Features of angiogenesis in eye diseases

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Abstract


Based on the analysis of published data, the review provides information on the role and mechanisms of angiogenesis in the development of eye diseases. It has been shown that the developing inflammatory process associated with infections or damage to the organ of vision almost always leads to the appearance of newly formed vessels in the avascular cornea. The progression, in particular, of age-related macular degeneration is associated with the immune-mediated development of angiogenesis processes. A key inducer of angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), whose activity can be enhanced by a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α), growth (fibroblast growth factor, FGF) and transforming factors (transforming growth factor beta, TGF- β). In addition, VEGF overproduction is mediated by an imbalance of pro-angiogenic (angiogenin) and anti-angiogenic (angiostatin, vasostatin, endostatin; tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases) factors. Antiangiogenic activity based on inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been successfully used in the treatment of a number of eye diseases, such as exudative age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema, the pathogenesis of which is based on the growth of newly formed vessels. The review presents information on the main anti-angiogenic drugs for intravitreal administration, used in ophthalmology.


About the authors

T. A. Khalimov

Ufa Eye Research Institute

Author for correspondence.
Email: khalimoff.timur@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7141-3214
Ufa, Russian Federation

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