Cover Page


The article reveals the degree of influence of libertarianism on the development of various institutions of state and law. It is shown how one of its trends, libertarian paternalism, presented by researchers of behavioral economics R. Thaler and K. Sunstein, formulates not only proposals related to improving the economic, financial and investment climate of any country, but also affects other social institutions: health care, protecting environment, marriage and family, education. In this regard, a general review of libertarian teachings has been carried out. It is indicated that the extreme manifestation of libertarianism is agorism and autarchy, in which the state is recognized as the worst form of organizing social organization. General accusations are formulated in relation to the state and law by the main representatives of libertarianism (F. Hayek, M. Friedman, M. Rothbard, etc.). The political and legal significance of Keynesianism (the ideas of J.M. Keynes), which advocates the strengthening of the role of the state in regulating economy and finance, is indicated. The essence, meaning and main characteristics of libertarian paternalism based on pushing (for this purpose, scientists use the special term - Nudge) citizens to a specific model of behavior (taking into account their behavioral characteristics) proposed by the “architects of choice” are analyzed. The forms of legal registration of pushing in various social spheres are highlighted. The forms of manifestation and the prospects for introduction of libertarian paternalism in Russian legislation are considered in relation to environmental protection, transplantology, and marriage registration. The arguments of opponents of libertarian paternalism are systematized. It is shown that for the Russian Federation, a new ideology trying to combine freedom of choice and state regulation will have certain prospects. Based on this, the main provisions of libertarian paternalism (despite their somewhat contradictory nature) can be used to improve the quality of public administration and increase the efficiency of state regulation.

About the authors

Olga V. Romanovskaya

Penza State University

Author for correspondence.
40 Krasnaya str., Penza, 440026, Russian Federation

Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Full Professor, Legal Sciences Department


  1. Aggarwal, A., Davies, J., Sullivan, R. (2014) “Nudge” in the clinical consultation — an acceptable form of medical paternalism? BMC Medical Ethics. 15 (31), available at: (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  2. Arad, A., Rubinstein, A. (2018) The people’s perspective on libertarian-paternalistic policies. Journal of Law and Economics. (61), 311–333.
  3. Belsham, W. (1789) On Liberty and Necessity. Essays Philosophical and Moral, Historical and Literary. Vol I. Book I. Essay I. London, (16), available at: (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  4. Bergin, E. (2007) Velikaia revoliutsiia idei: vozrozhdenie svobodnykh rynkov posle Velikoi depressii [The Great revolution of ideas: the revival of free markets after the great depression]. Translation from English. A.A. Stolyarov: scientific. ed. A.V. Kuryaev. Moscow, Мysl' Publ. (in Russian).
  5. Boniolo, G., Rebba, V. (2015) Cancer, obesity, and legitimation of suggested lifestyles: a libertarian paternalism approach. Ecancer. (9), 588. doi: 10.3332/ecancer.2015.588. (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  6. Carlin, B.I., Gervais, S., Manso, G. (2013) Libertarian paternalism, information production, and financial decision-making. The Review of Financial Studies. 26 (9), 2204–2228.
  7. Cronqvist, H., Thaler, R.H. (2004) Design choices in privatized social-security systems: learning from the swedish experience. The American Economic Review. 94 (2), 424–428.
  8. De Jasay, A. (1998) The State. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
  9. Epstein, R.A. (2018) The Dangerous Allure of Libertarian Paternalism. Review of Behavioral Economics. (5), 389–416.
  10. Erhard, L. (2001) Blagosostoianie dlia vsekh [Welfare for all]. Moscow, Delo Publ. (in Russian).
  11. Fridman, M. (2006) Kapitalizm i svoboda [Capitalism and freedom]. Moscow, Novoe izdatel'stvo, Publ. (in Russian).
  12. Fridman, M., Fridman, R. (2007) Svoboda vybirat': Nasha pozitsiia [Freedom to choose: Our position]. Moscow, Novoe izdatel'stvo Publ. (in Russian).
  13. Gill, N., Gill, M. (2012) The limits to libertarian paternalism: two new critiques and seven bestpractice imperatives. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. (30), 924–940.
  14. Got'e, S.V., Khomiakov, C.M. (2019) Organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation in 2018. XI message of the register of the Russian Transplant Society. Russian Journal of Transplantology and Artificial Organs. 21 (3), 7–32. (in Russian).
  15. Hansen, P.G. (2016) The definition of nudge and libertarian paternalism: does the hand fit the glove? The European Journal of Risk Regulation. 7 (1), 155–174.
  16. Hayek, F. (1992) Pagubnaia samonadeiannost'. Oshibki sotsializma [Pernicious Arrogance. The errors of socialism]. Moscow, Novosti, Catallaxy Publ. (in Russian).
  17. Hayek, F. (2005) Doroga k rabstvu [The Road to Slavery]. Moscow. Novoe izdatel'stvo Publ. (in Russian).
  18. Jolls, C., Sunstein, C., Thaler, R.H. (1998) A Behavioral Appoach to Law and Economics. Stanford Law Review. (50), 1471–1550.
  19. Kelsen, G. (2015) Chistoe uchenie o prave [Pure doctrine of law]. Saint Petersburg. «Alef-Press» Publ. (in Russian).
  20. Keynes, D.M. (2007) Obshchaia teoriia zaniatosti, protsenta i deneg [General theory of employment, interest and money]. Moscow, Eksmo Publ. (in Russian).
  21. Keynes, D.M. (2015) Vpechatleniia o Sovetskoi Rossii. Dolzhno li gosudarstvo upravliat' ekonomikoi [Impressions of Soviet Russia. Should the state manage the economy]. Moscow, TD Algoritm Publ. (in Russian).
  22. Keynes, J.M. (1926) The end of laissez-faire, available at: 1926.html (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  23. Konkin, III S.E. (1981) Reply to Rothbard, available at: konkinreplytorothbard.htm (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  24. Konkin, III S.E. (2012) Novyi libertarnyi manifest [New libertarian manifesto]. Moscow, Anarkhosamizdat-press Publ. (in Russian).
  25. Kuznetsov, D.V. (2014) Vneshnyaya politika SShA. Khrestomatiya [US foreign policy. Reader]. Blagoveshchensk, Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University Publ. (in Russian).
  26. Laski, H.J. (2005) The rise of European liberalism: An Essay in Interpretation. Aakar Books.
  27. LeFevre, R. (1959) The nature of man and his Government, available at: The_Nature_of_Man_and_His_Government_0.pdf (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  28. Nock, A.J. (1928) On Doing the Right Thing, and Other Essays. N.Y. Harper and Bros, available at: (Accessed 10 June 2020).
  29. Nozick, R. (2008) Anarchy, state and utopia. Translation from English B. Pinsker, Yu. Kuznetsov and A. Kuryaev (eds.). Moscow, IRISEN Publ. (in Russian).
  30. Otteson, J.R. (2018) Adam Smith’s libertarian paternalism. The Oxford Handbook of Freedom. Edited by David Schmidtz and Carmen E. Pavel, available at: (Accessed 12 June 2020).
  31. Panskov, V.G. (2017) Progressive or proportional taxation scale: which is fairer and more effective? Taxes and taxation. (2), 105–112. (in Russian).
  32. Reznik, O.N., Prilutskii, A.M., Lebedev, V.Iu., Mikhel', D.V. (2019) Public rejection of the problem of posthumous organ donation: causes and structure of mortal fears. Russian Journal of Transplantology and Artificial Organs. 21 (1), 169–179. (in Russian).
  33. Rotbard, M. (2003) Vlast' i rynok: Gosudarstvo i ekonomika [Power and the market: State and economy]. Cheliabinsk. Sotsium Publ. (in Russian).
  34. Rotbard, M. (2009) K novoi svobode: Libertarianskii manifest [Towards a New Freedom: The Libertarian Manifesto]. Moscow, Novoe izdatel'stvo Publ. (in Russian).
  35. Rubinshtein, A.Ia. (2015) Institutsional'naia evoliutsiia paternalizma [Institutional evolution of paternalism]. Moscow, Institute of Economics Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) Publ. (in Russian).
  36. Rubinshtein, A.Ia. (2019) Why are some theories not recognized, while others are succesful? «Meritorious paternalism» of R. Musgrave and «Libertarian paternalism» of R. Thaler. HSE Economic Journal. 23 (3), 345–364. doi: 10.17323/1813-8691-2019-23-3-345-364. (in Russian).
  37. Salvat, C. (2008) Is libertarian paternalism an oxymoron?: A comment on Sunstein and Thaler, available at: (Accessed 09 June 2020).
  38. Schlag, P. (2010) Nudge, Choice architecture, and libertarian paternalism. Michigan Law Review. 108 (6), 913–924, available at: 362 (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  39. Sunstein, C., Thaler, R.H. (2003) Libertarian paternalism. The American Economic Review. 93 (2).175–179.
  40. Sunstein, C., Thaler, R.H. (2003) Libertarian paternalism is not an oxymoron. University of Chicago Law Review. 70 (4), 1159–1202.
  41. Sunstein Cass R. (2013) Simple(r): the future of government. NewYork: Simon & Schuster.
  42. Thaler, R. (1977) An econometric analysis of property crime: interaction between police and criminals. Journal of Public Economics. 8 (1), 37–51.
  43. Thaler, R. (1980) Toward a positive theory of consumer choice. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 1 (1), 39–60, available at: (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  44. Thaler, R.H. (1978) A Note on the value of crime control: evidence from the property market. Journal of Urban Economics. (5), 137–145, available at: richard.thaler/assets/files/A%20Note%20on%20the%20Value%20of%20Crime%20Control%20Evidence%20from%20the%20Property%20Market.pdf (Accessed 05 June 2020).
  45. Thaler, R.H. (1985) Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice. Marketing Science. (4), 199–214, available at: (Accessed 10 June 2020).
  46. Thaler, R.H., Benartzi, S., Utkus, S.P., Sunstein, C.R. (2007) The law and economics of company stock in 401(k) plans. Journal of Law and Economics. 50 (1), 45–79, available at: https:// 20of%20Company%20Stock%20in%20401(k)%20Plans.pdf (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  47. Thaler, R.H., Sunstein, C.R., Balz, J.P. (2014) Choice architecture. The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy, Chapter 25, available at: assets/files/Choice%20Architecture.pdf (Accessed 11 June 2020).
  48. Thaler, R. Sunstein, K. (2017) Nudge. Arkhitektura vybora. Kak uluchshit' nashi resheniia o zdorov'e, blagosostoianii i schast'e [Nudge. Architecture of choice. How to improve our decisions about health, well-being and happiness]. Moscow, Mann, Ivanov i Ferber Publ. (in Russian).
  49. Vorobiev, V.A., Maiboroda, T.L. (2017) Libertarian paternalism of R. Thaler: foundations, opportunities, conceptual failures. Belarusian Economic Journal. (4), 4–22. (in Russian)
  50. Wheeler, D.C., Szymanski, K.M., Black, A., Nelson, D.E. (2011) Applying strategies from libertarian paternalism to decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening. BMC Cancer. 11(148), available at:
  51. Wilkinson, T. (2013) Nudging and manipulation. Political Studies. 61 (2), 341–355.



Abstract - 156

PDF (Russian) - 141





  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Romanovskaya O.V.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies