No 2 (2015): 70th anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War

Articles
The Battle of Moscow - Turning Point of World War II
Falin V.M.
Abstract
The article is dedicated to the Battle of Moscow in October- December, 1941. Author analyzes the causes of the failure of German army, who tries to encircle and capture Moscow, the events taking place on the outskirts of Moscow, German troops attempts to encircle Moscow. The author presents data on the speech by Adolf Hitler in Berlin on October 5, 1941, in which he acknowledged the failure of the Blitzkrieg and the Battle for Moscow and its suburbs. The researcher uses the documents of the Wehrmacht High Command, which stated that after the Battle of Moscow, German troops could not on any further stage of the war to restore the quality and morale of the armed forces, with whom Reich rushed to a campaign for world domination. The author, a prominent public and political figure of the USSR, also relies on personal recollections, interviews with prominent generals of World War II, including I. Konev.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):7-13
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Failure of the “Typhoon” Operation
Akhtamzyan A.A.
Abstract
On the basis of a number of historical sources, memories of both Soviet and German military commanders and politicians, the author plays chronicling the events of 1941, when the operation «Typhoon» was launched by Nazi Germany (known as the Battle of Moscow in Soviet sources). In October 1941, the Wehrmacht troops have created a direct threat to Moscow. However, transfer to Moscow of «Siberian» divisions, coordinated work on the front and rear foiled the plans of the Nazi aggressors. Already on Dec. 8, 1941, Hitler issued a directive № 39 on the transition to defense on the Eastern Front. Starting from the defeat at Moscow German generals at the front began to doubt the correctness of the assessment of the military potential of the Soviet Union. The first major offensive of the Red Army had not only military but also moral and political significance. The defeat of the Wehrmacht divisions tens of Moscow had resonance throughout the world. One of the important consequences of the victory of the Red Army near Moscow was proclamation of allied relations between the Soviet Union and Great Britain and reach an agreement with the United States on the principles applicable to the common struggle against Germany.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):14-24
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70 years of Great Victory: triumph and “white” spots
Kozmenko V.M.
Abstract
Analysis of key problems of the Great Soviet people's Victory over Nazi Germany was and still is very important. Special research focus is made on not investigated problems of start, run and end of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. In particular, the paper analyzes so called «white» spots of World War II in the scientific literature. The article addresses such issues as repression of commanders of the Red Army; contradictions of military theory on the eve of World War II, designed to justify the offensive nature of the impending war; treatment of non-aggression pact with Germany, August 23, 1939; suddenness of the German attack on the USSR despite numerous intelligence reports; enormous loss of life and others. In this context, the author emphasizes the fact that though the seventh decade after The Great Patriotic War had already finished, the number of «white spots» in its history has not diminished. In the article these spots have been analyzed basing on a specific factual material.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):25-31
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International Context during and after World War II
Protopopov A.S.
Abstract
The author examines the international context of the Soviet Union and today's Russia during and after the World War II. Relations between the allies (the USSR, the US and the UK) shortly after the end of World War II «gave a crack». Particular attention is paid to the development of the American nuclear program in an international context and objectives of the nuclear bombing of Japan, the expansion of NATO. The author concludes that the problem of military and economic development in the post-war period were largely dictated by the difficult international situation at that time. The Soviet Union was forced not only to establish a peaceful life, but also to take steps to create its own nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, strengthening the country's defense. After the troubled times of the second half of the 1980s and 1990s, in the XXI century Russia again began to strengthen its international position. The author proves the need for a consistent foreign policy.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):32-36
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Volunteers of Revenge. 10 Myths about Great Victory
Davydov V.N.
Abstract
One of the main problem of Russian and global scientific community is «rewriting» of the historical facts and substitution established concepts. This activity has its purposes, including promotion of own particular interests and pressure on the participants of the events. This trend can also be seen in the works dedicated to the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. The author in his work explores the myths that exist regarding the Second World War, as well as evaluates the works of XX-XXI centuries, reflecting this theme. The paper presents two opposing positions: the position of the representatives of alternative visions of war history and the position of participants of events. The author cites «evidence» and arguments on both sides.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):37-45
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Middle East in World War II
Yurtaev V.I.
Abstract
The author considers the role and importance of the region of the Middle East and North African theater of operations during World War II, not only the battles occured in the region are analyzed, but also the diplomatic efforts of the allies, related to the region. Author shows the role of the North African theater of operations in the context of other battles, parses the Allied landing operation called «Torch». Particular attention is given to the Conference of the three Allied leaders during World War II - Stalin (USSR), Roosevelt (USA) and Churchill (UK), which was held in Tehran on November 28 - December 1, 1943. The author focuses on the psychological aspects of the conference, emphasizing that it was in the nature of the meeting of equal members of one family. The article also dismantled symbolic importance of presenting to the people of Stalingrad, on behalf of King George VI and the English people specially made sword on November 29, 1943 in the conference hall of the Soviet embassy in Tehran. According to the analysis, the author emphasizes the special importance of the region of the Middle East as a place to search for compromises on the way to the future world order.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):46-56
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The Victory of Anti-Hitler States in the Second World War. The Lend-lease Factor
Parkhitko N.P.
Abstract
The article is focused on the economic aspect of military cooperation between the USSR and the western Allies (first of all, with the USA and Great Britain) during the period of the WW II. The statistic data of the military equipment, sent to the USSR by the Allies through Lend-Lease is compared to the statistics of the Soviet domestic military production during the Great Patriotic War. Also the material and human losses of the USSR and the Allies are compared. As the result of the comparison the crucial military, political and economical input of the USSR in the Victory of Anti-Hitler states in the Second World War is advocated. The goal is also to eliminate the pseudo-historic attempts of denigrating the role of the Soviet Union in the Second World War and even its struggle in the period of the Great Patriotic War. Such attempts are being intensified in the last decades especially in the western countries and their message, in the opinion of the author, is to downplay the role of our country on the international arena as it tends to be in the political conjuncture of the early XXI century.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):57-66
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Entry of Soviet Troops to Varna. War without a Shot
Kolarov G.I.
Abstract
This article provides a historical analysis of Bulgaria's liberation from the Nazis by the Soviet Army, as a result of its peaceful transition through the country. Special attention is paid to the meeting of Soviet soldiers with the Bulgarian partisans in the sea capital Varna and its implications for relations between the USSR and the USA and the UK, which could radically change the course of the war. During these events, the leaders of the great powers strictly followed the mutual observance of the Tehran Agreement of 1943, which provided for the division of spheres of influence in Europe as well as the inadmissibility of the Sovietization of the countries that were exempt from the Nazis by Soviet army. Therefore, any violation of the agreements became an occasion for diplomatic notes and was fraught with serious cooling of relations between Moscow, London and Washington. In view of the impossibility of publicly tell the truth about what happened on September 8-10, 1944, the participants shared their memories of these events with only close friends and in informal meetings. The first who dared to show footage of what really happened and to explain to them, was the director of Varna, a graduate of VGIK, assistant of Mikhail Romm, Vylchan Valchanov.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):67-72
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«The Big Three» (J. Stalin, F. Roosevelt, W. Churchill): Allies for the Peace
Ponomarenko L.V., Chikrizova O.S.
Abstract
The article is dedicated to the asset of the Big Three - J. Stalin, F.D. Roosevelt and W. Churchill - to victory over Nazi Germany and safeguarding of comprehensive peace. The authors analyze aims of three great states and relationships inside the Big Three. They also discover factors that provided success of a common mission of the USA, the USSR and Great Britain regardless of all contradictions. The article shows the main stages in the development of political strategies of the leaders of the Big Three The efforts of Stalin to build the «Big Three» in the context of the Second World War are described. Also disclosed are the psychological characteristics and relationships of participants «Big Three». Roosevelt and Churchill were in much closer relations among themselves than with Stalin. In addition, Stalin had more respectful and «warmer» attitude to Roosevelt than to Churchill. Yet by the end of Stalin and Roosevelt did not trust. The objective and subjective factors that contribute to such a relationship are shown. Yet between the leaders a relationship of trust were able to establish. The long-awaited opening of a second front in time to bridge the gap between the allies. At the Yalta Conference, Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill were able to reach an understanding on most issues.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):73-81
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Rethinking the Extent of Personality and the Heritage of Charles de Gaulle
Ponomarenko L.V.
Abstract
The article is dedicated to life and activity of Charles de Gaulle, outstanding French statesman and commander. It was patriotism and aspiration for a national greatness of France that appeared brightly in de Gaulle’s personality. De Gaulle became a symbol of French Resistance, he saved the prostrate France and made it one of the states that won a victory in the II World War. The author demonstrates the role of de Gaulle in the formation of 5 th Republic and points out that Gaullism became a cornerstone of France’s rebirth and the largest ideological and political tendency in Europe in XX century. The article shows the relationship between Charles de Gaulle and the leaders of the «Big Three» - Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt, W. Cherchil. The official visit of the French delegation, led by Charles de Gaulle to the Soviet Union in November-December 1944, as well as the visit of the Soviet delegation headed by Nikita Khrushchev in France in 1960 are described. The author analyzes the main reasons for Ch. de Gaulle for the start of a reform of France's colonial empire, as well as its efforts to ensure the France more influence within NATO.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):82-90
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The Evolution of the Spanish Diplomacy in the late XX - early XXI Century
Kosyak E.V.
Abstract
At the turn of XXth century significant changes have occurred in the internal organizational structure of the Spanish Foreign Ministry’s central body and its missions abroad. Among the reasons - the consequences of further European integration, global nature of the Spanish foreign policy and expansion of national interests. In 2011-2014 takes place a reform of the Spanish Foreign Ministry’s central body. The most significant foreign affairs-related documentation has been approved, among which - the Law on foreign policy activities and Diplomatic Service. The approval and acceptance of these documents leads to fill the legal vacuum in the field of foreign policy regulation, as well as restructures the organizational structure of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in accordance with dictates of the time and the extended foreign policy agenda.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):91-100
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Konrad Adenauer Foundation and its Role in the Foreign Policy Making of the Federal Republic of Germany
Tserkovnikov V.V., Petrovich-Belkin O.K.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the examination of the focal areas of the international, socio-political, humanitarian, cultural and research activities of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in the in the latter half of the 20th - beginning of the 21st centuries. Main aspects and realization principles of the Foundation’s diplomatic activities and its role in the German foreign policy making are under analysis. Activities of the fund are illustrated by the case of participation in the process of the unification of Germany, as well as participation in the internal political process of the German Democratic Republic, which developed towards the institutionalization of the opposition of the SED (Socialist Unity Party of Germany) unions and movements. Scientific and expert study of Germany's foreign policy aimed at inclusion and full participation in Western European and trans-Atlantic system of global security are also described. Based on this analysis the authors identify the main problems in the activities of the Fund, including sharp fluctuations in the key areas of foreign policy activity, following in the wake of the political situation of the Christian Democratic Union.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):101-109
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Origins of Anti-Americanism in Europe
Eremin A.A.
Abstract
The Article is devoted to analyzing the origin of a phenomenon known as Anti-Americanism among the countries of Europe, which are considered the most loyal allies of the United States of America today. The origins of European Anti-Americanism go back to the very early ages of the existence of the first thirteen colonies. The second stage of development of anti-Americanism began with attempt of the first thirteen colonies to overthrow the tyranny of the British. Another reason for the lack of faith in the United States was that European elite was very much concerned with its lack of culture. Another reason for worries in Europe was the war between the United States and the Spanish. In the beginning of the XX century, Americans were not active enough in the sphere of international relations to give many reasons for hatred to the world. The roots of modern anti-Americanism have emerged mostly from this point - when USA became a superpower and was following the rules of the Cold War. Author concludes that anti-Americanism is a big obstacle in the way of successful interaction with the United States.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):110-115
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Kosovo Independence as an International Issue
Astapchuk A.I.
Abstract
Nowadays the Balkans probably can be considered as one of the most problematic and unstable regions that causes instability and threatens regional security. The region presents a significant sphere of interest not only for the European Union and Russia, but also for the United States. This complexity might probably indicate one of the main causes of ongoing and not so successful attempts to establish peace in the region. It can be said that one of the most recent concerning issues in the Balkans, that attracted attention of leading international actors and caused strong antagonism is the case of Kosovo independence. This essay will consider why Kosovo case presents such a complicated problem and raises so strong contradictions. Process of disintegration of Yugoslavia and creation of new states will be examined together with paying attention to inter-ethnic relations in the region and the role of international actors in the events.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):116-125
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Russian Capital in Latvia: Trends and Perspectives
Volgina N.A.
Abstract
The article deals the issue of the positions of Russian capital in Latvian market. The paper aims to estimate the volume and dynamics of Russian capital inflows into Latvia in compliance with Russian economic interests; to identify key sectors of Latvian economy that Russian capital is interested to invest in; to systemize information concerning Russian firms investing in Latvia; to assess the role of Russian capital in Latvian economy in comparison with other foreign investors; to propose author’s view on challenges and perspectives of Latvian-Russian investment cooperation in the situation of economic sanctions and geo-political conflict in east Ukraine. The author underlines that at the end of 2013, investments of Russian business to Latvia constituted about 5.0% of the total FDI stock and by that time Russia was the 7th largest investor with 0.5 bln euro of capital invested. The main sectors of Russian interests in Latvia are - gas supply, transport communications (transit corridors), banking and real estate. The article concludes that though the future of Russian-Latvian economic relations in the short-run is on a substantial pressure of geopolitical factors, the economic interests in mutual investment relations will prevail in the long-run perspectives.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):126-134
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Political Psychology in Russia: Current Issues in International Studies (Interview with Nikolay Kosolapov, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Science)
Chmyreva V.A.
Abstract
Interview with Professor N. Kosolapov is devoted to the most urgent and complex problems of modern international relations and world politics, reveals the current state of political psychology in Russia and abroad, as well as the evolution of the science. As estimated by N. Kosolapov, the viability of political-psychological projects in Russia has fallen sharply compared to 1990's. They are not fully used in the development of political strategies, as well as in the process of operational decision making and its realization. In the interview are marked the obstacles to the emergence of theoretical and applied research in Russia, as well as key milestones for future development of political psychology. It also touches upon the most important questions of psychology of leadership within the framework of modern Russian and international practice, the political process as a whole, shows the differences in the approaches of European and Russian scientific schools in the analysis of political leadership. The author’s vision of key issues of contemporary international relations is of particular interest: we are witnessing the fact that American global leadership is experiencing an acute crisis, which contributes to the escalation of inter-state conflicts. However, the positive effect of the international crisis for our country is that it led the elites to reconsider their own ideological guidance with respect to Russia's role in world politics and forced to fight for the «new position».
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):135-142
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The 70th Anniversary of Victory. On Some Books dedicated to the Great Patriotic War
Shpakovskaya M.A.
Abstract
On the 70th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 there were many interesting books of different content devoted to military events and individual participants of the war, who played a prominent role in 1941-1945. Among them are the works of the Coordination Council of the «Commonwealth of public organizations of veterans (pensioners) of Independent States», of Publishing House «Patriot» and more than a dozen books prepared by scientists from the Institute of Russian History of Russian Academy of Science. They are all different in content, style, and directions. But all they set out events that took place in the memorable years of the Great Patriotic War. The author gives an overview of recent literature on the Second World War, analyzes their contents and identify features.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):143-149
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Our Authors
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Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):150-151
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Editorial
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Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(2):152-154
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