No 1 (2015)

Articles
Considerations on University Teacher Autonomy
Grechko P.K.

Abstract

With reference to Kant, autonomy is defined as “the courage to use your mind”. As to teacher autonomy, it is examined in terms of the freedom of research and teaching. The contemporary state of university teacher autonomy in Russia is identified as administrative-academic behaviorism: stimulus - reaction, stimulus - reaction... The teacher in this state is entirely reactive (not active) creature. As independence, teacher autonomy requires freedom from the so-called administrative resource. Teleology of teacher autonomy is connected with self-actualization in the sense of A. Maslow. Being self-governance, teacher autonomy is regulated by its own values, norms and ideals - in short, the academic ethos. Of course, autonomy can be abused. For the formation and development of academic autonomy we need to trust the teacher and his professionalism, as well as experience and common sense.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):5-19
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Metaphysics of Humaneness: From Humanism and Humanitarianism to Design Culture
Reznik J.M.

Abstract

Human in man can be considered from ethical and metaphysical points of view. In metaphysical terms, humaneness stands for the free development of the creative spirit of man manifested in the totality of his being. The author considers man as an opportunity to become a man, to find humaneness. In other words, the man who is the aim and the project for himself, has yet to fulfill his potential in its otherness. This is a project of the self or sketch presence. The possible in man has not yet become the real existence, it is a part of his being which is slipping away from him every time. The man himself sets priorities and ways of achieving his humaneness. He produces a draft of his existence scheduled for construction in the future and corrected in the course of life. Martin Heidegger redefines the meaning of humanism, exposing it to criticism from the perspective of fundamental ontology. The author, having agreed with the principal statements of Heidegger's phenomenology, does not share some of its provisions, namely: the idea of the rule of thought by being, the thesis about man's dependence on the location of being, characterization of existence as human substance. In particular, the article argues that the human in man is determined not by being as such, but free choice of the individual. Man himself accounts for his existence, and it depends only on him how well he follows his essence, recognizing or rejecting the demands of being.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):20-32
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Post-Anthropocentric Antihumanism vs. an Other Humanism as a Humanism of the Other
Tlostanova M.V.

Abstract

The article offers a comparative analysis of largely Western post-anthropocentric antihumanism in its main versions - reactive, technocratically apologetic and critical, and the non-Western humanism as a reiteration of the importance of humanist premises that have never been fulfilled in relation to liminal subjects of modernity deprived of their right to be considered human. The author discusses in detail the intersections and divergences between the Western theories of affect and the decolonial geopolitics and body-politics of knowledge, being, perception, demonstrating that many “discoveries” of the affective turn have been long ago represented in the non-Western theorizing remaining unknown or non-legitimate in the eyes of the mainstream scholarship. This problem has become particularly acute in the context of the discussion of the human, natural and animal, the decentration of the human being as a species and the erasing and destabilizing of the seemingly stable modern boundaries and hierarchies between the human and the natural. The second part of the article focuses on the further problematization of the border between humans and animals in the frame of the so called “autistic regard” which may be expressed both in the form of a scientific experiment and in the form of a performance which is often more efficient.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):33-48
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Subject of the Liberty Philosophy: A Reflection on the Problem
Chernomorskaja D.A.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the problem of conceptualization of the subject in the philosophy of liberation. Enrique Dussel develops a theory that would be a voice of the Other, excluded from the world system. At the same time, Argentinian philosopher broadly interprets the concept of Other . Thus, in order to analyze philosophy of liberation, we need to define this concept and bring up the question of whose position is Enrique Dussel trying to voice.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):49-57
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Latin-American Self-Identification Discourse: An Ontological Stage
Bondar O.Y.

Abstract

The author underlines the specifics of the Latin-American self-identification discourse through the basic notions forming its nomenclature. The author deals with this problem exploring the identification tools determined by historical and cultural context which also modifies the meaning of the key concepts in identification discourse.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):58-69
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Approaching the Other: Essay on “Solaris”
Rudanovskaya S.V.

Abstract

Understanding of Other depends on understanding of oneself and one’s own culture and is often obscured and blocked by ready-made definitions, assessments and standards of description. “Solaris” by S. Lem represents an extraordinary, “radical Other” that cannot be caught or conquered with final words and conclusions. Various modes of perception of Solaris analyzed in this article (distant - close, object - subject, repulsive - attractive) reflects common intentions, emotional attitudes of homo sapiens, and, among them, a deep-seated desire to get rid of incalculable Other as an irritating factor and a threat to human existence. Approaching to Other implies approaching both to oneself (better understanding and straightforward awareness of one’s personal history) and to almost impossible “horizontal” perception of the world where one can be with Other without attempting to make him/her manageable, predictable, hopelessly “one’s own” (existential recognition of Other).
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):70-84
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Substantiality of Desire and Transformations of Sexuality
Tagirov P.V.

Abstract

The article focuses on the complex and rather contradictory problem of sexual desire and its orientation. It also concerns contemporary institutional transformations and their effect upon our understanding of frames and criteria of sexual “normality”. Methodologically we base on two major approaches proposed by researchers that are essentialism and constructivism primarily distinguished in our study accordingly to their concept of desire and its substantiality.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):85-99
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The Eye of the Beholder: Violence as a Social Process
Beck T.K.

Abstract

A triangular reconstruction of the social dynamics of violence offers a means to bridge the gap between research on the micro- and meso-level dynamics of violent interaction on the one hand, and theories of power and domination on the other. The origins of this approach are found in the phenomenological programme of social science violence research formulated by German sociologists in the 1990s (Sofsky, von Trotha, Nedelmann, and others). Reconsidering their arguments in the framework of social constructivism, this article reconstructs violence as a triangular process evolving between «performer», «target» and «observer». Disentangling the dimensions of the somatic and the social shows, however, that these are not the fixed roles of agents, but changeable modes of experiencing violence. Violent interaction uses the suffering body to stage a positional asymmetry, i.e. a distinction between strength and weakness, between above and below, which can be exploited for the production and reproduction of social order.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):100-115
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Violence and Religion as Social Phenomena of Contemporaneity (Philosophical Anthropological Context)
Chistyakova O.V.

Abstract

The article considers the most relevant phenomena of contemporary society - violence and religion - in their interaction and confrontation. Violence is presented in a number of forms: power as command and subordinate relations; total control bringing in the Panopticon symbolism; self-control; irrationality and destruction of impersonated mass; aggression and unmanageability of crowds; mimetic violence based on simulation and marking the victims. The author of the article defines the possibilities for violence emergence in religions and emphasizes the Church’s (in integer philosophical meaning) role in countering various manifestations of violence in contemporary societies. The author marks out the changed nature of violence since the beginning of the 21 st century connected to the technological development, rapid non-linear history development, usage of psychological mass manipulation, inclusion of religious categorization for communities’ submission and carrying out destructive actions and, sometimes, warfare. The author points out the importance of resistance to violence and irrationality by enlightenment and reason, by rationalization of all social interactions. The author focuses on moral, anthropological and spiritual potential of religions to preventing violence and minimizing its effects.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):116-136
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Social Space and Violence
Surkov A.A.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of the phenomenon of violence in the context of social space. The author considers the problem of alienation, which results in the formation of enclaves inside the territory. It facilitates actors on micro-sociological level to interpret their partners of communication as the ones who can pose danger. The author also notes that social space includes artefacts and traces of (non)presence of violence in the system of social relations.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):137-144
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Historical Explanation and Historical Names
Chernyak A.Z.

Abstract

The paper is dedicated to one of the aspects of the problem of the explanation in history, i.e. to an analysis of the contribution of references of names of historical persons, places, events etc. into an explanation in history. An important condition of explanation is the relevancy of what explains to what is explained. The latter is determined by the correspondence of an explanation to the question it answers or the issue it is devoted to. Historical explanations usually employs historical names which are like proper names in many ways. As a result, relevancy of historical explanation depends on the coreferentialilty of those names with analogous terms used (in relevant ways) in formulations of what is explained. Two most popular theories of references of proper names are considered in the paper - the descriptive and the historical - and the conclusion is made that the complete coreferentiality of the desired type is unavailable in normal cases. Therefore the complete fulfillment of the condition of relevancy is also impossible for normal historical explanations.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):145-162
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Philosophy of Property as the Basic Premise of Propertology
Orekhov A.M., Skachko M.V.

Abstract

Interdisciplinary character of contemporary social sciences leads to an idea of propertology - interdisciplinary teaching on property. Economics of property, sociology of property, law of property, political theory of property and others are among branches of propertology. Philosophy of property is to be considered as the first premise of propertology, setting methodological and theoretical basis for multifaceted research into this phenomenon. Structurally philosophy of property consists of the following sections: ontology of property, epistemology and methodology of research on property, axiology of property, ethics of a property-owner, - each of which forms its own area of investigation into property as complex system of social relations and attitudes.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):163-175
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Problems of Causality of Micro and Macro Levels of Object: “Top-down” and “Bottom-up” (Ontological Aspect)
Vasilyeva K.K., Lochkina A.N.

Abstract

The authors pay their attention to the scientific problems in the natural sciences centered around the concept of causality. In the situation of crisis the importance of causal links of objects especially increases. Contemporary philosophy is characterized by the growth of indeterministic and similar conceptions. Until recently, the concept of deterministic chaos and indeterministic causality have seemed “conceptually anomalous, if not semantically contradictory” (James H. Fetzer). For example, in unordered environments the percolation ("leakage") of quantum indeterminism (on principles of which the consciousness is presumably based as well) is possible up to the macrocosm, and vice versa. A triad “freedom - determinism - indeterminism” is developed. The paper demonstrates the need for separate consideration of this problem in the space-time aspect: the alternation of dominance of space topology (cell mitosis, sleep) and freedom of the “I” in time.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):176-185
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Methodological Aspects of Research of Prephilosophical Traditions of Antiquity
Volkova L.L., Zhdanov V.V., Zhorova P.S.

Abstract

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):186-189
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Automation: Release or Enslavement of Man
Babkina Y.A.

Abstract

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):190-196
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Sub Specie Aeterni, or How to Live Correctly? (Research on the L. Wittgenstein's Ethics)
Kostina S.A.

Abstract

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):197-203
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Racial and Religious Harmony: Singapore Interpretation of Tolerance
Odintsova J.I.

Abstract

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):204-214
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On our authors
- -.

Abstract

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(1):215-217
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