Vol 21, No 2 (2017)

Articles
“A Mirror in which Everyone Displays their Image”: Identity Construction in Discourse
Leontovich O.A.
Abstract
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):247-259
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Transnationalism as an Index to Construct European Identities: an Analysis of ‘Transeuropean’ Discourses
Zappettini F.
Abstract
Transnationalism is a multifaceted phenomenon which has impacted on society and challenged, inter alia, the paradigm of national affiliations. The trasnationalisation of the EU-ropean field has arguably contributed to a political arena where embryonic post-national identities and new forms of belonging are being negotiated, challenged and legitimized. By investigating the discourses of members of a transnational NGO of ‘active’ citizens, this paper seeks to understand how current European identities are discursively constructed from bottom up in the public sphere. Appropriating CDA this paper offers insights into how discursive strategies and linguistic devices used by the speakers, and predicated on the indexicality of transnational frames, construct Europe and patterns of belonging to it. This paper suggests different conceptual dimensions of transnationalism enacted by members in discourse which are conveniently summarised as: nation-centric, Euro-centric, and cosmopolitan.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):260-281
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Exploring the Intercultural Identity of Slovak-Roma Schoolchildren in the UK
Hryniewicz L., Dewaele J.
Abstract
There is a significant body of literature about the Roma, but comparatively little exists in which their voices can be heard. This study takes an intercultural perspective to look at the identity negotiations of four self-identifying Roma-Slovak schoolchildren between the ages of 13-14 enrolled at a state academy in Kent. Interviews focused on the role of language in constructing their identities, the perceptions of others and the nature of possible conflicts. The qualitative analyses revealed five themes: Perception of Identity by Others, Adaptability, Aspirations, Self-Perceptions of Identity, and Conflict. Participants’ identities were found to be far more dynamic than the traditional binarized view of the Roma as the ‘other’ (McGarry & Agarin 2014). There is a strong element of ascription by others in terms of the nature of participants’ ethnicity and its relationship to their identity. Both their ethnic and national identity are central in the ways in which they see themselves.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):282-304
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Discursive functions of Japanese Personal Pronouns
Oishi E.
Abstract
The first-person pronoun “I” refers to a particular individual as the speaker producing an utterance, and second-person “you” refers to another individual to whom the speaker directs the utterance. This well-accepted idea of personal pronouns, however, does not contribute to the explication of their functions in discourse although only first- and second-person pronouns refer to “discourse instances” ( instances de discourse ) (Benveniste 1966). This paper aims to establish the contention that the first-person pronoun “I” refers to the speaker as the addresser of an illocutionary act, and the second-person pronoun “you” refers to the hearer as the addressee of the illocutionary act. This clarifies the discursive function of the personal pronouns: they indicate participants of the illocutionary act performed in the discourse. Identifying the indicating function of personal pronouns makes it possible to analyze Japanese personal pronouns and the formality level of the discourse, which are generally assumed to be a problem case, in a consistent manner.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):305-319
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Narratives about Displacement and Stigmatization of Identities
de Oliveira M.C., Lisboa C.M.
Abstract

The displacement of people who leave their home to live in the streets is one of the social dramas commonly found in large urban areas. Despite forming a heterogeneous population group, these people are seen by society as one homogenous crowd, grouped together based on the generalizations of negative categorizations attributed to them. This article analyzes the displacement storytelling of a woman who lost her house to heavy rainstorms, which forced her to go live in the streets with her seven youngest children. Based on the concepts of membership categorization analysis, stigma and talking back, we aim to investigate how this former street dweller refutes the stigmatized identities that she knows are attributed to her, as well as how she claims an alternative identity. Her narrative was produced in the context of an interview for research on life stories. The results show that the storyteller seeks to build a coherent narrative for her own self by adopting a belief system to organize her life story and by providing explanations to the events in her life. Accordingly, she blames the street dwellers’ deviant behavior on the street environment, and also claims her status as a member of the “family” collection by invoking the dominant discourse on motherhood as an ideal of female fulfillment. Ultimately, this study highlights the importance of knowing the native categories, that is, the categories created by the members of the group whose actions are being studied, which challenge the categories conceived by outsiders.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):320-334
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“A Significant Part of an Insignificant Identity”: the Re-Articulation of North-East Scots between Tradition and Globalization
Loester B.
Abstract

In Britain the conflict between the national standard and regional languages and varieties, or rather those perceived to be ‘only’ a dialect, is still going strong and Scots plays a peculiar role in it. It is recognised and afforded a certain level of protection and promotion under the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages (ECRML). While related to English, Scots has a number of regional varieties and it stands in competition with other varieties of English within Scotland. North-East Scots (NE Scots), also known as ‘the Doric’, in particular occupies a rather special place within the sphere of Scots. While research has often focused on the perceived status of urban versus rural Scots, this paper examines the attitudes towards NE Scots with regard to identity construction as displayed by its speakers in rural areas and small towns in the North-East. Another focal point is the use of the regional variety as a perceived act of resistance against the ostensible dominance of English. Within the mind of its speakers what kind of identity do they feel they have - a largely local/regional, a national Scottish, a British one or something entirely different? The analysis of interview data highlights that respondents’ statements and their actual linguistic behaviour reinforce the affirmation of their regional identity; the extent to which this occurs will also be investigated.

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):335-347
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Cultivation of Communicative Space: Polemical Eloquence vs. Epideictic Eloquence
Khazagerov G.G.
Abstract
The article focuses on the problem of the influence of rhetorical genres of cultivating communication. This influence varies polemical and epideictic genres. The first affect the cultivation of horizontal social relations. Second on the - on the development of vertical ones. Epideictic kind of eloquence interpreted expanded. This takes into account those new genres, which could not have known Aristotle defined the function epideictic speeches as “praise or blame”. It is about propaganda, advertising, homiletics and didactics. At the same time the controversy is associated not only with the dialogic, but also with the monological texts. This raises the question about the role of literature in the cultivation of controversy. The material is mainly the history of Russian literature and language. The conclusion is that the excessive development of some sorts of eloquence at the expense of others can be counter-productive for the culture.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):348-361
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Text as an Element of Integrative Scientific Space
Schirova I.A.
Abstract
The article accentuates the importance of flexible scientific approaches, the use of which is caused by the anthropocentric paradigm and the revival of the holistic view on the world. The aim of the article is to describe a fictional text as an element of integrative scientific space, formed by a number of opposite key concepts, which are, however contrary they are, turn to have much in common: science vs. arts, scientific truth vs. artistic truth, scientific worldview vs. artistic worldview, scientific cognition vs. perceptual cognition, scientific information vs. aesthetic information. The research is done on the text of the essay with the use of hypothetico-deductive method, comparative method, as well as methods of contextological and lingvo-stylistic analysis. As the results of the research show, the border-lines between the concepts compared are flexible. The same flexibility is demonstrated by the text of the essay, whose syncretic nature is determined by the combination of the distinctive features of scientific style and belles-lettres style. Those style manifestations reflect the author’s appeal to both ratio and emotio, thus proving these two spheres to be inseparably linked.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):362-378
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Redefining Neutrality in Language and Discourse
Konurbaev M.E.
Abstract
This paper explores some aspects of functional stylistics with relation to discourse analysis. The basis of every stylistic research is the identification of a set of linguistic elements that determine stylistic variation in a context of speech. Without this basis, every unit of speech may be considered only optionally marked with no ground for the estimation of its relative significance or communicative value. It is argued in the paper based on the theory of ‘timbre strings’ (Konurbaev 2015) that contextual neutrality is primarily functional rather than purely stylistic in nature. Linguistic elements marked in the dictionary as stylistically marked may remain neutral in the context of stylistically comparable elements as is the case with the Bible or other context heavily fraught with inherently connotative elements. Every instance of stylistic markedness or neutrality can be determined against the broad stylistic background of the context under investigation. Intonation and timbre may serve as a good marker of stylistic hierarchy of elements in speech.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):379-389
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A Discourse-Based View in Interdisciplinary Approaches to Fictional Text Analysis
Sousa A.
Abstract
As patterns of communication change in a globalized society, literacy in foreign languages, especially English, becomes an issue of ever growing relevance to all those involved in the educational system, not to mention those who are to learn all their life long. As such, the goal of this article is to discuss how EFLit (English as a Foreign Literature) students can gain in both linguistic competence and critical awareness thereof, should their teachers/lecturers abide to a discourse-based view on (literary) language and approach the selected texts by following a pedagogical stylistics orientation also drawing eclectically on pragmatics and other areas of knowledge within the broader domain of applied linguistics. Here under focus will be a discussion of the topics on which literary and linguistic studies show greatest potential for (theoretical) convergence and, above all, combined applications in lecture setting. Crucially, it will be argued that a pedagogical stylistics approach to EFLit teaching/learning both develops students’ linguistic competence and raises their awareness as to the meaning making potential of language in use in the texts at hand as well as in their larger historical and sociocultural settings. This will be illustrated by highlighting some textual features within a short extract of Fred D’Aguiar’s The Longest Memory (1995) and the linguistic competence that its comprehension would demand from students.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):390-404
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“Promise” as Speech Behavior Pattern: Method of Contrastive Analysis (Based on Russian and German Languages)
Kotorova E.G.
Abstract
The present paper aims to provide a new methodology for contrastive analysis of basic units of intra- and intercultural communication and exemplify it using the analysis of the speech behavior pattern of promise. In contrast to the other existing terms used for a basic unit of communication behavior, such as speech act (J. Austin and J. Searle), speech genre (M. Bakhtin), the author suggests employing a new one, namely, speech behaviour pattern (SBP). The illocutionary content and general organization of SBP can be considered universal, while its realization in a language is culturally conditioned and therefore may vary significantly in different language communities. When analyzing SBP, one needs to single out and describe the following components: 1) the communicative aim of SBP or its illocution in terms of Natural Semantic Language, 2) the structure of SBP including lexical and grammatical characteristics of the major components of utterances that realize the given pattern, 3) situational-pragmatic factors that influence the realization of SBP, 4) the communicative-pragmatic field reflecting the hierarchical organization of SBP, consisting of the prototypical core and gradually formed periphery, and 5) the perlocutionary effect of SBP, i.e. description of possible reactions to utterances realizing the given pattern. Using the proposed methodology, the author provides a contrastive analysis of the SBP of promise in German and Russian. The study is based on the existing corpora of the two languages.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):405-423
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Logoepistems in Creolised Texts of Internet Discourse
Gladkaya N.V.
Abstract
This article discusses the most common mechanisms of creolised text formation in the Internet communication, analyses its functions and impact on recipients representing different cultures. The interest to the topic is caused by the necessity of the systematisation of basic models of creolised text formation. This system enables to study the types of connections between verbal and nonverbal components and to see the nature of the comic effect and its impact on recipients. The focus is made on the role of visual information in the Internet communication. The article analyses the phenomenon of presupposition basing on the theory of Arutyunova (1973) and Demyankov (2005). Presupposition precedes the statement, it involves background knowledge of the audience, and includes situational context. Demotivators may challenge presuppositions as precedent elements included in its composition may reflect the specificity of the modern sociocultural context. The genre of demotivator can be viewed as a precedent phenomenon that is regularly reproduced and well known to all members of a social and cultural group. For a greater effect of demotivators there should be a dissonance between the words and image. The article suggests a classification of logoepistemes (compressed texts containing culture-specific characteristics) and show that their use creates a specific associative array with the recipient. The study implements methods of contextual, comparative and discourse analyses.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):424-437
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Review of Marklen E. Konurbaev (2016) The Style and Timbre of English Speech and Literature. Palgrave MacMillan
Rimmer W.
Abstract
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):438-440
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International Conference on Language and Emotion, Madrid, Spain, 23-25 November, 2016
Santamaría-García C., Ferrer-Revull D.
Abstract
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):441-445
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The Fifth Liberal Arts International Conference: Reinventing Ourselves: Innovation and the Liberal Arts, Doha, Qatar, 29-31 January 2017
Kurteš S., Eslami Z.R.
Abstract
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):446-450
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O.A. Krylova (1937-2017)
- -.
Abstract
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2017;21(2):451-454
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