Vol 23, No 4 (2019): HISTORY OF JEWISH PHILOSOPHY

Editorial Note
Modern Jewish Philosophy in Search of a (Self) Definition
Belov V.N.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):391-397
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History of Jewish Philosophy
The Concept of Virtue in Religious Philosophy of Hermann Cohen
Sokuler Z.A.
Abstract

The concept of virtue was of great interest and importance for H. Cohen. In the interpretation of this concept in his latest work “Religion of reason from the sources of Judaism” the most important concepts of this work were brought in the focus: the specificity of definition of what is the religion of reason; understanding of the uniqueness of God; correlation; messianism. For Cohen, a single system of virtues presupposes a single and unique ethics and correlates with the idea of the unity of humanity. The last concept, in his opinion, maturated in the fold of monotheism. Humanity is one, because all people are creations of the unique God. “Religion of reason” treats of the common universal virtues. In the religion of reason, the idea of God and morality are inextricably linked. Cohen rejects metaphysical speculation about the nature of God, about the attributes of God inherent in himself. The religion of the mind speaks of God only in correlation with man. God is a moral ideal and reveals himself to man by giving him moral commandments. Morality connects man and God, and this connection is revealed in detail by Cohen in the theme of virtues. Understanding God as Truth is important for the disclosure of this topic. The corresponding virtue for a person is faithfulness to truth, or truthfulness. In addition to truthfulness in the usual sense, for Cohen, faithfulness to truth requires correct worship of God. The correlation culminates in the idea of messianism, which is interpreted by Cohen as an endless movement of a whole humanity to the social justice.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):398-412
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The Problem of Individuality in Hermann Cohen’s Aesthetics
Gamba E.
Abstract
Franz Rosenzweig devoted particular attention to the problem of individuality in Hermann Cohen’s philosophy. He writes that, in comparison with the individuality of the man of religion, “the human being about which aesthetics knew [...] fades now in all its aesthetic individuality to a ‘mere type’”. This statement is actually based on Cohen’s writings: in Ästhetik des reinen Gefühls (1912), Cohen explicitly maintains that the human being that is the object of artistic representation is not a type, but rather an individual. Just three years later, however, in his first book about philosophy of religion, Der Begriff der Religion im System der Philosophie (1915), Cohen states that the human being that is represented by art is not really an individual; only the man of religion is really individual; the human being represented by art is merely a type. In this paper my aim is to argue for the thesis that these opposite statements belong to different points of view. From an aesthetic point of view the human being represented by art has to be considered as truly individual, but the systematic overview adopted in Der Begriff der Religion can teach us that the individuality of the human being represented by art can’t be maintained from a different point of view than the aesthetic one.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):413-419
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Simone Weil’s Lectures on Philosophy: A Comment
Morgan W.J.
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to some intellectual origins of Simone Weil’s philosophy through a summary of and comment on her Lectures on Philosophy (1978) given when she was a teacher at a girls’ school at Roanne in the Loire region of central France. The article provides a comment on Simone Weil’s Lectures on Philosophy. There is a brief Introduction followed by a summary of Weil’s life which indicates her various interest as a religious thinker, mystic, anarchist, and political activist and some of the important academic commentaries on these aspects of her life and work. The source of the Lectures on Philosophy edited by her pupil Anne Reynaud-Guérithault is then discussed followed by a detailed summary of and comment on the Lectures themselves. They are grouped under five headings which are considered in turn. These are: The materialist point of view; after the discovery of mind; politics and social theory; ethics and aesthetics; miscellaneous topics and essay plans. There is a further discussion of Simone Weil’s later philosophical thought which shows that what she published reveals classical learning and intellectual quality, but also the several antimonies with which she struggled in her thinking, the two major influences on her thought being Ancient Greece and Christianity. There is a short Conclusion and Bibliography.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):420-429
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Jewish philosophy as a Direction of the World philosophy of Modern and Contemporary Times
Dvorkin I.
Abstract
This article represents an analysis of the Jewish philosophy of the Modern and Contemporary as the holistic phenomenon. In contrast to antiquity and the Middle Ages, when philosophy was a rather marginal part of Jewish thought, in Modern Times Jewish philosophy is formed as a distinct part of the World philosophy. Despite the fact that representatives of Jewish philosophy wrote in different languages and actively participated in the different national schools of philosophy, their work has internal continuity and integrity. The article formulates the following five criteria for belonging to Jewish philosophy: belonging to philosophy itself; reliance on Jewish sources; the addressee of Jewish philosophy is an educated European; intellectual continuity (representatives of the Jewish philosophy of Modern and Contemporary Periods support each other, argue with each other and protect each other from possible attacks from other schools); working with a set of specific topics, such as monism, ethics and ontology, the significance of behavior and practical life, politics, the problem of man, intelligence, language and hermeneutics of the text, Athens and Jerusalem, dialogism. The article provides a list of the main authors who satisfy these criteria. The central ones can be considered Baruch (Benedict) Spinoza, Moshe Mendelssohn, Shlomo Maimon, German Cohen, Franz Rosenzweig, Josef Dov Soloveichik, Leo Strauss, Abraham Yehoshua Heshel, Eliezer Berkovich, Emil Fackenheim, Mordechai Kaplan, Emmanuel Levinas. The main conclusion of the article is that by the end of the 20th century Jewish philosophy, continuing both the traditions of classical European philosophy and Judaism, has become an important integral part of Western thought.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):430-442
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History of western philosophy
Yakovenko’s Transcendentalism in the Philosophical Context of his Time: Phenomenology and/or Neo-Kantianism
Shiyan A.A.
Abstract

The article discusses the work of Boris Valentinovich Yakovenko, one of the most prominent representatives of Russian neo-Kantianism. The philosophy of Yakovenko is analyzed in the context of the German and Russian philosophical traditions of the early twentieth century - phenomenology and neo-Kantianism. Being a supporter of neo-Kantianism, Yakovenko devoted most of his research to questions of cognition . The article examines the foundations of criticism, directed by Yakovenko against modern gnosiological approaches. The unacceptability of these approaches consists in mixing different types of being by Yakovenko. Yakovenko believes that Husserl's phenomenology focuses on the study of the process of psychological cognition, and it is impossible based on subjectivity to achieve objective knowledge. Cohen, in the opinion of Yakovenko, denying the possibility of a pure givenness of sensations, relativizes the very idea of existence, implying only science under it. Yakovenko calls his own ontological attitude transcendental pluralism. Transcendental pluralism recognizes the self-sufficiency and independence of each kind of Being, between which there is no connection. The cognition of this plurality of identities must be non-presumability and absolute and is possible, according to Yakovenko, in a special kind of intuition. This intuition Yakovenko called mystical, however, does not give its detailed description and justification. Nevertheless, an appeal to his philosophy allows us to actualize theoretical-cognitive problems that are of interest to us today: the problem of subjectivity and objectivity, the problem of non-presumability of knowledge, “pure givenness”, transcendence and immanence, the ratio of various types of intuitions in cognition, etc.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):443-460
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Intelligible Character and Revelation of Person: F.W.J. Schelling “Psychological Scheme”
Rezvykh P.V.
Abstract

This article focuses on analysis of a handwritten fragment by F. W. J. Schelling “Psychological scheme” (1837-1839), which is a study of main principles of philosophical anthropology. The article reconstructs the circumstances of creating the mentioned text, which are connected with the trusting relationship between Schelling and Bavarian Crown Prince Maximilian; it also highlights the parallels between the text and the earlier Schelling's works exploring philosophical-anthropological problematic: “Philosophical Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom” (1809) and “Stuttgart Seminars” (1810). In the course of terminological analysis of the fragment author displays that the the main source of influence was the work by I. Kant “Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone”. Major problem, considered by Schelling's anthropology, is defining the correlation between intelligible and empirical human character, the main resolving instrument being Schelling’s doctrine of potencies as ontological modalities developed in 1820-1830.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):461-470
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Schelling F.W.J. [Psychological Scheme]
Rezvykh P.V.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):471-475
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The Common Root of Philosophy and Theology in Lectures on Dialectics of F.D.E. Schleiermacher
Belyaeva A.V.
Abstract

Schleiermacher is a philosopher and theologist, widely known in Protestant society, whose philosophy, after the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, has only just begun to be rediscovered in Russia nowadays. One of the central works of Schleiermacher is the lecture on dialectics, which he read at the University of Berlin. In these lectures on dialectics Schleiermacher presents his system of philosophy. He tries to unite the world of action and the world of science, revealing their common root, and give us his own view on the solution of the problem of post-Kantian philosophy. Action and cognition, writes Schleiermacher, are not two different worlds irreducible to each other in which a person is ought to live, but they are only two different views on reality, and since they can be described in the same concepts, dominance of one or another side depends from which of the concepts common to both “worlds” exceed. Moreover, in these lectures one can see how Schleiermacher understands the connection between theology and philosophy. Theology, the validity of the ground of which are confirmed by the obviosity of a religious feeling - the revelation of the Absolute - and philosophy, which gradually goes back to the Absolute, describing it as a higher concept, which has no opposition, therefore, which the mind cannot determine, has its common foundation in the Absolute or God, who is given to us in feeling, and implied to every act of being and thinking. So, Schleiermacher's “Dialectics” can rightfully be considered not only an exposition of his philosophical system, but also a key to understanding the interconnectedness of philosophy and theology and their connection through the concept of God.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):476-487
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Schleiermacher F.D.E. Notes on Dialectics
Belyaeva A.V.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):488-498
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Discussion platform
Logical Methodology
Ivlev V.Y., Ivlev Y.V., Ivleva M.L.
Abstract

Absract. The regulatory documents of the Ministry of Higher Education and Science set the task of forming competencies of students. Competences are understood as knowledge and skills. Knowledge is the world outlook component of science, and therefore the corresponding academic discipline, and skills are its methodological component. The world outlook refers to the system of views on the subject area of science, and the methodology is the system of intangible means of cognition and practical activities developed in this science and presented in the relevant academic discipline. It is noted that the subject of study in logic is not only the particular structure of thoughts and processes of thinking (forms of thought and processes of thinking), but also the types and characteristics of the original components of complex thoughts and processes of thinking, such as signs and terms. In the article on the example of logic the author's concept of the methodological component of the academic discipline is described. Attention is drawn to the importance of using in the process of cognition methodological standpoints created on the basis of world outlook, as well as to the need to take into account the types of knowledge - empirical and theoretical knowledge, problem, hypothesis, theory. Some other methodological tools of logic are given, for example, principles, technology. More well-known methodological tools (methods, strategies, tactics, etc.) are not considered. It is assumed that the article will cause interest among the representatives of other philosophical, and not only philosophical, academic disciplines, and a discussion of the problem of ideological and methodological components of these disciplines will continue.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):499-507
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SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY
Philosophy of Human Dignity in the Problem Field of the Global World
Kolomiets G.G., Parusimova Y.V., Kolesnikova I.V.
Abstract

The article discusses human dignity in the aspect of modern challenges of technological civilization, which has entered a new stage of its development. Human dignity as a category of ethics remains underestimated, since in the first row of ethical values humanitarians, as a rule, put the categories of freedom and justice. Today, “dignity” acquires a special and higher status, the concept of human dignity is being rethought, going beyond the ethical category itself as a virtue. In the global world, human dignity is a response to such contemporary challenges as the formation of a communicative world community with a focus on digital civilization, the anthropological problem of the future of humanity, the ecological situation on a global scale, the reorientation of the ethical and legal relations of a globalizing world. Human dignity is a problem of national-ethnic and national-state relations in the transition to transnational regulatory interactions. In the interpretation of the nation, the authors do not share the well-known two approaches to understanding the nation, on the one hand ethnocultural, and on the other - national-civil. Both approaches lead, whenever possible or necessary, to the transnational posing of the question, when human dignity becomes a priority regardless of nationality. In this connection, the utopian idea of the possibility of a global ethos is touched upon. The authors focus on the anthropoxy-axiological approach to the understanding of human dignity, where the cosmological principle of human existence is determined by his creative power. The urgency of the problem of human dignity is due to the fact that, as it were, in the modern life world a person did not put the economy above morality, the basis of human dignity in its being is a value moral consciousness, in the depth of which basic human values of transnational nature “work”, contradicting values consumer society driven by practical interests. Human dignity in this regard should be interpreted as an absolute value and at the same time one should take into account the multidimensionality of the problem of dignity in the context of modern globalization processes. Based on the ontological understanding of globalization as megatrends in the self-movement of the natural historical process, the authors substantiate the anthropological value of human dignity, which has universal, transcultural significance. The use of an anthropoxy-axiological approach and interdisciplinary methods reveals the universal value of virtue, based on the anthropo-social moral nature and the creative value of man. The creative transformational activity itself will not be worthy in quality without moral responsibility. The modern concept of human dignity is addressed to the ethics of responsibility, which means responsibility, which highlights the moral and axiological attitude to life, the adoption of responsible decisions in modern conditions of sociocultural interactions. In the context of globalization, the philosophy of human dignity becomes the dominant of all conscious-volitional activities, the core of the moral rethinking of the transnational and national ratio in the light of tolerance, the ability to non-violence. At the same time, the authors indicate in the formulation of the main issue of the philosophy of human dignity the possibility of going beyond the ethical category of human dignity, since the unchanging core of the universal human values of goodness-beauty-truth does not lose its meaning in the global, changing world.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):508-520
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Construction of Social Reality in Fiction and Phenomenology of Everyday Life
Rudanovskaya S.V.
Abstract

The idea of the constructed character of social reality implies human contribution to institutional arrangements and cultural patterns that determine the shape of collective existence. The article examines the specific features of social construction seen and studied in phenomenological approach by A. Schutz, P. Berger, Th. Luckmann. The concept reveals significance of daily cognitive style which enables people to structure and understand the world they share with others, escaping situations fraught with gaps of meanings and anomy. The author of the article analyzes the process of social construction, distinguishing it from imaginary building of reality that goes beyond the existed order. Reality of daily life is compared with fictional society represented in J.L. Borges’ “Lottery in Babylon”. Telling about the social construction as it may be, the story demonstrates the similarities between the mental procedures that underlie real and antiutopian (inhuman) routines. The article also centers on peculiarities of phenomenological beholder’s attitude towards sociality. On the one hand, it tends to be free from any theoretical abstractions, imaginary constructions or critical destruction of reality, on the other - inclines to transcend the reified forms of social being and engenders a certain critical message.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):521-532
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The Impact of Digital Technologies on Production Models and Forms of Employment: Socio-Philosophical Analysis
Tsurkan E.G., Dryaeva E.D.
Abstract

The process of integration of digital technologies into the structure of social production and distribution leads to a series of definite trends in capitalist development. These trends are regular and interdependent. The acceleration of information exchange provides an opportunity to replace the Fordism with a thriftier network model, which involves outsourcing and reducing the longevity of contractual obligations and hiring relationships, which leads to the precarization of labor of a certain social group, which can be described as “precariat”. The change in working conditions leads to the change in ways of increasing labor productivity, which is the reason for the emergence of “societies of control” characterized by: distributed power, embedding previously external coercion into the personality, affective engineering, prolongation of the educational process, increasing tempo and rhythm of work, spreading the project as the form of work replacing routine forms, and the emergence of a liquid short-term identity inherent in representatives of the precariat. This article aims to discover and demonstrate the interconnection between these processes. Achieving this goal will open the way to a more thorough separate study of each of these processes in the future but this research will be made from the perspective of their systemic unity. According to the purpose of the article, the structure of work is the following: the first section is devoted to the acceleration of social time, which is connected with the compression of social space and with the change in scale in which commercial and state enterprises can operate. Quick positive feedback, which is provided by the digital network, leads to changes in the infrastructure of enterprises and the transformation of production and logistics models (Section 2). In addition, the acceleration of the feedback between the employee and the employer leads to the precarization of labor (Section 3), which is accompanied by the appearance of “societies of control” (Section 4).

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):533-547
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SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS
Transcendental Turn in Contemporary Philosophy: Transcendental Metaphysics, Epistemology and Philosophy of Science, Transcendental Theology and Theory of Consciousness
Katrechko S.L., Nevazhzhay I.D.
Abstract

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RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2019;23(4):548-556
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