Arbitration (Arbitral Tribunal): History and Legal Nature

Cover Page

Abstract


Since the ancient times, arbitration has been considered as an institution of peace and justice. Rene David noted that the essence of arbitration was not to maintain the rule of law, but to ensure harmony between people. Arbitration is a society-oriented institution of dispute resolution. However, the history of this institution shows that the legal regulation of its activities always depended on the state. Currently, there is no generally accepted definition of arbitration, although some legal acts both international and national nature reflect attempts to give a legal notion of this institution. At the doctrinal level, there are four established approaches to arbitration: contractual, procedural, mixed and autonomous. The author of this article examines the legal nature of arbitration in a historical aspect, starting with the countries of the Ancient World and Medieval Europe. An attempt has been made to compare the history, legislative, organizational and legal bases of arbitration in Russia and Switzerland. Despite the differences in the traditions of arbitral tribunals in these countries, this comparison is quite correct for the author. In Switzerland, arbitration (the arbitral tribunal) has a fairly long history, and the legislative regulation of its activities is devoid of internal contradictions. In addition, the Swiss legislator promptly makes changes in regulatory legal acts to provide more favorable conditions for arbitration proceedings to the disputing parties in order to attract to Switzerland commercial organizations seeking to resolve their conflicts in this country. Since 2012 some changes in the law on arbitration have come into force in Switzerland, and new Rules of arbitration have been adopted by the Swiss Chambers of Commerce. In contrast to Switzerland, in Russia the first legal acts in the field of private commercial arbitration were enacted only after 1990. The Russian legal concept of commercial disputes resolution today partially reflects the concept of Soviet arbitration, where it means state arbitration. In the Russian Federation till now, there are arbitration state courts. However, the subject of this study will be a different arbitration, the creation of which is provided by Federal Law No. 382 of December 29, 2015 "On Arbitration (arbitration proceeding) in the Russian Federation". In accordance with this law, the term "arbitration" may have at least two meanings. This term, on the one hand, refers to a procedure or method of dispute resolution, on the other - an authority or institution that resolves a dispute and makes a decision on it. The new law on arbitration provides definitions of arbitration, arbitral tribunal and arbitration institution, but at the same time contains many contradictions with the current legislation. The author makes a well-founded conclusion that arbitration is a private legal method of dispute resolution, whose decision is mandatory for the parties that apply to it, and by regulating its activities, the Russian legislator is trying to create a favorable environment for the resolution of such disputes. At the same time, the Federal law of December 29, 2015 provides for the dependence of arbitration (arbitral tribunal) on the state.


About the authors

Ilda Kasa

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)

Author for correspondence.
Email: kasaildar@gmail.com
6, Miklukho-Maklaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117198

PhD student, Assistant Professor, the Department of Judiciary, Law Enforcement and Human Rights Activity

References

  1. Ademi, A. (2015). Zgjidhja e kontesteve tregtare para arbitrazhit tregtar ndërkombëtar [Settlement of trade disputes in International commercial arbitration]. LL.D. Tirane. (in Albanian).
  2. Blessing, M. (1999). Introduction to Arbitration — Swiss and International Perspectives. Frankfurt am Main: Helbing und Lichtenhahn Publ.
  3. David, R. (1985). Arbitration in International Trade. Boston: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers.
  4. Fouchard, P., Gaillard, E., Goldman, B. (1999). Fouchard, Gaillard, Goldman on International Commercial Arbitration. The Hague, Boston, London: Kluwer Law International.
  5. Garro, A. (2002). Ljudovik Svjatoj i ego korolevstvo [The Holy Louis and His Kingdom]. Saint Petersburg: Evrazija Publ. (in Russian).
  6. Gerasimenko, Ju.V., Terehova, L.A. (2017). O novoj procedure sozdanija arbitrazhnogo uchrezhdenija (vstupitel'naja stat'ja k obzoru) [On the New Procedure for Creating an Arbitration Institution (Introductory Article to the Review)]. Pravoprimenenie [Law Enforcement], 1(2), pp. 207–211. (in Russian).
  7. Inshakova, A.O. (2016). Reforma pravovyh osnov dejatel'nosti mezhdunarodnogo kommercheskogo arbitrazha v Rossijskoj Federacii: predposylki, obuslovlennost', perspektivy [Reform of Legal Bases of International Commercial Arbitration in the Russian Federation: Prerequisites, Conditionality, Prospects]. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshej shkoly jekonomiki [Law. Journal of Higher School of Economics], (3), pp. 4–12. (in Russian).
  8. Jarrosson, Ch. (1987). La notion d’arbitrage [The Notion of Arbitration]. Paris: L.G.D.J. Publ. Karabel'nikov, B.R. (2013). Mezhdunarodnyj kommercheskij arbitrazh [International Commercial Arbitration]. 2nd edn. Moscow: Statut Publ. (in Russian).
  9. Kaufmann-Kohler, G., Rigozzi, A. (2015). International Arbitration: Law and Practice in Switzerland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. Kleandrov, M.I. (2006). Ekonomicheskoe pravosudie v Rossii: proshloe, nastojashhee, budushhee [Economic Justice in Russia: Past, Present, Future]. Moscow: Volters Kluver Publ. (in Russian).
  11. Kudrjavcev, P.I. (ed.) (1956). Juridicheskij slovar'. T.1 [Law Dictionary. Vol. 1]. 2nd edn. Moscow: Gosjurizdat Publ. (in Russian).
  12. Kutafin, O.E. (ed.) (2002). Juridicheskij jenciklopedicheskij slovar' [Legal Encyclopedic Dictionary]. Moscow: Bol'shaja Rossijskaja Jenciklopedija Publ. (in Russian).
  13. Lew, J.D.M. (1978). Applicable Law in International Commercial Arbitration: A Study in Commercial Arbitration Awards (Oceana Transnational services). New York: Oceana Publications.
  14. Meyer, B.F. (2009). The Swiss Rules of International Arbitration — Five Years of Experience. Basel: Swiss Chambers' Court of Arbitration and Mediation.
  15. Moser, M.J., Cheng, T.Y.W. (2004). Hong Kong Arbitration: A User's Guide. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
  16. Papova, E.V. (2009). Zakonodatel'noe regulirovanie mezhdunarodnyh kommercheskih arbitrazhej Shvejcarii. Obshhie polozhenija [Legislative Regulation of International Commercial Arbitration in Switzerland. General Provisions]. Vestnik Rossijskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Serija: Juridicheskie nauki, (1), pp. 75–78. (in Russian).
  17. Pirenn, A. (2001). Srednevekovye goroda Bel'gii [The Medieval Towns of Belgium]. Saint Petersburg: Evrazija Publ. (in Russian).
  18. Pogorelov, M.S. (2010). Aktual'nye problemy tretejskogo proizvodstva [Current Issues of Arbitration]. Moscow: Laboratorija Knigi Publ. (in Russian).
  19. Redfern, A., Hunter, M., Blackaby, N., Partasides, C. (2004). Law and Practice of International Commercial Arbitration (Fourth edition). London: Sweet&Maxwell.
  20. Rubellin-Devichi, J., Vincent, J. 1965. L’arbitrage: Nature juridique. Droit interne et droit international privé [Arbitration: Legal Nature. Domestic Law and Private International Law]. Paris: Librairie générale de droit et de jurisprudence.
  21. Shaljupa, M.P., Donde, Ya.A. (1953). Gosudarstvennyj arbitrazh v SSSR [State Arbitration in USSR]. Moscow: Gos. izd-vo juridicheskoj literatury Publ. (in Russian).
  22. Skvorcov, O.U. (ed.) (2010). Tretejskoe razbiratel'stvo v Rossijskoj Federacii: uchebnoe posobie [Arbitration in Russian Federation]. Moscow: Volters Kluver Publ. (in Russian).
  23. Suharev, A.Ja. (ed.) (1999). Rossijskaja juridicheskaja jenciklopedija [Russian Law Encyclopedia]. Moscow: Infra Publ. (in Russian).

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 401

PDF (Russian) - 699

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Kasa I.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies