Vol 26, No 2 (2021)

Литературоведение
Anton Chekhov’s Sakhalin Island: An Ongoing Commentary
Spachil O.V.
Abstract

A study of the currently existing translations of Anton Chekhov’s Sakhalin Island (From Travel Notes) (Luba and Michael Terpak - 1967, Brian Reeve - 1993) shows that the reason for some errors in translated texts is not always due to the negligence of translators, which is so clearly noticeable in the first translation, but rather in the incomprehensibi- lity for foreigners of some realia in the original text. Reference to two available Сommentaries on Sakhalin Island, by M.L. Semanova (1985) and M.S. Vysokov (2010), as well as to the works of other Chekhov scholars, did not give the sought-after explanations of certain vague excerpts from the book. Those obscure excerpts are also poorly understood by the Russian readership. In particular, we are talking about Chekhov’s mention of the use of a naval rope in the surgical department (Chapter VII) and the perception of the status of a class feldscher/paramedic (Chapter XII). The author of the article offers her own commentary on difficult-to-understand passages and thus fills the gap that has arisen. Conclusions are drawn about the need to continue to provide Chekhov’s Sakhalin Island with commentaries and notes. Such commentary should serve two purposes. Its linguistic and cultural character should help to clarify the realias not only for representatives of a foreign linguistic culture - in order to prevent gross errors in translations, but also for the present-day Russian reader, separated from the time when A.P. Chekhov’s book was written by almost one hundred and thirty years.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):169-176
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Chinese Gretchen in Russian Literature: on the Genesis and Attribution of M. Shkapskaya’s Poetry Book Tsa-Tsa-Tsa
Litvinova O.N.
Abstract

This article examines in detail Maria Shkapskaya’s poetry book Tsa-Tsa- Tsa (1923) and its handwritten genesis. It explains the role and significance of ancient Chinese poetry for this literary piece of work. The problem is to attribute the texts that make up the book and find out their translated or stylized basis. The general thesis is that all the poetic texts of the book are translations: the names of Tao-Yuan-Ming, Du Fu, and Bo-Juyi indicated by Shkapskaya in the manuscripts are reported. One of the texts in the book is attributed as the Sixth Poem from the Shi ju gu shi ( Nineteen Ancient Poems ). The removal of the names of Chinese authors (not only in the book published in 1923 but also in the manuscript of 1921) and the alignment of the thematic word series silk, crane, thousand, spring that organize the book into a single text indicate a tendency to blur the border of the own-alien text (even though the book was treated by the author as “translation from the Chinese”, in autobiographies and correspondence). This trend leads to the appearance of a central artistic image of the book (it is a feature of M. Shkapskaya’s poetic books). It is the image of a lonely, longing woman. The mention of the spinning wheel connects this image with the popular (especially in Western European literature) image of Gretchen. This way the poetry book Tsa-Tsa-Tsa goes beyond the narrowly translated work and reveals some features of chronologically later literary trends (such as postmodernism and metapoesis).

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):177-187
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Paradoxes of Historical Memory in A. Tvardovsky’s Post-War Poems
Nichiporov I.B.
Abstract

The article deals with the modern interpretation of four post-war poems by A.T. Tvardovsky: House by the Road, Beyond Distance, Tyorkin in the Other World, By Right of Memory , which were insufficiently studied in the previous research works. The main idea is focused on the artistic embodiment of historical thinking in these works. The main feature of these works is a contradictory combination of utopian consciousness and the dystopian mood of the lyric hero, who is pondering over personal and historical memory. The author concludes that Tvardovsky’s post-war poems capture the paradoxes of the historical thinking of a personality who, on the one hand, gets out of the influence of the dominant ideology, and on the other hand, demonstrates an apologetic attitude towards the key concepts and mythologems of totalitarian discourse. The hero of Tvardovsky’s later poems appears as a front-line soldier, an artist, a publicist, an analyst of modern times, a prescient; he wanders the roads of the past and present, at the crossroads of personal and historical memory, gets even to death, goes on believing in the mission of the political leaders, the a priori truth of the Country and the People inspired by dystopian impulses and sees mysteries of history through his destiny.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):188-197
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The Role of Rhythm and Metre in the Style and Genre Formation in B. Rachmanin’s Prose
Tsurueva P.S., Mineralova I.G.
Abstract

The issues of rhythm and metre in prose of 1960-1970s reflect the experiments of young writers not only within the form. The search for new genres and ways of expressing new content are diverse. The article deals with literary works by Boris Leonidovich Rachmanin, the author of poetry collections, stories, screenwriter, who boldly created a new internal form of his works using both possibilities of meter and rhythm in his prose, which was different from the works of his predecessors in the Silver Age or those who worked in the Russian diaspora. The analysis of works A Letter, The Action Takes Place on the Other Planet and others shows the functional potential of special rhythm and melody of prose in the individual style of the writer and also outlines semasiological approaches in the analysis of a literary work in general. Comparison of literary works by B. Rachmanin with the works by A. Bely or I.A. Bunin as his predecessors and Yustinas Martsinkevichus as his contemporary author gives an idea of the tradition Rachmanin inherited and the cultural style of the epoch in which the writer worked.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):198-205
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Creativity and Myth Making in Moscow Texts by A.S. Dolmatov
Zhukova A.A.
Abstract

The article deals with the problems of creativity and myth making in the Moscow texts by A. Dolmatov. The research is aimed at studying the author’s ideas about his lyrical hero and the formation of the narrator’s self-portrait. A. Dolmatov’s texts are dedicated to Moscow and the urban way of life, since it is the “Moscow theme” that is the sense-making component in the writer’s work. The article presents a brief history of rap poetry formation in Russia in the XXI century. The main features of problematics and poetics of A. Dolmatov’s texts are analyzed. The task is to trace the evolution of the author’s ideas on poetics and the meaning of rap as a genre of literature. The relationship of Dolmatov’s lyrical hero with the city of roads, Moscow, defines the development of the author’s work in alternative poetry of the 21 century.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):206-216
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Northern Cheyenne Exodus and Negroes Lynching: Historical Novels of Howard Fast in the USSR
Scherbinina O.I.
Abstract

The article deals with the historical novels’ reception of Howard Fast (a writer who was extremely popular in the 1950s, though he is almost forgotten now) in the Soviet Union. Once a USA Communist Party member loyal to the USSR, he became a fierce opponent of Soviet communism. The analysis of the American context uncovers the reasons why the author of left-wing beliefs turned to the genre of a historical novel and peculiarities of the literary market he faced. A close study of Soviet reviews demonstrates that the novels The Last Frontier and The Freedom Road were perceived by Soviet literary critics as Fast’s protest against racial discrimination and growing right-wing sentiment. These problems were a matter of urgency against the background of the McCarthy campaign, which Fast fell victim to in 1947. His novel The Freedom Road was put on the stage in Moscow theaters. According to Soviet reviewers, the absence of “decadent” primitivism set Fast apart from other once-friendly Soviet writers such as Richard Wright and Claude McKay. Within this tradition of exoticism criticism, dating back to the 1920s and 1930s, novels about distant lands were highly appreciated only when ethnographic descriptions were used for consistent social criticism. Being a committed supporter of the concept “art as a weapon” developed in the Soviet Union, Fast perceived exaggerated exoticism, top-heavy descriptions of historical novels as a sign of escapist literature that ignores the method of dialectical materialism.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):217-226
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The Depths of My Africa: Travelogues on the Land of Ancestors by Claude McKay and Langston Hughes
Kuzina D.D.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the image of Africa in the travelogues by poets Claude McKay (A Long Way From Home, 1937) and Langston Hughes (The Big Sea, 1940), the significant figures of Harlem Renaissance; and also compares this image with Africa in the poems of both writers. The image of Africa as “the land of ancestors” and “the foremother of the Negro people” was popular among the artists and philosophers of the Harlem Renaissance, but at the same time, it was often idealized. That is why meeting a real Africa becomes, to some extent, a moment of truth for an African-American artist, the reason to take a new look at himself and his values. Biographies of Hughes and McKay reveal why equally motivated, at first glance, writers united by a common dream of a “black people’s home”, when faced with the real Africa, react to it in exactly the opposite way. The article shows that young cosmopolitan poet Langston Hughes did not find respond to his poetic ideals in real Africa and after that forever divided Africa into real and poetic, while Claude McKay, who kept up the reunification of the Negro people and had traveled around the whole Europe, only in Africa for the first time in his life “went native”. At the same time, Hughes is significantly influenced by his mixed origins and McKay - by his colonial background. The article contains materials of correspondence, fragments of the travelogues never been translated into Russian before.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):227-236
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Журналистика
Russkoye Bogatstvo (Russian Wealth): Narodniki’s Magazine and the World Economic Crisis of 2020
Shevtsov N.V., Algavi L.O.
Abstract

Russia was proud of Russkoye Bogatstvo (Russian Wealth) magazine for a long while. It was among the most reputable and influential periodicals in the country. Not only had many Russians known of the magazine, but they were also its dedicated readers. On the one hand, the interest in Russkoye Bogatstvo could have been justified by the excellent selection of its authors among the best Russian writers and scientists. On the other hand, its publishers were Russia’s most famous critics, publicists, and outstanding literary figures recognized in the cultural and scientific circles. The magazine publications stood out due to their excellent style and availability for people of various social levels: both educated readers and those without profound knowledge of literature, science, and arts. The readers’ pool included older and experienced people and very young students. Later, the name of the magazine became a symbol of the great intellectual wealth of Russia.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):237-246
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Linguocultural Organization of the International Broadcasting in Russia Today
Efendieva N.E.
Abstract

In modern political and socio-cultural realities, a special role and importance are assigned to international broadcasting as a technology for positioning a content-producing country in the external environment, i. e. the global media space. The subject of this study is the explication of the specifics of the linguocultural organization of international broadcasting. The experience of Russia Today was taken as the flagship of international broadcasting in the Russian segment of the media space, through its activities influencing the formation of the geopolitical situation in the modern globalizing world. A complex of methods was used: historical and political analysis, structural analysis, contextual analysis, secondary analysis of sociological and statistical data. The empirical base was made up of four editions of the Sputnik Agency (Sputnik International, Sputnik Polska, Sputnik Türkiye, and Sputnik Belarus), representing various linguocultures - with differentiated ethnic and religious characteristics that have not only linguistic but also cultural manifestations in general. Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that the linguocultural organization of international broadcasting is considered as a means of implementing the diplomatic mission of the state-broadcaster with soft power tools in the globalizing world. It is based on the representation of positioning content, taking into account ethnicity, religion together with the linguistic and cultural characteristics of the audience. Both the effectiveness of promoting program statements and ideas and strengthening the country’s geopolitics depend on the degree of linguocultural orientation of international broadcasting activities.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):247-255
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The Main Lexical Features of the Newspaper-Journalistic Style in Modern Chinese Media Texts
Gao D., Bazanova A.E.
Abstract

Functional language styles serve social, political, economic, cultural, and other areas of human life, they are also widely used in our studies and life. The Chinese language’s journalistic style has its unique linguistic features that give us a basis for a better understanding of Chinese media texts. The research is carried out due to the necessity to identify the specifics and distinguishing features of the stylistic system of the Chinese language, in particular, the journalistic style, which is a kind of literary written Chinese language and is widely used in almost all mass media. The results introduce new data into the process of learning the functional styles of the Chinese language, and will also contribute to a better understanding of the structure, culture of the language, and content of Chinese media texts in terms of their lexical content.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):256-261
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Development of Popular Science Journalism in the Cross-Media Context
Lobodenko L.K., Davletshina E.V.
Abstract

The development of information and communication technologies and the digitalization of the media space create new opportunities for the popularization of scientific knowledge. There is an objective need to study popular science journalism as an activity that develops a multimedia network format and various media content distribution channels. The work is aimed at analyzing the features of the development of popular science journalism on the Internet in the context of cross-media. The study employed general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis), a method of studying documents with elements of content analysis, a comparative method that includes a comparison of different types of content, as well as data from social network and messenger analytics services. The authors studied media channels and ways to promote media content, its ideological, thematic, and structural characteristics, the features of its transformation on high citation index rating’s scientific-oriented platforms Nplus1.ru and Naked-science.ru. As a result of the conducted research, it was discovered that the audience involved in the studied online media is carried out through a differentiated cross-media presence, the use of rewriting, and reposting processes. Particular attention was focused on the comparative analysis of the media content of official websites, accounts in the social network VKontakte, and Telegram messenger.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):262-275
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Digital Competencies and Technologies of New Sincerity in the Web 4.0 Era
Fortunatov A.N., Voskresenskaya N.G.
Abstract

The problem of social aggression of young people that are immersed in digital communication has become the subject of this study. The authors did not confine to the state of the depressing condition of the ethical sphere in digital communication. They wanted to find out the underlying causes of the social antagonism and the conflict. One of the most important reasons for social destruction is the lack of clear space-time coordinates for a virtual subject. It leads to the use of the passive personality by the technologies themselves. A man turns into material for algorithms, and his psychophysics becomes a continuation of impersonal technology. This situation characterizes the formation of a new era of Web 4.0, which the authors call “counter communication”. Interactivity is a thing of the past. Technologies of “new sincerity” come to its place. Outrageousness, detabooing, use of eroticism are forms of communicative use of a virtual subject who, in the modern communicative space, is in a state of unrelenting tension, which only changes its mode in connection with all new reasons for exaltation. The study of the psyche of young people completely immersed in the virtual world has become a confirmation that virtual ethics is moving further and further from the “traditional” ethical principles. Their social skills, as well as social protection, were the lowest among the various groups of young people. Communication for them ultimately turns into a persistent search for entertainment, into a striving for a hedonistically comfortable environment, into denial of socially significant topics and problems.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):276-285
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Media Culture as the Information Age Phenomenon
Slavina V.A., Soldatkina Y.V.
Abstract

The article raises the issues of scientific reception of such a phenomenon as media culture. The authors offer their interpretation of media culture as a special type of culture of the information society in the broadest understanding of this phenomenon. The authors consider the concepts of “media” and “culture” and establishes their functional corresponddence. The contemporary stage of media development is characterized by a combination of communication and information intentions: classical media and mass communication media, including new media, blogs, social networks, as well as digital copies of non-network artifacts and their network modifications. The result of these media communications is a media text in the broadest interpretation of this concept. According to the authors’ concept, contemporary media culture realizes itself in two main aspects. In the applied sense, a media culture is a form of representation and digitalization of classical and network cultural units. In the global sense, media culture is understood as an aesthetic and axiological sphere of society’s life, in which culture combines the value and artistic heritage, using the information and communication channels of the media for its representation in politics, education, and culture itself.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):286-293
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Fight against Disinformation in Ukraine: Challenges and Prospects
Vasiliev A.A., Kadyrova S.N., Fomin A.A.
Abstract

The material presents the analysis of the draft law of Ukraine On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Regarding Ensuring National Information Security and the Right of Access to Reliable Information . This law can for the first time in the history of the country criminalize journalists for disseminating false information and set up new forms of control over information in the future. This is not the first attempt by the country’s leadership to bring all actors into a legal and civilized channel (the draft law On the Media No. 2693, which is also under consideration by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, stands for the systematic policy of reforming the media sector of Ukraine). The research is aimed at defining the place of the draft law in the reformed system of legal regulation of the Ukrainian media, from the position of the academic community neutral to the process. For this purpose, a detailed content analysis was conducted, which showed that, in the long run, the ambiguous wording of the adopted document at the stage of its enforcement, leaves the regulatory authorities free to interpret it depending on the interests of the parties, rather than on the language of the law. Considering the risks associated with the entry into force of this draft, one should also take into account the ambiguous reaction of the local and international media community. The article may be considered as a contribution to the development of criteria for a comprehensive scientific analysis of the legislation regulating the activity of media structures.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):294-301
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Russian Public Relations in 2020: Peculiar Features of Transformation
Shilina M.G., Volkova I.I.
Abstract

The paper presents the current transformations of Russian public relations during the SaRS-COVID-19 pandemic and remote working in 2020. In response to the crisis and uncertainty, companies have adapted and restructured corporate strategies and communications. The increasing demand for communication support of strategies and daily support of corporate activities indicates the growing significance of PR and the implementation of organizational strategies, as well as the demand for the optimization of corporate communication in society. The PR industry in general and professional communication are becoming more and more integrated due to the attraction of knowledge, competencies, specialists from a wide range of related industries: marketing, sociology, management. The current communication situation caused changes in the characteristics of Russian PR in the segment of communication agencies. Despite the traditionally high volume of the agencies’ marketing services, the growth of crisis and digital communications has turned to be stable, which indicates the demand for more flexible PR formats. Based on an analysis of public relations of the leading local communication agencies in 2020, the authors put forward a hypothesis on the formation of the prerequisites for the transition of Russian public relations to the format of strategic communications.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):302-310
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Рецензии. Обзоры
The “Big Twenties” in the History of Russian Literature of the 20th Century: to the Сentenary of the Magazine Krasnaya Nov
Ovcharenko A.Y.
Abstract

The review article presents various views on the periodization of Russian literature in the 1920s and 1930s and provides arguments in favor of new, refined approaches to the boundaries of the period. Particularly noteworthy are the works of those authors who point to the need for an expanded understanding of the “twenties”. The concept of the “Big Twenties” is of particular value in connection with the centenary of the magazine Krasnaya Nov , which made a significant contribution to the literary process of that time.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):311-316
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The Mythological World in the Literary Texts of the Turkic-speaking Peoples: Book review of: Sharyafetdinov, R.Kh. (2021). Mythopoetics of Tatar literature: Monograph. Moscow, Berlin, Direct-Media
Tairova I.A.
Abstract

The review of the monograph by R.Kh. Sharyafetdinov "Mythopoetics of Tatar Literature" deals with new developments in the field of mythopoetics, based on Tatar artistic material. The mytho-religious approach of the researcher is analyzed, which makes it possible to study at a deep level the influence of cultural, philosophical, and religious realities on Tatar literature. For this purpose, the author of the scientific work examines the Tatar cosmogonic ideas, the mythologism of the plant and animal worlds in the works of Kul Gali, Mukhammedyar, G. Kandaly; Dardmend, G. Tukay, F. Burnash, N. Isanbet; M. Jalil; F. Karim; M. Khabibullina, N. Fattakh, R. Kutuy, R. Faizullin; R. Zaydulla, G. Yakhina.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):317-320
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Andrey Platonov and Literary Moscow: the History of Influences and Reflections: Book review of: Malygina, N.M. (2018). Andrey Platonov and Literary Moscow: Monograph. Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nestor-Istorija Publ.
Kravets A.S.
Abstract

The review gives the analysis of a new biographical study on Andrey Platonov and the Moscow literary environment. The monograph by N.M. Malygina restores the phenomena of literary Moscow in 1920-1940-s, it also gives an idea of the place the writer took and the role he played among professionals. As well it illustrates the relationship and influence of authors and critics on each other. For the first time the artistic world and the writer’s strategy of Andrei Platonov are compared with the world and the strategy of B.L. Pasternak.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):321-324
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ESports: a Review of Foreign and Russian Media Resources
Chernyavskaya A.G.
Abstract

Millions of people all over the world watch ESports matches and follow the news about favourite teams and players. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic ESports market has received unprecedented growth of audience. The present paper is aimed at exploring and comparing specific features of ESports internet resources development around the world. The author observes the most visited ESports sites in such countries as South Korea, China, the USA, and Russia. Also, this article examines website traffic statistics to analyze the popularity of ESports internet resources among an audience. The data is based on the number of views and visitors for each country during the day, month, and year. The study showed that the Asian ESports media market prefers to use video format for providing content compared to the USA and Russia. The USA and Russia still use text and video formats.

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):325-330
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Albanian Digital Communications: Some Aspects of Development
Mahamutaj B.
Abstract

Internet communications in Albania are developing according to a special scenario. It is explained by the country’s long international isolation and, accordingly, the late arrival of digitalization in this European state. The author notes the high level of currently provided Internet services: Albania is ahead of the leading countries in some indicators. However, this breakthrough is taking place against the background of the generally low level of education of the Albanians and low incomes of the population, so the supply does not match the demand, it overtakes it. A separate problem is the large amount of false information that goes from social networks to online media. The immediate urgent task that the Albanian media community will have to solve is increasing media literacy and regulating the Internet (either through user’s self-control or with the help of the state).

RUDN Journal of Studies in Literature and Journalism. 2021;26(2):331-337
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