Vol 16, No 3 (2016)

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Theory, Methodology and History of Sociological Research
Normative social morphogenesis and the opposition “agency-structure”: From individual to institutions, and back
Podvoyskiy D.G.
Abstract

Sociological theory at any stage of development requires permanent reflection and comprehension of its own conceptual bases including its terminological axiomatic, which incorporates both the antinomy “subject (action, agency) and structure” and concepts of order, norms and rules, standards, cultural patterns and values, institutions, social control, power and coercion, conformism, deviation, etc. Conceptual descriptions of the opposition “agency-structure”, the problems of social order and mechanisms of normative and institutional “morphogenesis” traditionally act as one of the main “paradigmatic” axes for the development of sociological theory, and their critical analysis and comparison clarify the general methodological basis of social knowledge as a whole and highlight the fundamental demarcation lines between different schools and branches of sociological thought. The author attempts to provide a preliminary reconstruction and revision of the general argumentation used in social theory to explain how normative orders emerge from the internal logic of social interaction that takes place at different levels including everyday life. The article aims to assist in producing a clear and prominent vision of the issues of the dualism of agency-structure in social relations and of their normative, “rule-oriented” nature.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):465-482
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Contemporary society: the urgent issues and prospects for development
Real and nominal collisions in the arsenal of public administration
Kiselev A.G., Kirichek P.N.
Abstract

The article examines forms and methods of public administration in the transitional society in terms of the adequacy of its arsenal to the goals and objectives of social modernization. The authors assess strategic and tactical capabilities of the established management practices to meet the challenges of organization and self-organization of social life; analyze the resources and legal sufficiency of the administrative-territorial unit of power for operational and creative management. The authors believe that there is a serious barrier for effective relations of the federal center and the subjects - uncertainty of the integrated system of uniform and permanent principles, which does not allow both levels to function as a single social institution and prevents establishing a stable and productive power “vertical”. It is difficult to increase the manageability of regions as administrative-territorial forms without establishing the whole complex of relations between different levels of administration. The author describe the main control mechanism at the current stage of Russian reforms - regulation, its nature, functions and technological basis; define the basis for implementing two leading principles of regulation in the social and economic life of the country and its regions - territorial and sectoral; underline the need for the subjects of management (authorities) to overcome the existing imbalances within their competence, or by the coordination of administrative nominality and reality.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):510-518
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“Situation” in the study of moral and legal consciousness: From theory to techniques
Grebneva V.E.
Abstract

The multidimensional structure of legal consciousness, in which the norms of different orders collide, and the intricate intertwining of cognitive, emotive and behavioral components cannot be described in just one system of representations. This article considers conceptual bases of the study of moral and legal consciousness on the example of value-cognitive dilemmas. The author presents interpretations of the concept “situation” in the works of Russian and Western scientists, identifies its general theoretical bases and analyzes its potential in the study of moral and legal consciousness; suggests as one of the ways to find and identify determinants of moral and legal consciousness identification of specific decisions made by individuals in a variety of small-scale short situations in the given frame and normatively determined, because in the situational dilemma a social agent, whatever decision he makes, needs a rational reason and justification. The author describes the process of designing a technique on the basis of vignette-method and the method of controlled projection for the study of the conflict of multiple rationalities implying different models of justification in the structure of value choice.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):483-495
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Identity and culture in the contexts of immigration
Kuropjatnik A.I.
Abstract

The article considers contexts and contextuality as a means to analyze the contemporary immigration, which is defined as a factor of global competition in the framework of the first context. The typical research model of ‘donor-recipient’ is supplemented by a third actor - political and economic world centers, and the world’s multinational companies that invite migrants in order to redistribute the labor resources on the most important labor markets. Immigration is used as an instrument to regulate state social policies; immigration contributes to the social and cultural fragmentation of Europe. The second context is devoted to the study of the rationalization principle as a form of European expansion. Following the conception of A. Touraine, the author defines the rationalization as a form of expansion and as one of the European civilization features that destroys social and cultural constellations. Today Europe is divided into two parts in relation to immigration: the western part (or group of countries) reproduces the immigration model typical for the classic immigration in the past (it is open to immigration); the eastern group of countries reproduces the perception of immigration typical for the old Europe (it is closed to immigration). The determining factor of immigration is the force of attraction of economic and financial world centers; however, the new feature of immigration is that it becomes predominantly nonreturn. The third immigration context is based on the declaration of the priority of culture, traditions and values of the national community. Immigration here is undesirable, non-labor and unacceptable for local labor markets. Immigrants are refugees partly supported by the budgetary funds. Immigrants face high integration requirements such as the study of the language, culture and social norms of the host society.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):496-509
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Churches, Returns Directive, and the immigration issues in the European Union
Mudrov S.A.
Abstract

This article analyses the role of Christian churches in the European Union immigration policy with the special focus on the elaboration and adoption of the Directive on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals (the so-called ‘Returns Directive’). The author briefly discusses the main developments of the European Union policy in the area of migration and asylum, and then identifies the key Christian organizations, which work in this sphere at the European Union level. This part of the article is followed by the detailed analysis of the process of adoption of the Returns Directive. It was the first legislative proposal made under the co-decision mechanism in the area of migration and asylum. Christian organizations were involved in this process almost from its beginning exercising their influence via statements and negotiations. Although many Churches’ suggestions were not taken into account, this happened under the great diversity of opinions of the stakeholders, which made the promotion of Churches’ perspective very complicated. Overall, the author considers necessary to admit that Christian organizations with all their experience and expertise proved to be respected partners of the European Union policy-making in the sphere of migration and asylum.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):519-529
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Surveys, experiments, case studies
Ethnization of the collective consciousness of Russians in the Moscow region: An expert assessment of the process
Onosov A.A., Gasparishvili A.T.
Abstract

Based on the existing scientific approaches, the article continues considering the ethnicization of the mass consciousness of Russian citizens, which takes place under the internal and international labor migration. The article presents the results of the situational analysis and humanitarian expertise of the Russian population’s ethnic identity formation in Moscow and the Moscow Region as Russia’s main attractors of international labor migrants. Based on the statistical data, public opinion survey data and expert assessments, the authors present an empirical model of ethnic identity with theoretical validation and interpretation provided. The study of ethnic identity is accompanied by an insight into the causes and factors of the Russians’ collective consciousness ethnicization, explication of the real content of this process with regard to specific conditions of its manifestation contributing to intensification or weakening of ethnicization. Then the ethnicization of consciousness is considered in the broad context of global ethnic-social dynamics: as a part and reflection of the overall civilizational process determining that the rise of ethnic self-awareness in various social groups and regional communities, not only in Russia, but also far abroad, is a forced response to the globalization as it is practiced in the contemporary world.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):530-541
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Status” of family institution in the contemporary society, and family and marriage values of the youth
Trotsuk I.V., Paramonova A.D.
Abstract

In recent years, in the scientific community and the media there are ongoing debates on how radically the structure, functions and role of the family change in the contemporary society. The positions are conflicting, and even irreconcilable - from quite idealistic family perception in the social-constructivist sense (as a result of agreement of people without any traditional links - biological or legal), which states the eternal nature of the family, as long as there are people and some forms of sociality, to extremely alarmist warnings about the crisis of the family in the present and its disappearance in the not too distant future due to the loss of its functions as a basic social institution. The authors acknowledge both types of arguments, but introduce a clarification: the most pessimistic estimates and forecasts of the future of the family are concentrated on the theoretical level of the studies of the family as primarily a social institution, while at the empirical level, when people answer relevant questions about their own family, the current social realities do not look too pessimistic and prove both ideas - of the transformation of family values and of the preservation of many traditional patterns. Such a conventional differentiation of theoretical and empirical levels in terms of emphases in the sociological study of the family is presented in the article: first, the authors refer to the main trajectories of conceptual searches on family issues in historical and evaluative approaches; then present the results of the surveys among students of universities in the capitals of Russia, Kazakhstan and the Czech Republic. The data confirms, on the one hand, the reproduction in the youth worldview of quite traditional ideas about the proper and important in a person’s life (family is an absolute priority); on the other hand, the ambivalence of Russian youth consciousness, which combines quite easily patriarchal and self-centered Western values.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):542-558
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Value orientations of the student youth in religious and secular universities
Ryazantsev I.P., Podlesnaya M.A., Petrova A.A., Kozlov I.I., Pakhar A.M.
Abstract

The article presents the results of the factor analysis applied to the data of mass survey on the value orientations of the students of secular and religious universities - Moscow Orthodox Theological Academy and Seminary, Lomonosov Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University. First, the authors provide a brief overview of the current state of sociological studies of values and value orientations of the youth and Russians with an emphasis on cross-cultural and other comparative contexts, which are so popular today. The article also considers different emphases in the sociological interpretation of the concepts of values and value orientations on the theoretical and empirical levels including the historical perspective. Since the research project consisted of several stages so as to solve a number of tasks and used different formats of the questionnaire for different samples (administration, professors and students), the article presents only a small part of the project designed to reveal the value orientations of students of secular and religious universities with the help of S. Schwartz and B. Bilski technique. The authors used this technique to identify similarities and differences in values and motives of students of secular and religious universities; suggest four factorial types of motivation; offer an interpretation of the observed factors and their manifestations in different student subsamples, such as the different circumstances of life of students in secular and religious universities and the more “expert” status of the latter in the (Christian, Orthodox) moral discourse, unlike the majority of students of secular universities, who can hardly be considered experts in secular ethics.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):559-575
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Social and electoral preferences and orientations of the youth aged 18-20
Slizovskiy D.E.
Abstract

The article is based on the results of the survey conducted among 500 university students in May-June 2016 to identify the sources and factors influencing the content and structure of the youth perception of the nowadays world order in terms of its justice/injustice and the dominant supporters of democracy in the world. The author focus on the conditions, in which the student youth perception of the crucial political event of this year (forthcoming elections) is formed. Based on the results of the research in the theoretical and applied aspects the author suggests discussing the following issues: if the contemporary world stays unfair and contradictory, the Russian youth will stay purely apolitical for the youth indifference to political processes and events finds justification and explanation in the existing social-political order. However, the world is diverse, possesses the hidden potential for changes and cries out for an upgrade. On the one hand, this implicitly implies conditions for violent, explosive and chaotic reactions of the youth; on the other hand, in some situations prevents and in others stimulates independent estimates of political events. Unfortunately, this process remains too bureaucratic and declarative, or is not controlled, managed and organized by the relevant social and political forces, which prevents the youth from making independent political estimates. At the same time the non-systemic opposition bets on the youth part of society and tries to introduce into the political discourse and seduce the youth with the word “revolution” and the slogan “what unites us is more important than differences”.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):576-585
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Professional communications of Russian technical and engineering specialists: empirical analysis
Abramov R.N.
Abstract

Sociology of professions focus on the role of interpersonal and intergroup communications in the professional communities as an element of professional culture. The article considers forms and features of professional communications of Russian engineers and technicians in the context of their professional culture defined as the constellation of ideology, values, beliefs, language, and forms of activity typical for the community, which rarely becomes an object of Russian sociologists’ studies. The author shows that interpersonal professional communications on the various aspects of professional activity is an important element of professional culture. The article is based on the results of online survey of Russian engineers and expert interviews with Russian technical specialists - they were questioned on the ways of updating their professional knowledge and on the role of various channels of communication in this process. At the beginning of the article, the author provides an overview of approaches to the study of professional culture in Russia and abroad, and underlines the significant role of the Internet and the declining role of literature as a source of new knowledge for the engineering and technical staff. The results of the study also revealed an important role of informal and direct communications in the transfer of professional knowledge within the engineering community, while organizational environment has a relatively low impact on the updating of professional knowledge, which can be explained by the lack of management attention to the professional development of specialists.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):586-598
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Agency and the reproduction of social structures: On the example of the rotation system of work in Bashkortostan
Turakayev M.S.
Abstract

The article considers the way of life, lifestyle and positions in the labor market of shift workers from rural areas of the Republic Bashkortostan. This social group is rather large and specific to the Volga Federal District of Russia. Its distinctive features are mobile employment and regular pendulum migration. The key aim of the study was to analyze the agency and the reproduction of social structures in the sphere of the long-distance rotation system, the position and roles of shift workers in the social life of the Russian region. The community of shift workers is considered as a social space of positions (external social structures in the sphere of employment), and as a social space of their way of life and individual characteristics (lifestyle, cultural capital and habitus). The interaction within the social space of the long-distance shift positions, mode of life and lifestyle of shift workers is based on the principle of the structure “duality” that opposes and contradicts the principle of structural “dualism”. The paper reveals differences between two principles in the context of structuration theory, constructivist structuralism and critical realism. The methodology of the analysis of shift workers’ labor participation and everyday activities is based on the idea of the duality of structure. The labor career and rural mode of life of shift workers are determined by structural and institutional conditions that limit their behavior in the reproduction of social structures. The lifestyle of shift workers is determined by a relatively free choice of leisure activities during their stay at home in rural areas and characterizes their agency. The selectivity of their leisure practices is reflected in the well-established lifestyle, which depends on the limitations in the social sphere of rural life and their mode of life at work («vakhta»). The reproduction of shift workers labor positions hierarchy in the social space is provided by the elements of lifestyle (cultural capital, and habits in praticular) and the way of life (for example, well-being).

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):599-610
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Sociology of management
Informational and analytical support of the state bodies activities (on the example of expert surveys in APR countries)
Ruban L.S.
Abstract

Based on the expert surveys conducted within the international project “Dialogue Partnership as a Factor of Stability and Integration” (“Bridge between East and West”) over ten years (2005-2014) and control interviews conducted in 2009 and 2015 in the longitude format (70% of experts were the same) the author provides a comprehensive analysis of the situation in the Asia-Pacific region with the help of highly qualified experts and VIP-persons - decision-makers from 16 Asian-Pacific countries: Brunei-Darussalam, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, the People’s Republic of China, Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Russian Federation, Singapore, USA, Thailand, the Philippines and Japan. This study is not abstract or theoretical; it is a tool for informational and analytical support of the relevant state bodies of the Russian Federation responsible for the development of the situation in the Asia-Pacific region. The author analyzes the geopolitical balance of power and leadership in the region, its economic and energy situation, the level of security, risks and threats, the possibility of a military conflict so as to identify possible ways for the effective cooperation and coordination of interests of various countries in the region.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):611-622
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Conceptual and methodological aspects of the assessment of the organization’s readiness to innovations
Neverov A.V., Dudnik A.S.
Abstract

Nowadays Russian organizations feel the need to create innovative products and high technologies and to implement management innovations. The significance of changes for social system cannot be overestimated; however, for Russia innovative development becomes not only a major socio-economic challenge, but also an objective of paramount importance that needs to be solved as soon as possible. Such significance and urgency are determined by the following factors: first, the sanctions proved the high demand for the independent development of many types of technologies; second, the introduction of innovations is necessary for national economy modernization and improvement of Russian companies efficiency; third, without permanent development of science and education (which is impossible without innovations) there is social and cultural stagnation of the state; fourth, the global trend of changes and improvement of production determines the emergence of new forms of economic cooperation with the dominance of high-tech, innovative and converging technologies; fifth, the priorities of our country for the next few years are a high-tech capacity building and an access to major international markets of innovations. Thus, many Russian companies will have to introduce innovations more actively. The success of introducing innovations depends largely on the organization’s readiness to them, which determines the importance of the assessment of the readiness of organization social environment for introducing innovations for social aspects have a significance impact on innovations management. For the complex assessment of the readiness of organization social environment to innovations, we need relevant methodical approaches. The article considers conceptual approaches to innovations management and the techniques for assessing the readiness of organization social environment to innovations.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):623-636
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Sociological lectures
Evolution of sociological explanations of fatherhood: From H. Spencer to R. Connell
Lipasova A.N.
Abstract

The author considers and compares several approaches to the concept of fatherhood in the Western sociological tradition: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The issue of fatherhood and men’s parental practices are marginalized in the Russian social studies of the family, which reinforces the traditional inequality in family relations when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to the mother’s. However, in the Western critical men’s studies there are several periods: development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a behavioral model for his ascendants. Social constructivism considers man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and hegemony over the woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with its social, cultural and personal context. The article shows that these approaches are directly connected with the level of social development, perception of marriage and family institutions, and the level of gender order egalitality.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):637-648
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Welfare state: Milestones of development and the current status
Zakharyan D.A.
Abstract

The article describes the evolution of ideas about the social state as a fair state based on the concept of the social contract. L. von Stein argues that the purpose of the welfare state was not changing the class structure of society and the elimination of the contradictions between the classes, but rather balancing and minimizing conflicts with the help of property transformations allowing a person to change one’s class affiliation. The main condition for the existence of the welfare state is its policies compliance with the interests of citizens, which provides political stability and social security. The central idea of the welfare constitutional state is that the rights of citizens are guaranteed by the state. The functions of the state and its social responsibilities were transforming over time mainly due to the erosion of state, private and corporate responsibility for providing social services. In most cases, the social programs are developed by the state, but they can also be provided by commercial organizations in the “consumer society”, in which all things and services have a material value and benefit. The welfare state is based on the principle of social justice in the distribution of wealth among the population, thus, every democratic state seeks to become a welfare state, which implies a high level of confidence in the government.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):649-658
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Reviews
A small book about a big problem, or a macrolook at what we eat. Book review: Shagajda N.I., Uzun V.Ja. Prodovol'stvennaja bezopasnost' v Rossii: monitoring, tendentsii i ugrozy [Food Security in Russia: Monitoring, Trends, and Threats]. M.: Izdatel'skij dom «Delo» RANHiGS, 2015. 110 s
Trotsuk I.V.
Abstract

A small book about a big problem, or a macrolook at what we eat. Book review: Shagajda N.I., Uzun V.Ja. Prodovol'stvennaja bezopasnost' v Rossii: monitoring, tendentsii i ugrozy [Food Security in Russia: Monitoring, Trends, and Threats]. M.: Izdatel'skij dom «Delo» RANHiGS, 2015. 110 s

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):659-668
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Scientific life
“Spiritual and Moral Culture in the Higher Education” Expectations and fears (the results of ‘Christmas Educational Readings’ in PFUR)
Puzanova Z.V., Simonova M.A.
Abstract

The article provides an overview of the key issues of the III International Conference “Spiritual and Moral Culture in the Higher Education” devoted to the discussion of the action plan to implement the National Strategy of Education Development until 2025. The authors consider the basic ideas of the key conference speakers’ presentations and present the results of the express-poll among the conference participants conducted to identify their expectations. The main leitmotif of all speakers’ presentations was as follows: the higher school is responsible for training the new generations of professionals - with high moral standards and responsibility for the fate of the country and one’s homeland. Young Russian citizens focused on fruitful activity can be raised only by joint efforts of the state, the church and society. It is extremely important to coordinate the efforts of the church and the state in the support and protection of the family, in combating extremism, and in forming high moral standards. ‘Christmas Readings’ is a good tradition established several years ago, which continues to bring together people interested in solving the most urgent problems in the educational sphere. The participants of the round tables discussed the issues of youth education and its impact on the country’s national security, the relationships of spiritual values and nation’s health, pedagogical aspects of spiritual and moral education of the youth, the impact of mass culture on the society, the student volunteer movement, spiritual and moral criteria of science.

RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):669-678
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Authors
Authors
 
Abstract
RUDN Journal of Sociology. 2016;16(3):679-681
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