Vol 15, No 3 (2015): International Political Science. Conflict Studies. Greater Middle East

Articles
Dynamic Chaos, Conflicts in the Greater Middle East and Global Governance Mechanisms in the XXI Century (Proceedings of PFUR's Expert Seminars and Situational Analysis)
Degterev D.A., Savicheva E.M., Mateva I.M.
Abstract
The article summarizes the experience of methodological expert seminars and case studies of international conflict of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. The background and the main stages of elaboration of PFUR’s integrated multidisciplinary methodology of situation analysis of international conflicts are described. The evolution of methodological approaches to conflict analysis used in the expert community, from classical methods, including the method of analytic hierarchy by T. Saati to the nonlinear dynamics of the processes of regional development and the perception of the international system as a non-equilibrium system are shown, as well as possibilities of use of approaches of the natural sciences (theory of complex systems) in the modeling of international relations. Particular attention is paid to the results of PFUR's situational analysis 2015 “Greater Middle East: twenty years later (1994-2014)”. The authors show us the methodology of situation analysis in details, including the matrix approach to the distribution of research topics and the method of ranking research tasks by difficulty level between different categories of participants (students, masters, postgraduate students, teachers). A special focus is made on proceedings of leading orientalists from Russia (Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Science) and foreign countries (Austria, UK). The directions of further improvement of PFUR's methods of situational analysis are provided.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):9-23
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International Relations Research Methodology: Realism
Shabaga A.V.
Abstract
The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Prussian and Austrian cases, this understanding of politics within the systematics of the XIX century; the adaptation of the bourgeois liberal and national ideas to the foreign-policy specifics Germany middle of the XIX century. It is shown that political realism is targeting an international actor on the desire to subjugate the greatest possible political space. In the case of political weakness (absolute or relative) political realism indicates a way of adapting to circumstances in order to achieve the most desirable of the possible. The article discusses the concept A. Rochau, H. Morgenthau, H. Kissinger, K. Waltz, showing differences and instrumentality realistic theories and concludes that the main provisions of the concept as a whole.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):24-33
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Forecasting in Intelligence: Indications and Warning Methodology in Modern Practice
Vlasova M.G.
Abstract
Today the national security system effectiveness seriously depends on the professional analysis of information and timely forecasts. Thus the efficient methods of forecasting in the sphere of international relations are of current importance for the modern intelligence services. The Indications and Warning Technique that was a key element of forecasting methodology in intelligence until the end of Cold War is estimated in the present article. Is this method still relevant in the contemporary world with its new international order, new security challenges and technological revolution in the data collection and processing? The main conclusion based on the overview of current researches and known intelligence practice is that indicators technique is still relevant for the early warning of national security threats but requires some adaptation to today’s issues. The most important trends in adaptation are supposed to be a creation of broadest possible spectrum of threatens scenarios as well as research of current strategic threatens and corresponding indicators. Also the appropriate software that automates the use of indications technique by the security services is very important. The author believes that the cooperation between intelligence services and academic community can increase the efficiency of the Indications Methodology and of the strategic forecasting as well.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):34-42
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The Concept of State Capacity: Comparative International Ratings against State Legitimacy
Ivanov V.G.
Abstract
In the given article, the author analyzes the concept of state capacity, widely popular among political scientists and international relations specialists. The author proves that the evaluations of the level of state capacity of the developing and postcommunist countries based on popular comparative ratings are generally biased because of methodological defects and discrepancy of the whole theory as well as politicization and indoctrination of the given ratings. The negative evaluations of the quality of the government and state capacity of a country could be used to discredit and delegitimize the political regime as well as substantiation of mass protests and color revolutions and a tool of information war. The author concludes that numerous comparative international ratings are often used as a tool of political influence.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):43-50
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Civil Wars, Coup d'Etat, Regime Changes: Foreign Projects of Quantitative Analysis
Kuznetsova A.Y.
Abstract
In the given article, the author provides an overview of foreign databases and research tools on internal conflicts, regime changes and revolutionarily transformations. The following projects were reviewed: Polity IV, UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia, Transformation Index BTI 2014, and Conflict Barometer. Among the criteria used to compare these databases: project aims, subject of inquiry, and units of measurement, project chronology, methodology, data collection and processing. The analysis of results has also been compared as well as the advantages and disadvantages of databases under study. Such an analysis demonstrated that despite the projects reputation the operational definitions of these projects are their main problem. Sometimes poor operational definitions affect the country ranking in indexes. Moreover, qualitative variables exceed quantitative variables. In most cases variables depend on subjective estimation of an authoring team. Such a situation means that estimations and country ranking in indexes may be different from each other just because of different approaches of scientists. What is more, it is worth paying attention to some country positions in rankings. Subjective estimations of foreign scientists can not always reflect the real scoring.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):51-60
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International Conflict Studies as a Research and Teaching Area
Khudaykulova A.V.
Abstract
The article analyzes international conflict studies as a science and an educational discipline. The analysis of the subject field and professional terminology adopted in this area both in Russian and in English is provided. Formation of international conflict studies as a distinct field of study in the United States and Western Europe is described. The results of analysis of 10 leading foreign schools on international conflict studies are presented. The main factors that were taken into account in identifying the leading centers were the existence of a separate research (educational) analysis units of international conflicts, the world's leading scientific journals on conflict resolution, as well as databases for the analysis of international conflicts. The role of professional associations, education consortia and international organizations (UNESCO) in the study of international conflicts is described. An analysis of the leading think tanks on defense and national security (as rated by Philadelphia think tank ranking) is also provided. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research methodology of international conflicts and the structure of educational programs at leading schools in the world in international relations. The author summarizes the recommendations of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA) to create educational programs of this kind.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):61-73
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On the Methodology of Research of Sunni-Shiite Relations
Chikrizova O.S.
Abstract
The article is devoted to methodological aspects of analysis of confrontation between two biggest trends in Islam - Sunnism and Shiism. It’s extremely important to study Sunni-Shiite relations on the modern stage because they reflect geopolitical and geostrategic rivalry in the region and change of interstate alliances’ configuration. After “the Arab spring” in the Middle East some conflicts have flared up (Iraq, Syria, Yemen), and one of the reasons of all the conflicts is a confrontation between Sunnis and Shiites. Moreover, some more hot spots are brewing, in which the representatives of two major trends in Islam will face (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain). In order to find ways to settle these conflicts we need to learn profoundly the origins, nature and characteristics of Sunni-Shiite relations, and it also determines the relevance of this article’s topic. Using comparative method, historicism, problem-chronological method and quantitative methods of analysis, the author indicates six periods of Sunni-Shiite antagonism, during which the contradictions between two trends had gradually shifted from domestic to international level, and then to global level. Comparing foreign policy practice of Sunni and Shiite states at the present stage, the author proves that nowadays the struggle between Sunnis and Shiites for the implementation of models of the Islamic world’s development takes place. These models are global, they are aimed at the unification of the Islamic world. However they are based on completely different visions of this world’s configuration, particularly in the region of the Middle East.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):74-82
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The Areas of Activation of Islamic Fundamental Movements in the post-soviet Central Asian states
Nabiev R.A., Shakirov I.F.
Abstract
This article deals with the problem of radical Islam in the Fergana valley. Main characteristics of the region and the factors that contribute to the spread of extremist religious movements have been identified and described by the authors. The region that already has a high potential for confliction because of unresolved inter-state, inter-ethnic issues is a storm center of radical religious movements’ development. The revival of Islam has predetermined its further politicization, and then because of objective and subjective reasons its radicalization. The processes of re-islamization typical for Central Asian countries in the late twentieth century, accompanied by attempts of the leaders to get the support of the population. Radical Islam, in turn, became widespread in the territory of neighboring countries, in particular the Russian Federation. Thus, it should be noted that improper treatment of the foundations of traditional Islam, the spread of radical ideas represent a threat to stability and security not only at national but also at regional and global levels. Causes of the radical extremist movements, as well as increasing number of followers of these organizations in the Fergana Valley are important part of the article. The authors of the paper have assessed the activities of Islamic movements in the three countries of the Central Asian region, as well as a comparative analysis of the situation in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have been provided. The article presents the differences in the approaches and methods of struggling of the governments of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan against nonconformist religious movements. The main conclusion of the article is the recognition of the diversity within the accepted approaches of neighboring states to solve the problem of radical Islamist movements. The article notes the high probability of downfall of the “fragile stability” that occurred in the Ferghana Valley.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):83-90
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The U.S. Role in Restructuring the Middle East
Gurbangeldiyev A.M.
Abstract
Within the framework of global leadership strategy, cooperation with regional powers turns out to be beneficial for the U.S. In the beginning of the XXI century, the United States relied on Turkey in the Middle East, but “neo-Ottoman” ambitions of Turkish government have caused such strong fears in Washington that in order to control its influence on the neighboring countries, the United States decided to limit the mediating role of Ankara in overall conflicts and dissentions in the region, by giving the prerogative to the other Sunni countries. At the same time, in order to deter the Sunni countries as a whole, US decided to soften its stance on Shiite Iran - a longtime political opponent. The situation in Iraq and the passive position of the U.S. in Syria allowed Shiite Iran to expand its influence in the region. The emerging Sunni-Shiite conflict in the Middle East provoked the rise of extremism in the region, as well as the armed conflict in Yemen. One of the main problems that threatens the regional and global security is a newly emerged radical terrorist organization ISIL, which to fight against, the U.S. provides a military and technical support to the Iraqi Kurds striving for their own sovereignty. The possibility of a rise of a Kurdish state in the region, in turn, poses a threat to the territorial integrity of Iran, Turkey, Syria and Iraq.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):91-98
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Nature and Key Elements of the Ukrainian Think Tanks
Kurylev C.P., Gavrikova K.V., Pospelova E.A.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the activities of the Ukrainian think tanks in the context of studying “the Center of it. A. Razumkov” activity, which is supposed to be the leading Ukrainian think tank. The authors examined in detail the mechanisms and principles of the center’s work, analyzed the activity of key experts including A. Gritsenko, G. Sherr, P. Rozenko, A. Melnyk, I. Zhdanov, V. Chaly, Yu. Mostovaya, N. Martynenko, A. Rachok and sources of funding. The researchers highlighted a number of issues of the Ukrainian system of analytical centers, including the closed system of decision making at the state and local authorities level, the lack of demand for the services of independent analytical structures by public authorities, weak financial, material and technical base, the absence of staff training, poor communication between the centers, insufficient use of the Internet, software and hardware, information-analytical systems, and so on. While analyzing their activities the author comes to the conclusion that they have mostly been funded by various agencies (including foreign ones) and used in opposition between the local political and financial elites. As a result their expert assessments and analytics very often did not reflect the real situation. Within the civil war in Ukraine in 2013-2014’s these think tanks finally turned into an instrument of information and psychological war, being discredited by their actual support to the actors which had staged a coup and started a struggle against their own nation.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):99-109
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Middle Eastern Crisis in the Evaluation of the Iranian Experts and Analytical Circles
Kuznetsov A.A.
Abstract
This article touches upon the work of the expert and analytical centers of Islamic Republic of Iran. Special attention is paid to the Iranian expert researches dedicated to the Middle East. Author of the article gives an account of the Iranian analytical centers. According to the researches of M. Shuri author emphasizes aims and goals of the Iranian foreign policy in the Middle East and in other regions. Concept of the “Axis of Resistance” is descripted as basic in the Iranian Arab policy. Author underlines importance of the strategic partnership between Iran from one side and Syria, Iraq and Hezbollah Movement from the other side. Author realizes Iranian expert appreciation of role of the outside actors (United States, Europe, Russia, China) in the region and the Saudi-Iranian relations. Because of the fact that Iranian-Saudi regional rivalry is one of the key factors of the political situation in the region. According to evaluations of the Center of the Arabic researches both countries have to normalize bilateral relations. Though experts of the Center of the Strategic Studies and of the University of Tabatabai consider that Saudi Arabia and Qatar are responsible for activity of the extremeist and terrorist jihadi groups. The article also exposes views of the Iranian experts on possibilities of SCO and BRICS in the Middle East region.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):110-117
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Position of the American Think Tanks on Iran's Nuclear Program
Ivkina N.V., Poyda A.A.
Abstract
The article examines the role of “analytical centers” in the US foreign policy agenda. From a variety of “think tanks” highlights those who have made the greatest impact on the foreign policy - the Heritage Foundation and the Center for American progress. They examine U.S. relations with other regions of the world. The marked correlation between the reports of these think tanks and the positions of the Democratic and Republican parties of the USA. Based on the publications of articles and reports from these centers, it is considered one of the directions of U.S. foreign policy. In the article there is the comparative analysis of the approaches of these centers to the problem of Iran's nuclear program. This question is particularly acute on the agenda in relations between Iran and the United States. In addition, in 2015, the negotiations between Iran and the Six mediators on the nuclear issue has entered a crucial stage, it makes this issue the most relevant. The author makes a conclusion about the extent of American influence of “think-tanks” on foreign policy decisions in general and on specific political situation.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):118-125
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Turkish Republic as an Object of Study of US Scienific and Political community: Conceptualization and Methodology of Research
Chmyreva V.A.
Abstract
The article presents the main approaches developed within US scientific and political community concerning the Republic of Turkey and the Middle East region as a whole. These theoretical developments are a long-term conceptual framework of US foreign policy in the Middle East; moreover, the fact of American participation in the processes of political and military transformation of the region, as well as the desire to model the dynamics of these processes, is recognized in modern American historiography. In this context, research of the situation in the region, should be analyzed not through the prism of the theoretical understanding, but be perceived as political technologies designed to ensure the implementation of US foreign policy goals. Therefore the study of American historiography, analysis of new research approaches and methods are of scientific interest, but it must be noted that most research of well-known representatives of American scientific and political community are free from theorizing and methodological analysis, which creates certain difficulties in the study of its methodological framework.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):126-134
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A. Davutoglu's Ideology of Turkish Foreign Policy
Suleymanov A.V.
Abstract
In article the ideology of turkish foreign policy is analyzed, elaborated and successfully put into practice by the former Minister for Foreign Affairs, and nowadays by prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu. Foreign policy strategy of Davutoglu represents set of the interconnected theoretical (the flexible approach; consistency and systematic approach; new diplomatic style) and practical principles directed on increase of a role of the Turkish state on international scene - balance between democracy and safety; “zero of problems with neighbours”; preventive and priority peace diplomacy; multidimensional foreign policy; rhythmical diplomacy. Each of principles possesses certain properties and characteristics which have always been presented as a certain purpose which is necessary for reaching Turkey in the difficult international environment. Undoubtedly, A. Davutoglu's ideology has brought the huge contribution to activization and expansion of foreign policy of Turkey last decade. The merit of Davutoglu consists that it has cardinally changed the approach of the Turkish state to the foreign policy which was based earlier on such postulate - “the best friend of a Turk is a Turk”. However the destructive events which have passed and occurring today as in the Turkish state (terrorism strengthening, instability of political system), and also in region of the Middle East - civil war in Syria, deterioration of relations with Russia, Greece, Syria, Iran and Iraq have called into question a number of positions of the concept of Davutoglu in this connection in article some attention to the critic of its approach is paid also.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):135-143
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Ethnic Separatism in Pakistan as a Threat to Regional Security
Khahkhanov A.I.
Abstract
At present ethnic separatism is shown in various regions practically on all continents and it is the same serious call of the international stability and safety, as religious extremism and drugs. Ethnic separatism is shown and in the Southern Asia, particularly, in India, Pakistan, Sri - Lanka, leading to terrorism acts and a numerous death. The author analyzes sources and the reasons of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. Author marks that the basis for statehood of Pakistan while independence declaration was not ethnic, but cultural and religious factors, which already contained potential separatism. Article tells us about modern manifestation of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. In particular, the author describes sources, the reasons and manifestations of separatism of Pushtuns and Beludzhy. According to the author, separatism of Beludzhy and Pushtuns is the specific danger not only to integrity of Pakistan. This can lead in the long term to disintegration of the state that is fraught with serious consequences for stability and safety not only for the Southern Asia, but also for other regions nearby Russia.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):144-151
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Twiplomacy: Impact of Twitter Social Network on Diplomacy
Torrealba A.A.
Abstract
The article examines the phenomenon of Twitplomacy and its influence on the foreign policy of the countries of the world in recent years. Actual Facts show that Twitter has become an innovative tool of public diplomacy and has changed the perception of how the diplomacy works. Now, citizens and politicians in many countries have the opportunity to know instantly about international political events and also communicate with others ones to share opinions about these events. But apart from that, Twitter can be evaluated in quantitative terms. The opinion of active Twitter users worldwide can be measured to create surveys related to the popular support for world leaders. It is an alternative to develop statistics for understanding the citizens’ political preferences that even have already been used by certain private organizations to design rankings of international governance. At the same time, world leaders, politicians and diplomats realized the benefits of several services of Twitter to have close relationships with their voters. But the political and strategic value of Twitter is ambiguous. It seems that Twitter brings more benefits to some states than others. The level of technological development in some countries determines the degree of influence of this social network on the public opinion. Undoubtedly, thanks to Twitter, the relationship between social networks and diplomacy has become a modern phenomenon, which shows that social networks can play an important role in keep peace between nations.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):152-166
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Russian Energy Policy Looks Increasingly Eastward: Changing an Export Vector or Diversifying of Supply?
Gerasimchuk O.A., Osadchuk C.O.
Abstract
The emergence of new trends in the global gas market and, as a consequence the displacement of the center of gravity towards the Asia-Pacific region, today's major energy consumer in the world, had a significant impact on Russia's export policy review. The gradual «decline» of the European gas market, recently demonstrating a constant decrease in gas consumption, as well as unreasonable politicization of the question concerning European gas pipeline «South Stream» construction in the context of the ongoing Ukrainian crisis further strengthened the tendency to Russia's redirection to the Eastern energy market. A vigorous activity of state-owned energy companies as Gazprom and Rosneft in Eastern Siberia and Far East, including gas pipelines «Altai» and «Power of Siberia» designed for Russian natural gas supply to China demonstrate Russia to overcome the historical «Eurocentrism» in national oil and gas sector. This paper discusses the role and the place of Russia in the European gas market, as well as the perspectives of the Russian energy resources in the Chinese energy market.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):167-176
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Mutual Perception of USA and China based on Content-Analysis of Media
Autova F.H., Golik M.Y., Dolgopolov V.A.
Abstract
The article evaluates mutual perception of the United States and China in the XXI century, based on content analysis of American and Chinese media. The research methodology includes both content and event analysis. To conduct content analysis we used leading weekly news magazines of US and China - “Newsweek” and “Beijing Review”. The events, limiting the time frame of analysis are Barack Obama's re-election to the second term in 2012, and the entry of Xi Jinping as the chairman of China in 2013. As a result, we have analyzed the issues of each magazine one year before and after the events respectively. Thematic areas covered by articles (politics, economy, culture), as well as stylistic coloring titles of articles are examined. Following the results of the analysis China confidently perceives itself in the international arena. In turn, the US are committed by emphasizing speed and power of the Chinese point out the negative consequences of such a jump (“growing pains”), on the challenges facing China in domestic and foreign policy, in order to create a negative image of China in the minds of American citizens.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):177-184
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International Relations in Russia. Interview with Pavel A. Tsygankov, Moscow State University
Barnashov O.V.
Abstract
The interview is devoted to methodological aspects of research in the field of international relations, the specifics of Russian research on the theory of international relations. The scientist is concerning the activities of nowadays’ analytical centers in the field of international political subjects, their role in political decision-making processes. Prospects of development of the theory of international relations in Russia are being analyzing. P. Tsygankov is comparing the quality of research in the West and in Russia, noting a number of factors, which can enhance the role of domestic researches on the problems of international relations: pluralization and the creation of a global science of international relations, development of national schools of international relations. During the interview P. Tsygankov is refering to a number of scientific papers and conferences, which confirm the validity of the point of view of the researcher. Specific attention is drawn to the fact that there is a kind of “regional division of labour” in the Russian science of international relations; major universities in various cities and regions of Russia are solving too specific problems of international relations. The researcher emphasizes the issues of interdisciplinarity, which is ordinary and necessary for such science as the theory of international relations is. Interdisciplinarity, in turn, considers the use of multiple research methods and techniques - both from the field of humanities and natural sciences.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):185-197
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Applied Analysis in American Science of International Relations. Interview with Professor Bear F. Braumoeller, Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Political Science, Ohio State University
Degterev D.A.
Abstract
Bear F. Braumoeller (Ph. D., University of Michigan), Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Political Science of Ohio State University, is a leading American experts both in international relations, especially international security, and statistical methodology. His book-length systemic theory of international relations is a winner of the 2014 International Studies Association Best Book Award and the 2014 J. David Singer Book Award. In his interview he is talking about contemporary methods of applied research of international relations and its efficiency. As recent LaCour-Green scandal demonstrates, political science in general and international studies in particulary are becoming more about science. Dr. B. Braumoeller touches on the issue of efficient IR research methodology and speaks about the role of quantative methods in IR and especially about statistics. He speeks about the evolution of quantitative methodology in American IR science. Some decennies ago, a few pioneers in the field (David Singer, Bruce Russett, Karl Deutsch, Dina Zinnes) published their papers in fairly obscure journals and now the IR journals are dominated by quantitative studies. But for better quantitative studies, a better formal theory of IR is needed. He discusses also epistemological aspects of quantitative studies. Though the mainstream formal modeling in IR is traditionally associated with neorealist and neoliberal approaches, agent-based modeling (ABM) could be brought to bear very effectively on constructivist questions.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):198-202
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Internationalization of Higher Education: Major Trends, Challenges and Prospects
Filippov V.M.
Abstract
The article discusses the directions of the reforms carried out in the higher education systems of developed countries in terms of internationalization of education. The internationalization of education is considered as a factor in ensuring international cooperation in terms of competitiveness. The author analyzes the integration process with the participation of the Russian Federation in the framework of the European Higher Education Area and the Asia-Pacific Educational Space, as well as the format of academic cooperation within CIS, SCO and BRICS. The main features of the internationalization of education at the present stage are discussed. It emphasizes that the focus of the international student mobility increasingly shifts to the Asia-Pacific region. The article provides an analysis of international experience, as well as the factors that students take into account when they choose a destination of academic mobility (the language of instruction, the quality of programs, school fees, immigration policy). Regional specifics of international academic mobility are disclosed. Special attention is paid to the particularities of university operating in different countries - mechanisms of higher education, manifested in the degree of autonomy granted to universities in addressing the reception, organization and content of training, the final certification and financing. Recommendations are given for the purpose of promoting mobility, taking into account the experience gained in this field by the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):203-211
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The Eurasian Knowledge-based Economy Formation in the Eurasian Economic Union Area
Sapir E.V., Sidorova E.A.
Abstract
Currently, there is an intensification of integration processes in the global economy. Integration is an effective tool to overcome the modern challenges and threats. However, for the effective countries and regions integration in the global economy it requires the active development of innovation processes along with the integration processes. On the 29th of May, 2014 in Astana the Treaty establishing the Eurasian Economic Union was signed by the Presidents of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, and entered into force on the First of January 2015. In this regard, the article analyzes the foundations of the knowledge economy concept. Moreover, it researches the emergence of the Eurasian knowledge economy in several stages using the statistical data and the index method. The article suggests that the Eurasian Economic Union has a significant potential for the development of the Eurasian regional knowledge economy and proposes a number of measures for successful formation of it. International legal formalization of the process can become Eurasian Convention in the field of the knowledge economy. This article expands the understanding of the prospects of integration and innovation processes within the Eurasian Economic Union.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):212-224
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The Reaction of West Germany to Soviet-American negotiations 1968-1972
Borisova K.A.
Abstract
This article is devoted to the analyzing of the reaction of Germany to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) in the late 60's - early 70’s. Our attention is paid to the characteristics of executive and legislative authorities’ decisions of Germany. After Berlin and Cuban missiles crisis constant threat of a nuclear missile stability promoted the development of SALT, which should be the basic element of balance of power for the survival of human civilization. For all western countries searching for the formula to avoid the escalation of all-out war had to be based on the main principles of international relations in the context of detent of geo-political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States. But for a long period of time West Germany still to be on the position of cold war confrontation. Such a policy could lead Germany to political isolation. After first successful steps of soviet-american’s negotiations West Germany began to realize the threat of its isolation and tried to integrate itself in the general process of detent, first of all in the field of European security. Main purpose of this research is analyzing specific mechanisms of transformation of the bilateral relations between United States and Germany, comparing different foreign policies with socialistic block, studying contradictions in the capitalist block and to identify and classify these differences, as well.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):225-235
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The Problem of Partisanship in American Foreign Policy Book Review: Gries P.H. The Politics of American Foreign Policy: How Ideology Divides Liberals and Conservatives over Foreign Affairs Stanford, California: Stanford University press, 2014. 367 p.
Sokov I.A.
Abstract
This publication is the review on the book of Peter Hays Gries “The Politics of American Foreign Policy: How Ideology Divides Liberals and Conservatives over Foreign Affairs”. The book consists of Preface, Introduction, the Text from two parts: Part I “Concepts” includes 5 chapters, Part II “Cases” also includes 5 chapters and four of them description the relations of the USA with the world regions: Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, the South Asia and the last chapter - relations with the international organizations. The end of the text is the Conclusion. Besides the text of book consists of 100 illustrations and 2 charts. The Preface was written by David Lyle Boren, the President of Oklahoma University and the US Ex-Senator (1979-1994), where he was at the head of Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and he knows the topic which the author of monograph studies. The problems is studied by P.H. Gries are interested by the native specialists, who studies the international relations. This book is recommended to students, post-graduate students, scientists and all of them who are interested by the problems of international relations.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):236-241
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Our authors
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Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):242-247
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Editorial
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Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;15(3):248-250
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