Vol 20, No 4 (2018)

Academic Life
XXV WORLD CONGRESS OF INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION IN AUSTRALIA: “BORDERS AND MARGINS”
Irhin Y.V.

Abstract

The article analyses preparation, key stages, structure, character and the results of the work of XXV World Congress of International Political Science Association «Borders and Margins», held in Australia, Brisbane 21 to 25 July 2018. The overview considers the key problems and directions of discussions that took place during the Brisbane`s Congress: borders, frontiers and margins in politics and the world, human right in the era of globalization and nationalism, contradiction of migrations processes, contemporary challenges of liberal democracy and global rise of populism, federalization, tradition and democratic innovation in electoral system of Australia, research methods and approaches in political science, participation of Russian political scientists it the congress. The author considers XXV World Congress of International Political Science Association «Borders and Margins» as a logical stage in its seventy years genesis.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):469-483
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Political process in contemporary Russia: Prospects and trends
THE CONSEQUENCES OF MERGING KAMCHATKA REGION AND KORYAKSKY AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT
Okunev I.Y., Schilovskiy R.S.

Abstract

As part of the 2000s federal reforms, two constituent units of the Russian Federation were merged: the Kamchatka Region and the Koryaksky Autonomous District. As a result, the Kamchatka Territory was formed. Before the merging, these regions had had a variety of problems, which the federal government attempted to resolve by creating a new territorial unit. The local authorities and residents were highly skeptical as to the prospects of the new region’s further development. From the perspective of the interests of various groups, the unification results were rather ambiguous, as despite the first years’ successful economic and social performance indicators, management problems remained. The consequences of the merging continue to have a great impact on the modern economic, social and political situation in the region. The present study aims to analyze the after-effects of merging the Kamchatka Region with the Koryaksky Autonomous District into the Kamchatka Territory taking into consideration the motives and interests of federal authorities, local governments and the two regions’ population. Document analysis, analysis of statistical data and comparative method are used in this study. There are a few research works about the Kamchatka unification; and this study presents an attempt to assess the objective changes since the formation of the Kamchatka Territory until now, taking into account the perspectives of different political actors.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):484-495
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THE SEA OF RUSSIAN CULTURE (RUSSIAN IDENTITY AND THE CONCEPT OF TOLERANCE)
Ilinskaya S.G.

Abstract

As an alternative to V.L. Tsymbursky’s historic-philosophical and geopolitical concept of “Russia as an Island”, the author suggests her own cultural metaphor that is more adequate to Russian history and civilization. While in leading national geopolitical schools, Russia is associated with Land, the author puts forward a new concept comparing Russia to Sea, thus deconstructing a number of opposing geopolitical ideas. The proposed metaphor underlines both the specificity, “singularity”, and uniqueness of Russian culture and its association with the «ocean of world civilization». This metaphor helps formulate a “Russian idea” in the light of new global challenges that threaten the Russian state and Russian culture today. It also helps to get a better insight into the geographical losses on the Post-Soviet territory.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):496-505
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Political processes in the modern world
SINGLE-PARTY DOMINANCE IN ETHIOPIA: FPTP ELECTORAL SYSTEM AND PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT SYSTEM AS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
Bayeh E.

Abstract

The primary objective of this paper is to reveal the role of the FPTP electoral system and the parliamentary government system in reinforcing single-party dominance in Ethiopia. For this purpose, the author uses secondary sources of data in his research. The data analysis showed that both the FPTP electoral system and the parliamentary government system have contributed substantially to the existing single-party dominance in Ethiopia. The FPTP electoral system encouraged a single-party rule by awarding seat advantage in parliament to the stronger party, EPRDF. The parliamentary government system has also promoted single-party dominance across all branches of the government by vesting parliament sovereignty with the EPRDF. The researcher comes to the conclusion that due to the inequality of perspectives and opportunities for all political parties (or no genuine multi-party system), the FPTP electoral system and the parliamentary government system inevitably contribute to the development of single-party dominance, which may further lead to authoritarianism.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):506-515
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LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND POLICY NETWORKS IN THE UK: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY
Khalifa M.

Abstract

In the United Kingdom, local government includes authorities and subordinate agencies that are established according to the law, under the direction of a locally elected council to provide services for their local neighborhoods and represent their concerns and interests. The United Kingdom does not have a federal government, like the United States; there is no division of powers between the central government and local units. The central government has all governmental powers and is dominantly responsible for public policy making. The research will clarify the function of local government and identify the relationship between the central government and local authorities. It will also analyze modern models of policy networks in the UK and demonstrate their difference from the federal system.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):516-524
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CHINA’S GLOBAL CONQUEST FOR OIL: A RESEARCH REVIEW OF CHINESE ODI
Kilani A.

Abstract

With all natural resources at its possession and the ambition to conquer the globe, China has set its role as one of the biggest international players in the world economy. Considering liberalized policies recently employed by China, it was just a matter of time before the country shifted from being a communist state to becoming a capitalist economy. The effect of China’s ‘going out’ policy is remarkable in both developing and developed nations. China has become a phobia for western countries, especially the United States, imposing a threat for their state enterprises which cannot sustain the competition, and a lifesaver for those trying to improve their living standards. This paper will review six articles on China's outward direct investment (ODI), its formation and effect on other states.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):525-535
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RUSSIA’S RELATIONS WITH GULF STATES AND THEIR EFFECT ON REGIONAL BALANCE IN THE MIDDLE EAST
Almaqbali M.M., Ivanov V.G.

Abstract

The article reviews the history of formation and development of Russia’s diplomatic relations with the Arab Gulf States. It analyzes the countries’ rapport in the framework of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Persian Gulf on the issue of homeland security in the region (the Iranian and Syrian questions, Qatar crisis). It also looks at the development of military and technical cooperation and the evolution of economic relations, which Russia uses to secure its growing geopolitical influence in the Arabian Gulf. The research describes the prospects of political development after the withdrawal of Russian troops from Syria.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):536-547
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THE IMPACT OF SYRIAN REFUGEE CRISIS ON NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES
Hawamdeh M.F., Al-Qteishat A.A.

Abstract

This article discusses the impact of short migration in Syria on neighboring countries. Since the begging of the civil war in Syria an exodus in large numbers has emerged. The turmoil and violence have caused mass migration to destinations both within the region and beyond. The article discusses the political, social and economic effects of these crises on the regional security in the Middle East and beyond. Refugee crisis provokes many difficulties in receiving countries and living conditions of refugees are often questionable due to difficult humanitarian situation. The article analyzes the challenge to the neighboring countries of Syria (Jordan, Turkey, Lebanon and Iraq), that has been hosted more than five million forced refugees according to UN last statistics. It is concluded that The Syrian refugee crisis remains one of the biggest problems facing the Middle East. It is more prone to more humanitarian and political problems, especially as it is a crisis of chaos, turmoil and protracted conflicts in the region.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):548-554
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Some actual problems of political science
THEORIES OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR AND RESOURCE MOBILIZATION: ELABORATION ON THE CONCEPT OF POLITICAL PROTEST
Savenkov R.V., Shcheglova D.V.

Abstract

Organized rallies are gaining more influence in socio-political processes in Russia and Europe. Modern protest is taking on new forms and is using new technical capabilities to mobilize participants. Determining potential capacity of a rally, its “unstable equilibrium points” and gauging the public’s possible negative reactions to the political elite’s decision making is becoming an important goal in contemporary political management. The article examines the heuristic potential of two approaches to studying political protest: theory of collective action and theory of mobilization of political opportunities. The first approach stems from the idea of dominance of symbolic values in modern political consciousness, while the second looks in more detail at the “balance of power” and resources that lend to the effectiveness of a protest. Does the environment created by the “new methods” have an impact on the efficacy of a protest? How important are institutional defects in order for citizens to want to organize a rally? Studying these aspects can help gain insight into the public’s real protest potential at regional and local levels in Russia.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):555-563
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POLITICAL ASPECT OF SOCIAL CONFLICTS
Ivanov O.B.

Abstract

Understanding social conflict is one of the key problems of contemporary social sciences. This article views the phenomenon of social conflict as an important form of social interaction. Social conflict is seen as a manageable process, which can be controlled by an external force. Modern Russian society is characterized by an increase in the number of citizens expressing their dissatisfaction with governmental response to social demands. This article is an attempt to analyze social conflict in modern society as a phenomenon that also has a political component. Pertaining to the stated goal, the article focuses on the problems of social inequality in present-day reality. It is stated that mitigation of socio-political tensions is related to government policy, and a high level of social differentiation of society can pose a threat to political stability. The increase in the degree of social inequality is related to inequitable social interchange that takes place in society. Exceeding the permissible degree of inequality leads to a large difference in the standard of living of social groups, which is regarded as discrimination and infringement of rights of certain demographics. This circumstance causes social tensions and serves as a ground for the emergence, development and spread of social conflicts. The novelty and practical significance of the work consists in presenting a comprehensive analysis of how social and political conflicts are interrelated and, in case of contemporary Russian reality, intertwined. The author examines the specific character of social conflicts in modern Russia and points out the need for development and use of methods - adequate to the current state of information technology - that would effectively regulate social conflicts.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):564-577
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ENSURING THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF GREAT BRITAIN FROM D. CAMERON TO T. MAY: STRATEGIES AND REALITIES
Klimova A.S.

Abstract

In recent years, ensuring the national security of the UK has become an urgent and challenging task. This article aims to analyze the main goals in the sphere of national security, which were outlined in British strategic documents - in particular, the National Security Strategies of 2010 and 2015, and the accompanying strategic defense and security reviews. The author examines the methods used to achieve these goals, and the actual accomplishments in the security sector. In addition to scientific literature, the article studies recent official government documents in the sphere of national security and defense, as well as relevant materials of leading British “think tanks” and British media. The author enquires into practical results that have been achieved by the D. Cameron government in the main areas of national security: anti-terrorism efforts, resolution of armed conflicts and instability abroad, and fighting cyberterrorism. In view of the results of the referendum on the country's membership in the European Union, UK has found itself entangled in an entirely different paradigm of relations with the EU, while trying to resolve its own internal political problems. Therefore, matters of international, as well as national, security have slid by the wayside. At the same time, British government maintains continuity of the national security policy in terms of responding to significant threats. Under T. May, the danger of terrorism, threatening Europe and the entire world, has become a matter of urgency for UK. Consequently, the May government will most likely be forced to change its course of action, and perhaps rewrite the whole strategy of ensuring national security, as well as adopt a number of unpopular, harsh measures. In the period between 2015 and 2020, terrorism, international military conflicts, pandemics and natural risks remain the first level risks for Great Britain. Long term, geopolitical and economic changes on the global scale are expected to be the prevailing risk factors. Climate change is also gaining significance and starting from 2035 it is predicted to have the greatest impact on national security.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):578-594
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PSYCHOANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN NATURE IN POLITICAL REALISM
Rozhkov A.A.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the restoration of the concept of human nature in the theory of political realism. The crisis of theory of international relations at the turn of the 20th and 21th centuries forced the followers of political realism to reconsider the main ideas of the structural realism of Kenneth Walz and to begin to study the internal factors of world politics. Thus, scientists need an intellectual basis, on the foundation of which new realistic ideas could appear. The author shows, that some adequate ways to solve this problem is to return to the classical concept of “human nature”. The article uses Robert Sсhuett's book “Political Realism, Freud and Human Nature in International Relations”. Psychoanalytic understanding of this problem makes it possible to clarify key ideas of political realism, including the expansionist behavior of states on the world stage, their desire for security, and the negative attitude of realists towards the use of universal values in international relations. As shown in the article, the key authors of realism were not only influenced by Freud's ideas, but also used his legacy to create their own theory. For example, the idea of the founding father of political realism Hans Morgenthau about the egoistic nature of man is based on the psychoanalytic understanding of love and destructive aspirations. The reasoning of classical realists about the causes and role of nationalism in the formation of international relations is also in close connection with ideas of psychoanalysis. Representation of realists about the elitist essence of power practically repeats Freud's words about the irrationality of the masses and the key role of enlightened rulers.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):595-608
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VISUALIZATION AS A POLITICAL TECHNOLOGY
Skorik A.V.

Abstract

The article reflects on the process of visualization as one of the types of political technologies used in the contemporary world. The author analyses the concept of visualization as well as its key tools on several political cases. The article stresses that the main feature of visual content is that it is an important source of social information and at the same time it transforms the political reality. In this regard, the article considers visualization process as one of the types of political technologies used in the contemporary world. Visualization of political appeals, data and agendas helps to increase the level of political participation, to update and strengthen dialogue mechanisms of political communication between civil society and state authorities.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):609-615
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Scientific reviews
THE IDEOLOGY OF GLOBAL HEGEMONY: THE HISTORY OF FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN POLICY STRATEGIES OF AMERICAN NEOCONSERVATISM BOOK REVIEW: Blokhin K.V. Crusaders of the Cold War. American Neoconservatism: Ideology and Practice of Global Hegemony. Moscow: Ves’ Mir Publishing House; 2016. 176 p
Surguladze V.S.

Abstract

The monograph of candidate of historical sciences, americanist K.V. Blokhin is a comprehensive analysis of the historical background of emergence and formation of the phenomenon of American neo-conservatism. A distinctive feature of the author's work is its interdisciplinary nature, thanks to which the book will be interesting not only to professional historians, political scientists and specialists in the field of international relations, but also to politicians, as well as political analysts and consultants.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):616-623
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PAN-SLAVISM FOR CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA: HISTORICAL UTOPIA OR GEOPOLITICAL CHALLENGE? REFLECTIONS ON THE BOOK by B.A. Prokudin “Pan-Slavism in the History of Politics and Thought in Twentieth-Century Russia”. Moscow: Moscow University Press; 2018. 218 p
Kazarinova D.B.

Abstract

The article is a review of a monograph by a young but prominent researcher of Russian political thought, an associate professor of Moscow State University, Boris Prokudin. The author also presents her reflections on the connection of the idea of Slavic unity and modern projects involving studies of political values, while emphasizing the opposition of the Russian world and the Three Seas Initiative.

RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):624-629
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MANUFACTURING CONSENT... OR HEGEMONY? BOOK REVIEW: Kilani A. Comparative Analysis of Media Hegemony: Propaganda and Manufacturing Consent in U.S. Media. Columbia: SC; 2018. 166 p
Ivanov V.G., Efanova E.V.

Abstract

This year's monograph by young Lebanese political scientist Ahmad Kilani “Comparative analysis of media hegemony: propaganda and production of consent in US media” is of both scientific and practical interest to political scientists, political analysts and journalists. The book presents a comparative study of theoretical and conceptual approaches to analyzing and substantiating media hegemony in the United States. Drawing on the analysis of various research theories and concepts, including various historical and modern cases, the author comes to meaningful conclusions that could be of interest to a wide range of readers.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):630-633
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EVIDENCE FOR HOPE: MAKING HUMAN RIGHTS WORK IN THE 21ST CENTURY BOOK REVIEW: Sikkink K. Evidence for Hope Making Human Rights Work in the 21st Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2017. 336 p
Gupta S.

Abstract

Evidence for Hope written by Kathryn Sikkink, published by Princeton University Press, emphasizes that there is no need for human rights activists to be pessimistic. What they need to do, however, is to maintain positive fervor, hold on tightly to the human rights flags and follow through with their agenda. In her book, Sikkink offers a ‘futuristic prescription’ for upholding human rights and democratic principles of liberty and equality.
RUDN Journal of Political Science. 2018;20(4):634-636
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