NEW PROBLEMS, OLD SOLUTIONS? A CRITICAL LOOK ON THE REPORT OF THE HIGH LEVEL EXPERT GROUP ON FAKE NEWS AND ON-LINE DISINFORMATION

Cover Page

Abstract


This article discusses the actual contemporary problems of the spread of fake news, information wars and disinformation campaigns. The authors analyze recent European initiatives in the field of opposing disinformation on the Internet, among which are the report of the High level expert group of the European Commission on fake news and online disinformation (HLEG) and the “Act to improve law enforcement in social networks” (NetzDG). Based on a wide range of political theories and approaches to the problem of fake news, the authors propose to enhance and amend the key principles of HLEG 5.

About the authors

Domagoj Bebić

University of Zagreb

Email: domagoj.bebic@fpzg.hr
Lepušićeva 6, Zagreb, Croatia, 10000
PhD, Assistant Professor of the Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia)

Marija Volarević

University of Ljubljana

Email: marija@edemokracija.hr
Kardeljeva ploščad 5, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 1000
PhD Student of Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

Vladimir Gennadievich Ivanov

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Email: ivanov_vg@pfur.ru

PhD, Associate Professor of the Department of Comparative Politics, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

References

  1. Alhabash S., McAlister A.R. Redefining Virality in Less Broad Strokes: Predicting Viral Behavioural Intentions from Motivations and Uses of Facebook and Twitter. New Media & Society. 2014; 17 (8): 1317-1339. doi: 10.1177/1461444814523726.
  2. Asur S., Huberman B.A. Predicting the Future with Social Media. Proceedings - 2010 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence. doi: 10.1109/wiiat.2010.63.
  3. Bebić D., Volarević M. Viral Journalism: The Rise of the New Form. Medijska istraživanja. 2016; 22 (2): 107-126. doi: 10.22572/mi.22.2.6.
  4. Bennett W.L. Changing Societies, Changing Media Systems: Challenges for Communication Theory, Research and Education. Coleman S., Moss G., Parry K., Halperin J., Ryan M. (eds.) Can the Media Serve Democracy? London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2015: 151-163. doi: 10.1057/9781137467928_14.
  5. Berthon P.R., Pitt L.F. Brands, Truthiness and Post-Fact Managing Brands in a Post-Rational World. Journal of Macromarketing. 2018: 1-10. doi: 10.1177/0276146718755869.
  6. Bhaskaran H., Mishra H., Nair P. Contextualizing Fake News in Post-truth Era: Journalism Education in India. Asia Pacific Media Educator. 2017; 27 (1): 41-50. doi: 10.1177/1326365x17702277.
  7. Boczkowski P.J., Siles I. Steps Toward Cosmopolitanism in the Study of Media Technologies. Information, Communication & Society. 2014; 17 (5): 560-571. DOI: 10.1080/ 1369118x.2013.808358.
  8. Borden S.L., Tew Ch. The Role of Journalist and the Performance of Journalism: Ethical Lessons From “Fake” News (Seriously). Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2007; 22 (4): 300-314. doi: 10.1080/08900520701583586.
  9. Bruns A. Towards Produsage: Futures for User-Led Content Production. Sudweeks F., Hrachovec H., Ess Ch. (eds.) Proceedings Cultural Attitudes towards Communication and Technology. Tartu, Estonia; 2006: 275-284.
  10. Day A., Thompson E. Live from New York, It’s the Fake News! Saturday Night Live and the (Non)Politics of Parody. Popular Communication. 2012; 10 (1-2): 170-182. doi: 10.1080/15405702.2012.638582.
  11. Deuze M. What is Multimedia Journalism. Journalism Studies. 2004; 5 (2): 139-152. doi: 10.1080/1461670042000211131.
  12. Deuze M. Journalism and the Web: An Analysis of Skills and Standards in an Online Environment. International Communication Gazette. 1999; 61 (5): 373-390. DOI: 10.1177/ 0016549299061005002.
  13. Dewdney A., Ride P. The New Media Handbook. New York: Routledge; 2006.
  14. Dice M. The True Story of Fake News: How Mainstream Media Manipulates Millions. San Diego: Barnes & Noble; 2017.
  15. Domingo D., Masip P., Costera Meijer I. Tracing Digital News Networks: Towards an Integrated Framework of the Dynamics of News Production, Circulation and Use. Digital Journalism. 2014; 3 (1): 53-67. doi: 10.1080/21670811.2014.927996.
  16. EBU Media Intelligence Service. Marketing Insights Trust in Media. Available from: https://www.ebu.ch/fies/live/sites/ebu/fies/Publications/MIS/login_only/market_insights/EBUMIS%20-Trust%20in%20Media%202018.pdf. Accessed: 10.07.2018.
  17. Edelman Trust Barometer Global Report 2018. Available from: https://cms.edelman.com/ sites/default/fies/2018-01/2018%20Edelman%20Trust%20Barometer%20Global%20Report.pdf. Accessed: 10.07.2018.
  18. Erdal I.J. Coming to Terms with Convergence Journalism: Cross-Media as a Theoretical and Analytical Concept. Convergence. 2011; 17 (2): 213-223. doi: 10.1177/1354856510397109.
  19. Ethical Journalism Network. Available from: http://ethicaljournalismnetwork.org/tag/fake-news. Accessed: 25.04.2018.
  20. European Commission. A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Disinformation. Report of the Independent High Level Group on Fake News and Online Disinformation. 2018. Available from: https://blog.wanifra.org/sites/default/files/field_blog_entry_file/HLEGReportonFake NewsandOnlineDisinformation.pdf. Accessed: 20.03.2018.
  21. Everett A., Caldwell J.T. New Media: Theories and Practices of Digitextuality. New York: Routledge; 2003.
  22. Fidler R. Mediamorphosis: Understanding New Media. London: Sage Publications; 1997. doi: 10.4135/9781452233413.
  23. Gil de Zúñiga H., Diehl T. Citizenship, Social Media, and Big Data: Current and Future Research in Social Sciences. Social Science Computer Review. 2017; 35 (1): 3-9. doi: 10.1177/0894439315619589.
  24. Goldhaber M.H. The Attention Economy and the Net. First Monday. 1997; 2 (4). doi: 10.5210/fm.v2i4.519.
  25. Google Trends. 2017. Available from: https://www.google.com/trends/explore?q=fake%20news. Accessed: 25.04.2018.
  26. Harper Ch. Journalism in a Digital Age. Health. 2005; 34 (27): 29-38.
  27. Hermida Al. Twittering the News: the Emergence of Ambient Journalism. Journalism practice. 2010; 4 (3): 297-308. doi: 10.1080/17512781003640703.
  28. Huang T. Storytelling in the Digital Age. McBride K., Rosenstiel Th. (eds.) The New Ethics of Journalism: Principles for 21st Century. Los Angeles: Sage Publications; 2014: 39-60.
  29. Jacobson S. Transcoding the News: An Investigation into Multimedia Journalism Published on Nytimes.com 2000-2008. New Media & Society. 2012; 14 (5): 867-885. DOI: 10.1177/ 1461444811431864.
  30. Jenkins H. Convergence Culture. New York: New York University Press; 2006.
  31. Jenkins H., Ford S., Green J. Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. New York: New York University Press; 2013.
  32. Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and “Fake News”, Disinformation and Propaganda. OSCE. 2017. Available from: https://www.osce.org/fom/302796?download=true. Accessed: 20.03.2018.
  33. Kaye J., Quinn S. Funding Journalism in Digital Age. New York: Peter Lang Publishing; 2010. doi: 10.3726/978-1-4539-0101-4.
  34. Kümpel A.S., Karnowski V., Keyling T. News Sharing in Social Media: A Review of Current Research on News Sharing Users, Content, and Networks. Social Media + Society. 2015; 1 (2): 1-14. doi: 10.1177/2056305115610141.
  35. Lapham Ch. The Evolution of the Newspaper of the Future. Wickham K. Perspectives: Online Journalism. Boulder: CourseWise Publishing Inc.; 2001: 30-34.
  36. Lievrouw L.A., Livingstone S. The Handbook of New Media. London: Sage Publications; 2006.
  37. Marda V., Milan S. Wisdom of the Crowd: Multistakeholder Perspective on the Fake News Debate. A Report by the Internet Policy Observatory at the Annenberg School, University of Pennsylvania. 2018. Available from: http://globalnetpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/ Fake-NewsReport_Final.pdf. Accessed: 15.06.2018.
  38. McGonagle T. “Fake News": False Fears or Real Concerns. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights. 2017; 35 (4): 203-209. doi: 10.1177/0924051917738685.
  39. Micó L.J., Masip P., Domingo D. To Wish Impossible Things: Convergence as a Process of Diffusion of Innovations in an Actor-Network. The International Communication Gazette. 2013; 75 (1): 118-137. doi: 10.1177/1748048512461765.
  40. Nelson J.L, Taneja H. The Small, Disloyal Fake News Audience: The Role of Audience Availability in Fake News Consumption. New Media & Society. 2018; 1-18. DOI: 10.1177/ 1461444818758715.
  41. Network Enforcement Act 2018. Act to Improve Enforcement of the Law in Social Networks. Available from: https://www.bmjv.de/SharedDocs/Gesetzgebungsverfahren/Dokumente/ NetzDG_engl.pdf? blob=publicationFile&v=2. Accessed: 17.06.2018.
  42. Newman N., Fletcher R., Kalogeropoulos A., Levy D.A.L., Nielsen R.K. Reuters Institute Digital News Report: Tracking the Future of the News. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. 2017.
  43. Newman N., Fletcher R., Kalogeropoulos A., Levy D.A.L., Nielsen R.K. Reuters Institute Digital News Report: Tracking the Future of the News. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. 2018.
  44. Oblak T. The Lack of Interactivity and Hyper-Textuality in Online Media. International Communication Gazette. 2005; 67 (1): 87-106. doi: 10.1177/0016549205049180.
  45. Pariser Eli. The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You. New York: Penguin Press; 2011.
  46. Pauly J.J. The New Journalism and the Struggle for Interpretation. Journalism. 2014; 15 (5): 589-604. doi: 10.1177/1464884914529208.
  47. Pincus H., Wojcieszak M., Boomgarden H. Do Multimedia Matter? Cognitive and Affective Effects of Embedded Multimedia Journalism. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. 2016; 94 (3): 1-25. doi: 10.1177/1077699016654679.
  48. Richardson N. Fake News and Journalism Education. Asia Pacific Media Educator. 2017; 27 (1): 1-9. doi: 10.1177/1326365x17702268.
  49. Spohr D. Fake News and Ideological Polarization: Filter Bubbles and Selective Exposure on Social Media. Business Information Review. 2017; 34 (3): 150-160. DOI: 10.1177/ 0266382117722446.
  50. Steensen S. Online Journalism and the Promises of New Technology: A Critical Review and Look Ahead. Journalism Studies. 2011; 12 (3): 311-327. DOI: 10.1080/ 1461670X.2010.501151.
  51. Steensen S. Cozy Journalism: The Rise of Social Cohesion as an Ideal in Online, Participatory Journalism. Journalism Practice. 2011; 5 (6): 687-703. doi: 10.1080/17512786.2011.604243.
  52. Stepp C.S. The New Journalist. Wickham K. Perspectives: Online Journalism. Boulder: CourseWise Publishing Inc.; 2001; 97-102.
  53. Uberti D. “Fake News” is Dead. 2017. Available from: http://www.cjr.org/criticism/fake_ news_trump_white_house_cnn.php. Accessed: 25.04.2018.
  54. Vargo Ch.J., Guo L., Amazeen M.A. The Agenda Setting Power of Fake News: A Big Data Analysis of the Online Media Landscape from 2014 to 2016. New Media & Society. 2017; 20 (5): 2028-2049. doi: 10.1177/1461444817712086.
  55. Villi M., Matikainen J. Mobile UDC: Online Media Content Distribution Among Finnish Mobile Internet Users. Mobile Media & Communication. 2015; 3 (2): 214-229. doi: 10.1177/2050157914552156.
  56. Vobič I. Online Multimedia News in Print Media: A Lack of Vision in Slovenia. Journalism. 2011; 12 (8): 946-962. doi: 10.1177/1464884911398339.
  57. Zoonen van L. I-Pistemology: Changing Truth Claims in Popular and Political Culture. European Journal of Communication. 2012; 27 (1): 56-67. doi: 10.1177/0267323112438808.

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 730

PDF (Russian) - 630

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2018 Bebić D., Volarević M., Ivanov V.G.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies