanie Region
Viktorova E.V., Petrenko D.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the problem of the integration of migrants in the region Occitanie in France and to the activities of regional non-governmental organizations dealing with this problem. The special focus is on the role of public and charitable organizations in the French integration policy because they directly contact immigrants, including illegal ones, actively participate in the implementation of many state programs, as well as conduct their own activities. The migration situation in France and in Occitanie is examined and measures. The programs for the integration and adaptation of immigrants, undertaken by non-state organizations of the Occitania region, are analyzed in the article.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):69-75
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Testing with Values: the Refugee Problem and Political Prospects of the “Alternative for Germany”
Fedina A.V.
Abstract

The article analyses the reasons for the electoral success of the “Alternative for Germany” party at the federal and state levels in 2016-2017. Looking at the ideological spectrum of German political parties through the research lens of a two-dimensional coordinate system that, alongside the traditional ideological dimension includes the value axis, the author points out the fact that the problem of the refugees, which appeals to the values of the nation, perplexed German parties, as the choice of a particular strategy in regard to the refugees involved high risks of losing a significant number of votes. As a result, those parties, which managed to clearly articulate their system of values, above all the “Alternative”, benefited from this situation. The author states that the rise of the “Alternative” was caused by the “value vacuum” in the party life in Germany stemming from the progressive “open-door” refugee policy introduced by Chancellor Merkel in order to resolve the European refugee crisis. Much consideration is given to the reasons that led the CDU to adopt such an unusual strategy for a predominantly centrist party. In conclusion the author suggests that, in spite of its electoral success, political influence of the “Alternative” will be seriously limited by the unwillingness on the part of other parties to establish contacts and build inter-party ties with an inexperienced political player, which is prone to neglect the achievements of German democracy and does not fit into the framework of modern political mainstream. From the other hand, the tightening of the immigration policy weakens the protest potential of German voters.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):76-88
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Some actual problems of political science
The Formation of The Subculture of Poverty in Russia: Myth or Reality
Karadje T.V.
Abstract

In the article the psychological and valued grounds of the subculture of the poor are examined. The author analyzes the experience of West-European and Russian researches in this area, and also pays special attention to pre-conditions of forming of subculture of poverty in Russian society. The author assesses the political implications of these processes.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):89-95
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Computer Games as a Tool for Implementation of Memory Policy (on the Example of Displaying Events of The Great Patriotic War in Video Games)
Belov S.I.
Abstract

The presented work is devoted to the study of the practice of using computer games as a tool of the memory policy. The relevance of this study determines both the growth of the importance of video games as a means of forming ideas about the events of the past, and a low degree of study of this topic. As the goal of the author's research, the research is to identify the prospects for using computer games as an instrument for implementing the memory policy within the framework of the case of the events of the Great Patriotic War. The empirical base of the work was formed due to the generalization of the content of such video games as “Call of Duty 1”, “Call of Duty 14: WWII”, “Company of Heroes 2” and “Commandos 3: Destination Berlin”. The methodological base of the research is formed due to the involvement of elements of descriptive political analysis, the theory of operant conditioning B.F. Skinner and the concept of social identity H. Tajfel and J. Turner. The author comes to the conclusion that familiarization of users with the designated games contributes to the consolidation in the minds of users of negative stereotypes regarding the participation of the Red Army in the Great Patriotic War. The process of integration of negative images is carried out using the methods of operant conditioning. The integration of the system of negative images into the mass consciousness of the inhabitants of the post-Soviet space makes it difficult to preserve the remnants of Soviet political symbols and elements constructed on their basis identity. The author puts forward the hypothesis that in the case of complete desovietization of the public policy space in the states that emerged as a result of the collapse of the USSR, the task of revising the history of the Great Patriotic War will be greatly facilitated, and with the subsequent departure from the life of the last eyewitnesses of the relevant events, achieving this goal will be only a matter of time. Presumably, these risks can be eliminated by harmonious integration of the legacy of the Soviet political and historical myth into the model of the memory policy developed in Russia and other post-Soviet states.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):96-104
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Influence of Religion in Internal Politics of Bangladesh
Islam M.S.
Abstract

The study of the relationship between politics and religion is important to understand the current society of Bangladesh. It is believed that the reason for the separation of the Indian subcontinent into two parts: India and Pakistan was a religious factor. East Bengal became part of Pakistan, called East Pakistan. In Pakistan Islam was the state religion, which was reflected in the entire social life of Bengalis. In East Pakistan, most of the people are Bengalis and speak in Bangla, culture, traditions and way of life were historically connected with the peoples of India. In Pakistan, the state language was Urdu. The authorities of west Pakistan pressed the people of East Pakistan to study Urdu in educational institutions, tried to ignore the Bangla language, limiting the activities of newspapers and radio, which caused discontent among the population. A considerable time in educational institutions was devoted to the study of religion. Many decisions of local authorities were adopted and executed on the behalf of Islam. The authorities of Pakistan suppressed the people with this policy by mass repressions. Particularly bloody repressions against the Bengali people were held in 1971. As a result of a popular uprising, armed struggle and the expulsion of troops, this part of Pakistan has become an independent country. In 1972, after the establishment of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, secularism became one of the fundamental principles of the Constitution of Bangladesh. The article analyzes the political process through which religion becomes part of politics, using the historical method of research. Although the Constitution says that religion is separated from the state, but until now religion is considered a very important factor in the politics of Bangladesh.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):105-113
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Тhe National Idea in the Japanese Political System Formation
Melkonyan L.A.
Abstract

The article reveals the meaning and components of the concept of «national idea» in the Japanese understanding, the relationship between the national idea and the state’s foreign policy iplementation process, as well as the peculiarities of the Japanese political system. Domestic and external factors that had a significant impact on the process of forming the political culture of Japan, which at first glance has certain contradictions but which through the synthesis of social and political elements of the external world and its traditions made it possible to become a modern industrialized democratic state, are also researched.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):114-121
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Practice of Participatory Governance in Public Policy
Perezolova A.S.
Abstract
This article examines the idea of participatory democracy. The article provides case study of pilot projects aimed to engage citizens for public participation in different forms, such as: participatory budgeting, participatory modeling, public consultations and other participatory practices. The concept of public participation implied in most common methods of consultation as local meetings, public hearings, creation of working groups, public dialogue commissions, workshops, discussion forums on Web sites, contests of ideas and projects, crowdfunding projects, cooperation citizens initiatives and more consumerist type as polls and focus groups. The ability to work together becomes a resource for growth of civic consciousness, where citizens become active actors, who able to participate in public policy, resource mobilization, independent projects for realization and formation of social capital. The challenge for participatory democracy is maturity degree of civil society and examined examples of participatory practices are pilot projects that aimed formation of civic consciousness.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(1):122-130
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