Vol 21, No 4 (2017)

Articles
THE PERSON AND SOCIETY IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTEMPORANEITY (Philosophical Readings in Memory of Professor P.K. Grechko): An Overview
Kurmeleva E.M., Rudanovskaya S.V.
Abstract
Philosophical Readings in Memory of Professor P.K. Grechko
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):429-433
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Reflections on the Present: An Interview with Professor P.K. Grechko
Kurmeleva E.M., Rudanovskaya S.V.
Abstract
С профессором Петром Кондратьевичем Гречко беседовали Е.М. Курмелева и С.В. Руда-новская. Интервью состоялось в 2012 году в рамках мероприятий кафедры социальной фило-софии по поводу 65-летия П.К. Гречко. Публикуется впервые.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):434-447
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WHAT’S NEW ABOUT THE NEW NATIONALISM?
Farina J.
Abstract
What are the limitations of the New World Order created by the rise of transnational regimes and global business begun after the Second World War and reaching a crescendo in our new century? Are there limits to the proffered vision of globalization as a positive force, supported by its own set of mythologies and values? Is the so called New Nationalism or New Populism that in 2016 brought us Brexit in Europe and the election of Donald Trump in the United States a reaction to the excesses of the new world order? Are there any progressive aspects of those movements or are they fundamentally revanchist?
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):448-455
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LA PHILOSOPHIE AUJOURD’HUI. LA QUESTION DE LA TECHNIQUE
Nancy J.
Abstract
Статья публикуется с разрешения профессора Жана-Люка Нанси на основе лекции, прочитанной им 22 сентября 2016 г. в Российском университете дружбы народов. Текст подготовила С.А. Костина, выпускница кафедры социальной философии РУДН, философ и переводчик.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):456-465
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DO WESTERN MARXISTS DREAM OF A REVOLUTION TODAY?
Pavlov A.V.
Abstract

There is a point of view according to which “Western Marxism” after the collapse of the USSR and the disappearance of the Communist regimes ceased to be a political project and concentrated instead on the study of culture. In this article, the author argues that this is a wrong perception. Many con-temporary Marxist philosophers do study culture a lot, but they continue to exert serious influence if not on political process, then at least on intellectual climate. In the 1990s certain authors changed their discourse concerning the USSR, but today many left philosophers who still stick to Marx’s ideas continue to talk about the necessity of revolution, besides they provide political criticism of contemporary culture of capi-talism and even try to rehabilitate Lenin as a political figure. Something in the discourse of Western Marxists has really changed: as a result of the decline of faith into the linearity of History, Marxists from now on talk about revolution in the context of utopia rather than in the context of progress.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):466-478
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SELF AND OTHER IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL-RELIGIOUS DISCOURSES OF CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM
Chistyakova O.V.
Abstract

The article introduces a philosophical examination of the dichotomy of Self and Other in the contemporary analysis of Christianity and Islam. Reviewing the phenomenon of the Other, the author refers to God as the object and the subject of the relationship “Human - Absolution” at the same time. The author reveals philosophical and religious ideas of the two world religions in the context of the historical development of their theological doctrines. The author discusses shared and specific religious ideas in the religious anthropology and epistemology of Islam and Christianity. Special attention is paid to religious ideas that contribute to the relationship of man and God in the individual’s strive towards achieving the unity with the Absolution. Moral categories of compassion, mercy, forgiveness, mutual understanding are pre-sented as the linking stages among the subject, Self, God, and the Other. The author emphasizes the philo-sophical-anthropological ideas, reflecting the fine line of the relations between the divine and human, when the Other becomes internally inherent, personal, spiritually enlightening the individual Self.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):479-487
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P.YA. CHAADAYEV: FROM MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGE TO REAL PHIGURE
Nizhnikov S.A.
Abstract

The author criticizes the existing opinion that Petr Yakovlevich Chaadayev belongs to liberal Western ideology. On the basis of the investigation of the original texts he shows the evolution and contradic-tions in Chaadayev’s views. In the conclusion, the thinker emerges as an almost Christian philosopher, build-ing special historiosophy and trying to unite faith and knowledge. From praising Catholic sociality he passed to the recognition of Eastern Christianity values and spirituality, began to see the advantages of the Russian civilization and the lacks of the Western one in what he came closer to F.M. Dostoevsky's views. The article provides insight into Chaadayev’s polemics with Slavophiles, which promoted the evolution of his ideas. The author shows the discrepancy of Chaadayev’s understanding of Christianity, the heterodoxy of his views, special understanding of eschatology, philosophy of history, etc.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):488-494
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EROS IN THE ECONOMY OF POWER: THEORIES OF DISCOURSIVE AND DISCIPLINARY CONTROL (M. Foucault and J. Butler)
Tagirov P.V.
Abstract

Despite the preservation of traditional political institutions, the mechanisms for including eros in the logic of power are undergoing serious changes in contemporary society in comparison with their classical forms. Specificity of these changes is caused by a number of reasons of historical, political and socio-cultural nature. First of all, THEY include various processes rooted in bourgeois revolutions, the secularization and democratization of society, the crisis of the basic metanarratives in the 20th century and, finally, the phenomenon of sexual revolution. One of the most heuristic theoretical attempts to comprehend the relationship between power and eroticism in nowadays society is, in the author's opinion, the model of discoursive and disciplinary control proposed by M. Foucault, and subsequently developed by a number of thinkers, including J. Butler. This research primarily relies on methodology of social criticism, philosophical comparativism and history of philosophy. Our analysis of the theories of diffusive and discoursive control, first of all, focuses on the following questions: how does the power participate in the formation of the subject of desire or, in other words, produce it, what is a disciplinary society, where the origin of disciplinary and normalizing control should be sought, what are the most ambiguous points of the studied approach to the subject, power and sexuality, and, finally, what alternative to the existing social order is offered by these theories.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):495-504
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THE SOCIAL AS HUMAN
Shatunova T.M., Tereshchenko N.A.
Abstract

He heuristic potential of Social Phenomenon and Concept in social-philosophic research is shown in the article. The Social Concept is represented as a backbone notion of nonclassical social philoso-phy. The authors believe that in non-classical social philosophy the concept of Social expresses a specific way of human being-in-the world. At the same time the Social was perceived traditionally as anti-human: as an impediment, an obstacle to all manifestations of human in the person. The authors realize that the human foundation of sociality is exposed constantly to risks in reality and to doubts in theoretical estimates, up to the declaration of anti-human nature of the Social. The purpose of the article is to show that the Social, despite the existence of the alienated forms, has its own humanistic potential as the product and the subject of human activity. Human potential of the Social extends in its metaphysical component. It correlates to the metaphysics of human nature and develops it in the direction from a super-sensual rationality minimum to the Absolute maximum. The analysis of social-philosophical prospects of the Social phenomenon are disclosed methodologi-cally in the context of the metaphysics of negativity. The authors show possible options of the human meanings of Social in the conditions of its crisis by means of aestheticization of social life forms of the modern person.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):505-513
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TO THE QUESTION OF STRATEGIES IN HUMANITIES (A Case Study of the Russian Latin American Studies). Part 1
Bondar O.Y.
Abstract

The author of the article focuses on the concept of cultural synthesis, which is the key con-cept for the Russian Latin American studies. The author sets the questions of determining the semantic field of the very concept of “cultural synthesis”, of the possibility or impossibility of (culture) generating (a type of) interaction and its boundaries in the case of (historically) diverse cultural traditions encountered in the lands of the New World. The author reveals the different levels of the solution to the problem, offered by the Russian Latin American studies. The criticism of the “pre-theoretical” setting is offered, genetically related to the attempts of the continental cultural and philosophical reflection to comprehend the phenomenon of the miscegenative culture. The interpretative models are revealed, that arose in the Russian cultural and socio-cultural sys-tematical analysis, in which the rejection of one-dimensional socio-historical explanatory schemes occurs. The author offers the rethinking and reassessment of general theoretical and historical approaches, which will allow to identify and represent the process of the cultural genesis in Latin America in its original imbalance, non-linearity and abnormality. The author brings to light theoretical and methodological resources of the civilizational discourse, discussing the possibility of their application to the analysis of the given problem. Special attention is paid to the typological features of classical objects, formed “monoliths”, and becoming of non-classical borderline formations. In the framework of the borderline civilizations concept, the author introduces the vectors of the search for the problem solution, set by the ontological (static) and historical (dynamic) approaches.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):514-523
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ON METHODS OF TRANSLATION OF PHILOSOPHICAL DOCTRINES IN HISTORY OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY
Paribok A.V., Pskhu R.V.
Abstract
The paper deals with the specific features of the means of translation of the philosophical knowledge in the Ancient and Middle Age History of Indian Philosophy. Translation is defined as the most integrating type of transferring of culture from one human being to another. In other words, such a translation is an interiorization by a human being of the complex of ideas, philosophical values, algorithms of action, behaviour and thinking. The authors of the article take philosophy as a complicated and developed sphere of knowledge, which demands translation, not merely a simple transferring the content of a philosophical doctrine. The article deals with the question about the means of such a translation in the history of the Indian philosophy. The analysis of the key-fragments of “Chandogya-upanishada” discovers the basic specifics of Indian methods of translation, which includes the division of the theoretical and methodical texts.
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):524-533
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IMAGE OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY IN THE WORKS BY BANKIMCHANDRA CHATTOPADDHYAY
Skorokhodova T.G.
Abstract

The article is a first attempt to reconstruct an image of Indian philosophy created by Indian writer and sociologist Bankimchandra Chattopaddhyay. The goal of the research is to represent the process of turning Indian philosophy into the object of study based on objective idea. The research is based on phe-nomenological approach and hermeneutical method of analysis of the Bengal Renaissance texts. As a result, the image by Bankimchandra Chattopaddhyay is reconstructed as enlightening notion on history and content of Indian thought in the World philosophy context. It represents differences in goal-setting and content of In-dian philosophy - it sets a goal of knowledge acquiring for high spiritual ends and cultivates human’s passive relation to the world, society and his own life. Bankimchandra Chattopaddhyay established general approach to Indian philosophy as a specific tradition embodying universal search for the truth, but aimed at acquiring knowledge for the high goal of liberation from suffering rather than production of useful knowledge for society.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):534-545
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THE FATE OF GANDHI’S HERITAGE: UPS AND OBLIVION
Stepanyants M.T.
Abstract

The fate of great peoples’ heritage is never explicit. Gandhi was called the “great soul”, “father of the nation”, “victorious warrior”, “Apostle of non-violence”. Yet there are those who called him a great deceiver, a faqir, a provoker, an insane idealist. Mahatma is both a utopian and a visionary. He has been the first to succeed in transforming ahimsa, a traditional concept of Indian culture, in the universal principle of morality: in private life, in politics, in economy, in relation to nature, in racial, religious and caste relations, in matters of war and peace.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):546-556
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SCIENCE-ART: THE UNITY OF SCIENCE AND ART
Volnov I.N.
Abstract

The article looks into the current and near-future challenges that necessitate a different lifestyle and way of thinking. The unity of science and art (Science-Art) is viewed in the context of these challenges as a way to respond to them. The article suggests building the unity of Science-Art upon the combination of the two science principles: economy of thought and redundancy of thought, which is typical for the artistic way of thinking. The article cites S. Pereslegin’s classification of thinking patterns and main features of scientific, artistic and engineering ways of thinking. The article shows impossibility of Science-Art within scientific monolectical thinking. It demonstrates that the condition for the unity of science and art is rising to dia- and trialectic levels of thinking; and the carriers of the Science-Art unity are currently engineers.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):557-564
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PHILOSOPHY OF SOCIOLOGY: A LOOK FROM THE SIDE OF SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY
Orekhov A.M., Skachko E.L.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the subject status of the discipline “Philosophy of Sociology”. Philosophy of sociology is an interdisciplinary direction focusing on the main preconditions of sociological knowledge development as well as cognitive value of sociological facts, theories and conceptions. Its subject can be divided into “philosophical foundations of sociology” and “philosophical problems of sociology”. “Sociologism” as the concept of substitution of social philosophy by sociology as a science which is better empirically oriented and is able to give more exact and proved picture of social reality also poses danger to social philosophy. “Sociologism” presents a positivist attack on social philosophy. Indeed, sociology is no less speculative science than social philosophy is, which is well illustrated by a lot of divergences among its theoretical constructions and empirical data. The main functions of philosophy of sociology in the world of contemporary social-humanitarian knowledge are critical function, integrative function and axiological function.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):565-571
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SPACE, TIME AND MOTION - PARADIGM SHIFTS
Panov V.I.
Abstract

The paper shows the influence of physical concepts of space, time and motion on psycho-logical research of perception. The data of the experimental study of the formation of the concepts of time and speed, conducted by J. Piaget at the request of A. Einstein, are given. Ontological, physical-absolute and physical-relative paradigms of the notion of time are designated. The example of Zeno's aporias shows the methodological limitations of the epistemological paradigm in the psychology of perception. It is asserted that human thinking is not capable of direct interpretation of time, since the idea of duration is mediated in our thinking by representations of spatiality. As an alternative to the epistemological paradigm, the principles of the transcendental paradigm of the psychology of perception of A.I. Mirakyan are ex-pounded: form-generation and structural-procedural anisotropy. As an example of the implementation of these principles, a description of the generation of spatiality and duration at the sensory level of perception is given. The conclusion is made that in the methodological plan, psychology and physics are united by the common methodological search necessary for understanding space, time and motion. In the long term, there must be a paradigm shift: from the epistemological paradigm towards the ontological paradigm, and also from the priority of physical representations towards the psychological notions of space and time.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):572-581
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A PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF DEATH
Borisov N.A.
Abstract

The author makes an attempt to create a model for analysis of social representations of death based on phenomenological methodology. The main objects of analysis are the event of death as a spatial dimension of the representations and the image of death as their extension in time. Taking into account the shortcomings of existing models in the study of attitudes to death, the new model provides an analysis of the social aspects of religious and atheistic representations of death. The social representations are divided into elitist, mass and marginal. Phenomenological modeling includes four stages along with special method for each one. Consequently, the proposed model allows to understand both the attitudes to death at a certain historical period and social as such in a time and space of previous historical epochs, of the present life and of future interactions.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):582-591
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THE MEANING OF THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN FANTASY AND IMAGINATION FOR THE CONSERVATIVE DISCOURSE: THE PHILOSOPHY OF ROGER SCRUTON
Glazkov N.S.
Abstract

The author points out and explains the quiddity of the relationship between conservatism and aesthetics as a philosophical discipline. It is shown that the aesthetic distinction between fantasy and imagination, set forth by S.T. Coleridge, is a serious tool of conservative critique and self-critique. From the conservative point of view, imagination is a creative faculty, while fantasy is a passive one, i.e. dependent hugely on passions. It is for that reason that the latter is often understood as a preliminary source for utopian or, in other words, wishful thinking. The discussed distinction fits in the general pattern of conservative epistemology, the greatest exponent of which was D. Hume. The critical uses of the distinction today are partially exposed by Roger Scruton, a British conservative philosopher, in works such as “The Uses of Pes-simism: and the Danger of False Hope”, “Modern Culture and Thinkers of the New Left”. The author argues that the distinction is apt to play not only critical but also a constructive role in shaping the conservative discourse.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):592-601
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FORMATION OF THE CONCEPT OF “RATIONAL” FEAR IN THE ERA OF MODERNITY
Zyryanov A.E.
Abstract

This paper outlines the phenomenon of “rational” fear arising in the modern era. The author relies on the work of Thomas Hobbes, as the creator of the concept of “rational” fear. The author makes an attempt to submit the concept of “rational” fear as the basis of the political philosophy of the English thinker. The author demonstrates how Hobbes reinterprets the traditional notion of fear and formulates his own original concept of “rational” fear, the appearance of which became possible only in the era of mo-dernity. Breaking with the “tradition”, Hobbes formulates his definition of “fear” in a mechanical way. The English philosopher turns out to be the creator of the “new political science”, in which foundation he lays the concept of “rational” fear. In the analysis of the “Leviathan” frontispiece, special attention is paid to the visual strategies of the English philosopher and to the idea of the Leviathan as a mythical monster. The author examines some problem areas of the concept of “rational” fear and possible ways to overcome it.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):602-611
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EMOTIONAL STRUCTURES OF PERCEPTION OF RELIGIOUS TEXTS (The Image of Kalki in Medieval Puranas)
Ivanova A.S.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the psychological aspects of perception of the mythological image of Kalki - the tenth avatar of Vishnu, the Hindu messiah, whose coming will destroy the moral and religious decline in the last days of Kali-yuga. The emotionality of the artistic text can be reduced to a constant antagonism between the emotional affects of form and emotional content of the text, during which there is a catharsis, provoking the reader's aesthetic response. The use of psychological analysis of emotional structures of religious text on the material about Kalki in the medieval Purāṇas gives the op-portunity to assess the quality and intensity of emotional experiences, associated with the perception of the image of the mythological hero. Our goal is to test the method of Vygotsky, described in the “Psychology of Art”, and to study the emotional content of the religious text on the material of the Purāṇic myth about Kalki.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):612-620
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THE IDEOLOGICAL DISTURBANCE OF VIETNAM CONFUCIANITY IN THE XVI-XVIII CENTURIES
Nguyen a.D.
Abstract

In the 16-18th centuries there was a large number of cardinal changes in the political and socio-economic life of Vietnam. Confucianism as a political doctrine proved powerless to ensure the stability of centralized power, its position and dogma were already unconvincing for the society. Since Confucian values lost their brilliance, therefore, Confucian scientists required some actions that could lead to the restoration of former positions and the role of Confucianism among the ruling elite of the feudal system and in the society of that era.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):621-627
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Orekhov A.M. Puteshestvie vsled za Sovoi Minervy: Antichnaya filosofiya (Travelling Following Minerva’s Owl: Ancient Philosophy)
Shevchenko O.K.
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(4):628-630
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