Beyond the Involution of Europe? Monism and Relations with Russia. Part 1

Cover Page

Abstract


The crisis in relations between Russia and the European Union (EU) is part of the broader breakdown of the post-Cold War security order. This essay focuses on structural interpretation and identifies four interlinked processes shaping the crisis: tension between the logic of the enlargement and transformation; a dynamic of involution and resistance; the problem of monism, whereby the expanding self is unable adequately to engage with the un-integrated other; and the recent emergence of ‘other Europes’ that may potentially overcome involution. The erosion of the Atlantic system provides an opportunity for delayed institutional and ideational innovation. Based on the methodology of classical realism and modern constructivist theories, the author analyzes how the lack of mutual understanding and mistakes in understanding the intentions and actions of Russia, on the one hand, and the West, on the other, led to deep structural and cognitive contradictions that managed to renew confrontation between the Euro-Atlantic bloc and Russia. The author comes to the conclusion that the impossibility of implementing the “Greater Europe” project with the participation of Russia led to a deepening of the contradictions between Russia and the West, and also forced Moscow to look for an alternative to European integration in the “Greater Eurasia” project. At the same time, the European Union also entered a crisis stage, as evidenced by Brexit.


About the authors

Richard Sakwa

University of Kent

Author for correspondence.
Email: r.sakwa@kent.ac.uk

PhD, professor of Russian and European politics at the University of Kent (United Kingdom)

References

  1. Averre, D. (2009). Competing Rationalities: Russia, the EU and the “Shared Neighbourhood”. Europe — Asia Studies, 61(10), 1689—1713. doi: 10.1080/09668130903278918.
  2. Baranovsky, V. (2000). Russia: a Part of Europe or Apart from Europe? International Affairs, 76(3), 443—458. doi: 10.1111/1468-2346.00145.
  3. Bordachev, T. (2009). New Strategic Alliance. Russia and Europe before the Challenges of the 21st Century: the Possibility of a “Big Deal”. Moscow: Evropa. (in Russian).
  4. Burawoy, M. (1996). The State and Economic Involution: Russia through a China Lens. World Development, 24(6), 1105—1117. doi: 10.1016/0305-750x(96)00022-8.
  5. Clark, C. (2013). The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914. London: Penguin.
  6. Cohen, S.F. (2009). Soviet Fates and Lost Alternatives: From Stalinism to the New Cold War. NY: Columbia University Press.
  7. Cohen, S.F. (2018). Why Cold War Again? How America Lost Post-Soviet Russia. London, NY: I.B. Tauris.
  8. Copsey, N. & Pomorska, K. (2014). The Influence of Newer Member States in the European Union: The Case of Poland and the Eastern Partnership. Europe — Asia Studies, 66(3), 421—443. doi: 10.1080/09668136.2013.855391.
  9. Crouch, C. & Marquand, D. (Eds.). (1992). Towards a Greater Europe? A Continent without an Iron Curtain. Oxford: Blackwell.
  10. Derluguian, G. & Greer, S.L. (Eds.). (2000). Questioning Geopolitics: Political Projects in a Changing World-System. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
  11. Forsberg, T. & Haukkala, H. (2016). The European Union and Russia. London: Palgrave.
  12. Fukuyama, F. (1989). The End of History. The National Interest, 16, 3—17.
  13. Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of History and the Last Man. NY: Free Press.
  14. Grabbe, H. (2006). The EU’s Transformative Power: Europeanization through Conditionality in Central and Eastern Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  15. Hopf, T. (2002). Social Construction of Foreign Policy: Identities and Foreign Policies, Moscow, 1955 and 1999. Cornell, NY: Cornell University Press.
  16. Ikenberry, G.J. (2011). Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  17. Itzkowiz-Shifrinson, J. R. (2013). The Malta Summit and US-Soviet Relations: Testing the Waters Amidst Stormy Seas. New Insights from American Archives. URL: http://www.wilsoncenter.org/ publication/the-malta-summit-and-us-soviet-relations-testing-the-waters-amidst-stormy-seas (accessed: 11.07.2018).
  18. Karaganov, S. & Bordachev, T. (2009). Towards a New Euro-Atlantic Security Architecture. Report of the Russian Experts for the Valdai Discussion Club Conference, November. URL: http://vid-1.rian.ru/ig/valdai/European_security_eng.pdf (accessed: 11.07.2018).
  19. Karaganov, S. & Bordachev, T. (2010). Towards an Alliance of Europe. Analytical Report by the Russian Group of the Valdai International Discussion Club, September. URL: http://vid-1.rian.ru/ ig/valdai/Alliance%20eng.pdf (accessed: 11.07.2018).
  20. Kasparov, G. (2015). Winter is Coming: Why Vladimir Putin and the Enemies of the Free World Must be Stopped. London: Atlantic Books.
  21. Kozyrev, A. (1995). Partnership or Cold Peace? Foreign Policy, 99 (Summer), 3—14. doi: 10.2307/1149002.
  22. Kratochvíl, P. (2008). The Discursive Resistance to EU-Enticement: The Russian Elite and (the Lack of) Europeanisation. Europe — Asia Studies, 60(3), 397—422. doi: 10.1080/09668130801947994.
  23. Krauthammer, C. (1991). The Unipolar Moment. Foreign Affairs, 70(1), 23—33. doi: 10.2307/20044692.
  24. Laughland, J. (1998). The Tainted Source: The Undemocratic Origins of the European Idea. London: Sphere.
  25. Legvold, R. (2016). Return to Cold War. Cambridge: Polity.
  26. Maas, A.-S. (2016). EU — Russia Relations, 1999—2015: From Courtship to Confrontation. London: Routledge.
  27. Matlock, J.F. (1995). Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador’s Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union. NY: Random House.
  28. Matlock, J.F. (2004). Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended. NY: Random House.
  29. Matlock, J.F. (2010). Super-Power Illusions: How Myths and False Ideologies Led America Astray — and how to Return to Reality. New Haven, London: Yale University Press.
  30. Mazower, M. (2000). Dark Continent. London: Vintage.
  31. McFaul, M. (2018). From Cold War to Hot Peace: The Inside Story of Russia and America. London: Allen Lane.
  32. Mezhuyev, B. (2017). “Island Russia” and Russia’s Identity Politics. Russia in Global Affairs, 2. URL: http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/number/Island-Russia-and-Russias-Identity-Politics-18757 (accessed: 20.07.2018).
  33. Primakov, E.M. (2014). Challenges and Alternatives to a Multipolar World: the Role of Russia. Moscow: MGU publ. (in Russian).
  34. Prozorov, S. (2016). Understanding Conflict between Russia and the EU: The Limits of Integration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  35. Sakwa, R. (2013). The Cold Peace: Russo-Western Relations as a Mimetic Cold War. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26(1), 203—224. doi: 10.1080/09557571.2012.710584.
  36. Sakwa, R. (2016). Frontline Ukraine: Crisis in the Borderlands. London, NY: I.B. Tauris.
  37. Sakwa, R. (2017). Russia against the Rest: The Post-Cold War Crisis of World Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  38. Slobodchikoff, M.O. (2014). Building Hegemonic Order Russia’s Way: Order, Stability, and Predictability in the Post-Soviet Space. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
  39. Smith, M.A. (2013). Russia and Multipolarity since the End of the Cold War. East European Politics, 29(1), 36—51. doi: 10.1080/21599165.2013.764481
  40. Stent, A.E. (2014). The Limits of Partnership: U.S.-Russian Relations in the Twenty-First Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  41. Surkov, V. (2018). The Loneliness of the Half-Breed. Russia in Global Affairs, 2. URL: http://www.globalaffairs.ru/global-processes/Odinochestvo-polukrovki-14-19477 (accessed: 9.05.2018).
  42. Tsygankov, A.P. (2014). The Strong State in Russia: Development and Crisis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  43. White, S. & Feklyunina, V. (2014). Identities and Foreign Policies in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus: The Other Europes. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  44. Zwolski, K. (2016). Wider Europe, Greater Europe? David Mitrany on European Security Order. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 55(3), 645—661. doi: 10.1111/jcms.12489.

Statistics

Views

Abstract - 392

PDF (Russian) - 190

Cited-By


PlumX

Dimensions


Copyright (c) 2018 Sakwa R.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies