No 2 (2015)

Articles
Editorial note
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):7-8
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The freedom and necessity
Razin A.V.
Abstract
The concept of freedom and necessity is considered in the article in several semantic aspects: 1) How these concepts was represented in the history of philosophy, and what kind of contradictions can be revealed due to this consideration. 2) How freedom of choice can be associated with the organization of the psyche and consciousness of a man. Here we consider notions of ideality and rationality, show how rationality is associated with the responsible choice. 3) How freedom and necessity are presented in the system society organization,
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):9-15
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Interpretations of the Prohibition on the Use of Force in Normative Ethics (the Essence of Disagreements and Prospects of the Synthesis)
Prokofyev A.V.
Abstract
The paper analyses main approaches to the problem of moral regulation of the use of force: nonviolence ethics, deontological ethics of force, consequentialist ethics of force. The author elaborates arguments against nonviolence ethics and outlines a synthetic approach that takes into account objective reasons generating deontological and consequentialist ethics of force.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):16-23
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Power and law of nature: Spinoza on the two states of human race
Gadzhikurbanov A.G.
Abstract
Spinoza has based his ethical theory on the principle of philosophical naturalism. It suggests that the cognition of all things must conform to the single and common laws of nature. At the same time, the analysis of Spinoza’s doctrine shows that idea of division of all social phenomena into natural and civil status of person suppose a differentiated approach to each of them. In this case, his naturalistic project requires a distinctive meaning.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):24-30
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Consideration of the corporeal existence of a man in F. Nietzsche’s ethics
Kosorukova A.A.
Abstract
The article examines the tradition of considering the conception of corporeal existence of a man in Nietzsche’s thought and suggests the possible ethical aspect of this idea. The concept of the body is specified by considering the symbolic meaning of this concept in the context of the idea of being responsible “here and now”, of philosophy of gesture, of deconstruction of the unconscious motive of thought and morality, of the Nietzsche’s theory of the eternal recurrence.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):31-36
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Modalities of moral responsibility
Sychev A.A.
Abstract
The paper proposes a comprehensive understanding of responsibility as the intersection of moral relations of care, dependence and freedom. The author defines three main modes of responsible acts. It is shown that traditional morality tended to preserve the object of care and to conserve existing relations, norms and virtues (responsibility for “is”). Modernity orientated subjects towards the complying with the requirements of universal duty and ideal patterns of behavior, determined by moral authority (responsibility for “ought to”). Since the mid-twentieth century public concern has been associated with the dilemmas of applied ethics depended on the free choice of moral subject (responsibility for “may be”).
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):37-45
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Patriotism in the globalization epoch
Porokhovskaya T.I.
Abstract
The article deals with patriotism as value and norm of the civil ethics, its substance, basics and functions as well and the transformation of patriotism that have happened through last twenty-thirty years. Patriotism in the soviet society was one of fundamental values of state ideology and social consciousness. Though nowadays national loyalty and patriotism are frequently declared as archaic, irrational or morally inappropriate positions. The author analyses the cause of these changes in the system of values of social consciousness. Relying on works by Z. Bauman, J. Isensee, H. Krings, A. Leist, A.S. Panarin, J. Habermas etc. the author demonstrates that modern democratic society is impossible beyond particular constitutional state as well as without loyalty and social responsibility of its citizens. It is shown two approaches to the basing of patriotism: culture-ontological and individual-ontological. A. Leist describes three methods of the basing of patriotism in the of individualistic alternative: liberal patriotism, value patriotism and particular patriotism.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):46-53
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The postmodern social relationships - morality and justice vis-à-vis to the arrogance of power
Hrehova H.
Abstract
The article discusses the understanding and misunderstanding of morality and justice in post-traditional society on the background of ideas M. Blondel, Ortegu y Gasset, E. Chiavacci and S. Privitera. Actual absence forming of human consciences and long persist relativisation of truth and values which was revitalized in actual social place and new social conflicts. Today it is very hard to consider which type of justice have to be application and which morality have to be preferred in social relations. Axel Honneth and Marek Hrubec emphasize to need, so-called good life on the ground of strengthening social appreciation, they estimate and recognise the other as to peer. It is possible to remove arrogance powerful and with means of transparent practices in social relations towards to transnational and global responsibility.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):54-60
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Multiculturalism and challenge to national identity
Alieva O.G.
Abstract
The article analyses reasons and consequences of the European politics of multiculturalism. The author considers the notion of national identity in the environment of migrants. The multicultural policy may generate social conflicts in the modern world. There are often attempts to solve these conflicts by intensifying of multicultural policies, that makes the situation more difficult and generates new conflicts.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):61-67
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Moral culture of a professional
Tsvyk A.V.
Abstract
The article analyses the problem of developing moral culture of a professional in the modern society. The author considers basic values of a professional activity, the structure of a professional moral consciousness of a person.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):68-77
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Ethical code as moral regulator in professional activity of the municipal officials
Mukhametzhanova V.S.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the ethical code in order to improve the implementation of municipal officials of their duties. Adherence to ethical principles is the key in assessing the quality of their professional activities and official conduct. The approved ethical service principles, in turn, provide the general guidelines, ensuring the integrity and viability of the service as a system.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):78-83
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The idea of Good in philosophy of V. Solovyev
Tsvyk I.V.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the analysis of the Vladimir Solovyov’s ethical concept, his doctrine of essence and nature of Good, the first principles of morality.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):84-90
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Historico-philosophical concept of M.K. Mamardashvili
Nizhnikov S.A.
Abstract
In the article analyses three historico-philosophical concepts determined as progressive, eschatological and transcendental . It is marked, that the third concept was developed by M.K. Mamardashvili who made a start in his constructions from Kant’s transcendental philosophy. Opens specificity of Mamardashvili’s approach to treatment of philosophy, a history of philosophy and all spiritual culture. The symbol of consciousness considers by him as «the empty form», something transcendental, due to which the process of transcending is possible, generation of the person as spiritual-moral being. From the same point of view all history of philosophy investigates not as studying philosophical empirical facts, but as attempt to take part in the act of producing ideas. On this basis carries out distinction between philosophy “symbolical” (speaking on language of symbols) and phenomenological, transcendental. In Mamardashvili’s understanding the latter does not study and create symbols but studies their work in consciousness.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):91-97
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The theme of love in the works of the Russian philosophers abroad
Moiseenko M.V.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the theme of love in the works of the Russian philosophers abroad I.A. Ilyin, N.A. Berdiaev, G.P. Fedotov. The theme of love is passing as the main idea through all the works of the philosophers. Love for the motherand, for nature, for Russian language, for culture and art. Love is becoming the main methodological principle of the attitude to the world.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):98-106
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Ethical issues of biotechnological human design
Popova O.V.
Abstract
Intensive development of biotechnology problematize the boundaries between the phenomenon of technological artifacts and natural objects. Intensive development of biotechnology problematize the boundaries between the phenomenon of technological artifacts and natural objects. Dramatically increasing opportunities of artificial intervention in human biology (development of reproductive technologies, biotechnology manipulation at the cellular level, organ and tissue transplantation, neuro-and psycho), accompanied by a radical transformation of human nature, caused a heated debate on the humanitarian risks of biotechnology. In this regard, especially important to study the ethical issues of biotechnology to improve the design and the nature of man.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):107-114
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Ethical problems of cloning humans (SCNT)
Savvina O.V.
Abstract
The article analyses ethical problems of cloning of human beings. Today scientists have opportunity to clone animals and human embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the author considers this technology and ethical problems generated by it. The author maintains that we must divide two types of cloning of human beings: therapeutic and reproductive. The therapeutic cloning does not generate any new ethical problems or dilemmas, but it exacerbates the problems which have already existed (moral status of human embryos, health care recourses distribution, etc.). Reproductive cloning of human beings will generate as absolutely new ethical problems so new scientific solutions.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):115-119
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Cloning: ethical dilemmas
Maximova E.V.
Abstract
The article is devoted to moral dilemmas of such phenomenon of modern science as cloning in order to investigate possible perspectives based on moral norms in the society. Now the evaluation of quality of physicians’ professional activity is based on Hippocratic ethics and it requires a special approach in each situation at the same time, because we are dealing with interdisciplinary knowledge. It is necessary to create a solid ethical and moral background physicians could rely on in their professional and research activities.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):120-123
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On our authors
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2015;(2):124-125
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