INSTITUTES OF PUBLIC AUTHORITY IN KALMYKIA IN THE 17TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CIVILIZATION AND CULTURAL APPROACH

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Abstract


In order to more clearly present the processes, which taking place in Russian society, for a clearer assessment of the situation of national republics within the Russian Federation, it is necessary to turn to the historical and legal development of separate nations within Russia. Changes in the system of government of Russia, the emergence of new socio-economic, political, spiritual and cultural problems necessitate the development of new forms of cooperation between the regions and the federal center. The search for a better model of state administration of the regions pay our attention to the historical and legal development of public administration institutions in Kalmykia in the 17th-19th centuries. In this regard, we can turn to the experience of the development of Kalmyk society within Russia, namely the development of institutions of public authority and management of Kalmyk society. Since the formation of the Kalmyk Khanate within Russia, the central government practically did not interfere in the internal affairs of the Khanate. Gradually, the Russian government began to intervene in the choice of the head of the Khanate, in the settlement of disputes between the nobility. Further, Russian government officials appear in the Kalmyk steppe, submitting to central and local government bodies. As a result by the middle of the XIX century, a system of bailiffs was formed, and then the system of guardianship by the Kalmyk people, which practically eliminated national governance, transferring the functions of exercising public authority to the Russian authorities. At the same time, the Russian government adopted several regulatory legal acts aimed at improving public administration of the Kalmyk society. In addition, ministry officials and the administration of the Astrakhan province developed a number of projects to reform the management system, taxation and judicial system in the Kalmyk steppe, which were never accepted for various reasons, but which were important for improving the management of the Kalmyk society. A number of projects were developed in connection with reforms in Russia in the 60s-70s of the 19th century and therefore, changes were needed to manage the Kalmyk people. The implementation of reforms, among other things, interfered with the dependence of common Kalmyks on noyons and zaisangs, which was abolished only in 1892. This reform freed noyons from managing ulus, and zaisang from managing aimags. In addition, taxation of the Kalmyk people was reorganized, which continued into the beginning of the 20th century. Subordinating Kalmykia to the Ministry of the Interior in 1902, the government reorganized the administrative-territorial structure, but further transformations in Kalmyk society were suspended by the world war and the revolutionary events of 1917.


About the authors

Evgeniy A. Komandzhaev

Kalmyk State University B.B. Gorodovikova

Author for correspondence.
Email: komandzhaev@mail.ru
11, Pushkin st., Elista, Republic of Kalmykia, Russia, 3580008

Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikova, doctoral candidate of the Department of History of Law and State, Institute of Law, Peoples' Friendship University of Russian

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