Vol 21, No 3 (2017)

Articles
THE PROBLEM OF GOOD AND EVIL IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF I.A. ILYIIN
Tsvyk V.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the study and analysis of the ethical concept of IA. Ilyin - the doctrine of the essence and nature of good and evil, the means of opposing evil. In the Russian philosophy of the early twentieth century, the deliverance of the world from evil was declared the main task of mankind. Therefore, in the teachings of the greatest philosophers of this period, attempts to solve the problem of good and evil are often expressed in the desire to identify evil, to find its sources, to show mankind ways and methods of fighting it. In the creative heritage of the outstanding Russian philosopher Ivan Aleksandrovich Il’in, an important place is occupied by the study of the question of the nature of good and evil, the origin of evil, and, most importantly, methods of combating it. Ilyin’s ethic is very relevant, it is of interest to the modern reader precisely because it embodies his personal spiritual and moral experience. The objec-tivity and scientific approach to its study excludes the possibility of its unambiguous evaluation. On the one hand, the present reality and social existence of the first decade of the 21st century. Continues to talk about the human right to use force in the fight against evil. On the other hand, the fact that the path to good lies beyond all violent actions becomes more and more understandable. Outside the non-violent per-spective, the further development of human civilization is impossible, both in terms of interpersonal relations, and at the level of interstate relations and world politics.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):293-304
views
EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF DIGNITY IN THE HISTORY OF ETHICS
Sychev A.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the evolution of the concept of dignity in ethical and philosophical thought. On the basis of the etymology of the word, the author reveals the basic definition of dignity as a measure of the correspondence of a person’s behavior to his or her position in society and the approving reaction of the others to such behavior. This definition is corrected in the analysis of the views of Aristotle, the Stoics, Cicero, Thomas Aquinas, J. Manetti, J. Pico della Mirandola, T. Hobbes, J.-J. Rousseau, I. Kant, and others. It is shown that in the course of historical development (under the influence of philosophy and religion) the hierarchical understanding of dignity was gradually replaced by the universalist one. Analyzing the notions of dignity as a theoretical foundation of the human rights system and disputes about dignity in contemporary bioethics, the author concludes that dignity is an important personal and social value, which potential in solving complex ethical dilemmas of present time, despite the frequent use of this word in public discourse, is not yet fully realized.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):305-313
views
THE INFLUENCE OF MORAL DILEMMAS UPON THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE KANT’S CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
Larionov I.Y., Tarasova A.V.
Abstract

In this paper, we discuss the possibility of theoretical exploration of moral dilemmas as well as the elaboration the solution strategy from the standpoint of the deontological ethics. The main difficulties the deontological ethics in this area are identified. Hereafter we analyze the main provisions of the moral doctrine of I. Kant, who is usually regarded as the main authority for strict deontological position in ethics. We try to prove that it is not the categorical imperative, but the «‘ought’ implies ‘can’» principle should be considered as the starting point for the analysis of moral dilemmas in Kantian deontology, taking into consideration that Kant himself claimed the conflict of duties to be fundamentally impossible. We suggest that the modifying the basic principles of deontology would allow it to explore moral dilemmas. The most effective modification would be that comprises the concept of responsibility without sacrificing the «‘ought’ implies ‘can’» principle. At the same time, there is no necessity to construct a moderate version of deontology with the ranking of moral responsibilities. So we analytically discuss the closest theoretical positions of H. Jonas who modified the Kantian moral requirement, showing its anthropological limitations. The role the prediction of the technological development consequences plays the principle of responsibility by H. Jonas is shown. R. Barkan Marcus focuses attention on the unanticipated character of the moral dilemmas that may interfere with the implementation of the postulates of practical reason. She develops the concept of duty, aimed at providing certain condition that will facilitate the performance of moral acts in the future.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):314-322
views
MORAL CHOICE AS THE BASIS FOR UNDERSTANDING MORALITY (regarding ideas of S. Kierkegaard and F. Nietzsche)
Kosorukova A.A.
Abstract

The article considers two ways of raising the question about the concept of moral choice, carried out by two famous critics of the classical intellectualism in ethics - S. Kierkegaard and F. Nietzsche. The work defines the main contexts for the understanding of moral choice: as associated with the ideas of the overcoming of the abstract nature of the subject of moral choice, as making the emphasis on per-sonality and as based on the idea of increasing self-affirmation of life in opposition to the values of denial of life (Ressentment). The philosophy of Kierkegaard illuminates the theme of moral choice from two points of view: as a phenomenon of the ethical stage of existence, and as characteristic of the religious stage. If the ethical stage defines the moral choice as associated with the choice of these or those moral values, the religious stage is raised from the choice between the Absolute and the items of temporary individual human existence. The position of Nietzsche in relation to understanding the nature of morality is associated with his separation of morality of masters and morality of slaves. If the latter is determined by the sense of Ressentiment, the first is understood through absence of the sense of Ressentiment, and the positing of values “from the” advanced will to power. Resentment is treated in the article in the sense, in which it is defined by Nietzsche in “Genealogy of morality” - as the sense of smoldering resentment at your own weakness and someone else’s strength. The article emphasizes the parallelism between the theme of personal moral/ religious choice in Kierkegaard and the theme of individual autoreflexion struggle with Ressentment as the basis of morality in the view of Nietzsche.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):323-329
views
ETHICS OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND ETHICS OF JUSTICE
Porokhovskaya T.I.
Abstract

Despite the fact that a lot has been written about human rights, there is no grounded concept of human rights. Human rights in domestic ethics have long been viewed in a positive way - as an ideal, as a value, as a minimum moral or an analog of universal morality. The article traces the hypothesis of the emergence of the idea of natural human rights, the historical change in its value-normative content in phi-losophy and the role in politics, and, in particular, its fate at the present time, when the idea of human rights has become the value kernel of the ideology of globalization. The main arguments of the critics of human rights are analyzed, expanded or refined, the practice of using human rights as a means for solving some other tasks and value transformations of the idea of human rights in connection with this instrumental application is considered. This approach opens the prospect of a professional philosophical discussion of this topic.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):330-337
views
THE MORAL PHENOMENON OF SERVICE
Moiseenko M.V.
Abstract

This article examines the phenomenon of moral Service, highlights the main value com-ponents of the concept of Service. The phenomenon is investigated mainly through the prism of social Service in the forms of charity and benevolence drawn from the history and from modern Russia. The enor-mous role of the state and state ideology that guides society with high moral standards is emphasized in the article. Social Service in the forms of charity and philanthropy has deep roots in Russian history, starting from the first Russian princes and the clergy. The mercy is always seen in the history of Russia as the highest value. In modern Russia the strong focus is also set on the acts of mercy. Multiple awards and state prizes have been given to citizens and organizations supporting orphanages, nursing homes, hospices and medical institutions located on the territory of the Russian Federation. The Service is regarded as a form of patriotism. The article highlights the importance of the personality of the teacher in moral and patriotic upbringing of the younger generation. The appeal to the themes of patriotism and Service is illustrated by the example of the Colloquiums of the Department of Ethics within the framework of the educational work in RUDN. In conclusion the author defines the basic moral values of people who devoted their lives to the high ideals of Service. According to the author, this is: patriotism, humanistic aspirations, open-mindedness, high moral ideals, highly developed sense of duty, honor and dignity, tender conscience, altruistic motives, hard work, professionalism, priority of spiritual values over material, self-sacrifice. Service is a feat in a long-term perspective.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):338-345
views
ETHICS OF THE CIVIL SERVICE
Mukhametzhanova V.S.
Abstract

The article reviews the concept of the civil servant ethics as a separate type of professional ethics. According to the author’s opinion, the problems of the civil service management and search for mechanisms to increase its effectiveness are extremely important for the modern society. The specifics of the ethics of public service are determined by a number of factors. First, it is the spe-cial purpose of the state service itself, stipulated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Secondly, it is the special social and legal status of civil servants. Thirdly, these are the restrictions and obligations for the citizens of the Russian Federation while doing civil service. Fourth, it is the formation of effective human resources capacity of civil servants. Finally, it is the awareness of the high level of social responsi-bility of officials for the decisions taken in professional activities. Тhe article pays special attention to the analyzes of the ethical code aimed to increase the efficiency of the performance of duties by state officials. Awareness and observance of ethical principles are the key to assessing quality of their professional activities and behavior. Аpproved ethical principles of civil service set the common guidelines, ensuring the integrity and viability of the service as a system.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):346-352
views
VALUE FOUNDATIONS OF RUSSIAN ELECTORAL DISCOURSE
Sazonova A.A.
Abstract

The subject of the article is Russian electoral discourse. The historical-philosophical analysis and the value bases of this phenomenon are presented. The concept of discourse reflects not only the speech characteristics of a certain group of people, but also the specifics of the social structure. Thus, electoral discourse represents a socially conditioned organization of speech space associated with electoral processes. To understand the specifics of modern electoral discourse, its value bases are given special attention. The philosophical ideas of N. Berdyaev, I. Il’in, N. Karamzin, O. Klyuchevsky, G. Plekhanov and others are presented in the article. The article presents in detail the analysis of the formation of Russian political thought and the electoral tradition. The binary nature of Russian historical development is obvious: the way of life in Russia has been infinitely changed under the influence of Asian and European factors. Particular attention is paid to the post-Soviet period and the formation of a modern electoral system. The author identifies three main factors that influence the formation of the quality of domestic electoral discourse: the lack of competition, the emerging institution of property law, the adoption of political tradition. The nega-tive aspects of Russian electoral discourse are singled out. The study of this phenomenon will allow to define the mechanisms of management of social changes that can be used by different social groups to achieve certain goals of social development.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):353-360
views
BUSINESS ETHICS AS ETHICS OF VIRTUE
Razin A.V.
Abstract

The article shows that the approach associated with the ethics of the virtues, implies the consideration of the qualities that make the activity of a subject possible, speaks of the perfection of an in-dividual from the standpoint of his or her teleological structure, that is speaks about the perfection of a man from the point of view of his destination, perfection in the execution of public functions, unity of goods of the society and the individual. Prospects of application of this approach has been significantly limited as a result of the influence of the Christian tradition in which the actual moral qualities and other abilities of the personality-related skills and dispositions to commit various kinds of social activities were largely separated. At the same time in ancient ethics, in the philosophy of D. Hume, J.S. Mill such a strong separation was not carried out. For applied ethics it is such a broad understanding of virtue has the principle meaning.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):361-370
views
STEVE JOBS’ UNDERSTANDING OF DESIGN: ETHICAL DIMENTION
Savvina O.V.
Abstract

The article analyses design concept by Steve Jobs and his creative solutions. The study shows that Steve Jobs has followed range of values, such as simplicity and disregard for status demon-stration and superfluous decorations. He promotes these values among his target group and influence on people. Steve Jobs’ first priority were impeccable taste and aesthetics. He demonstrates disregard for the “false” values such as status demonstration or luxury segment products, at the same time he dislikes cheap and low-quality goods for the mass consumer. The designer understands beauty as truth, he considers beauty not as a subject-matter of the dispute, but as a truth that must be discovered. The feather of Steve Jobs is the ability to make decisions and take whole the responsibility. The article demonstrates that ethical values have contributed into the popularity of Apple products, designed by Steve Jobs. The article also describes the laws of simplicity, developed by American philosopher and designer John Maeda, who has been inspired by Apple products (especially iPod). The author has come to conclusion that the laws are based on ethical values, analyzing Maeda’s “The laws of simplicity”.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):371-378
views
COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL PROCESS: THE ETHICAL ASPECT
Tsvyk I.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the ethical evaluation of the possible consequences of informatiza-tion of all forms of educational activity. The author considers the positive and negative aspects of the wide-spread introduction of computer technologies in the educational process. The use of computer technologies in the educational process is designed to solve important didactic tasks. First of all, it is the improvement of the organization of the educational process, the acceleration and intensification of the learning process, ensuring its flexibility and individual approach. In addition, computer technology can significantly improve the productivity of self-training students, ensure the development of their personality, stimulate research activities and generally increase the level of independence in the learning process. In the same time, in the ethical plan the most dangerous consequence of the mass transfer of the educational process to computer training schemes is the possible dehumanization of the educational process, the departure of the spiritual personal component from it. The most dangerous consequence of the complete transfer of the educational process to computer tracks is the possible curtailing of live dialogical communication among the participants in the educational process, which is the most important and practically the only source of speech development for the students, and consequently their independent creative thinking.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):379-388
views
MODERN CORPORATE UNIVERSITIES: ETHICAL THREATS AND ETHICAL HOPES
Lapshin I.Y.
Abstract

The article considers the problem of implementation of ethics as a taught subject into modern business education. Modern business schools reached a stable point of development during last decades and became less adaptive to the needs of modern business community. In this sense, business schools represent a longer educational tradition while education in corporate universities which emerged a half a cen-tury ago is grounded upon more innovative and experimental principles. Practical orientation and correlation with the functioning of a specific organization allows corporate universities to avoid several problems accumulated during the decades of business schools’ existence. However, the renunciation of some principles which are traditional for both public and private education can potentially lead to contradictory consequences including those in the sphere of ethics. The first part of the article is a brief historical overview of the development of economic education in the world. It is also shown on the example of the USA why some of features of business schools have developed like we know them today and what is their connection with the various stages of development of the world economy in the 20th century. The second part of the article aims to outline some nuances of the emergence and development of corporate universities, to show why their influence on the modern economic education increased and to point out the corresponding reasons to be ethically concerned. The article analyses some problems of modern business-schools and also considers corporate uni-versities as an alternative to traditional business education.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):389-395
views
ETHICS OF AGE: YOUTH AND PROSPECTS OF IMMORTALITY
Mikaelyan S.V.
Abstract

The paper deals with increasing idealization and aesthetization of youthfulness in the 20-21 centuries. Juvenility has become one of the fundamental values of today causing the desire to stop the process of aging which leads to discrimination towards elderly people. Advancements in medicine and biological technologies urge society to believe that the project of life spans extension and immortality may be feasible in the near future. The consideration on such developments allow us to conclude that modern mankind faces a possible change of social reality through the modification of morality and the current set of values.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):396-400
views
ETHICAL ASECTS OF OVERCOMING CLASSICAL ARMED CONFLICTS’ CONSEQUENCES
Yakushev L.V.
Abstract

The paper carries out an ethical analysis of the political mechanisms of just restoration after war conflicts’ ending. The basis of analyses is the Just War Theory’s principles, and its result is the general parameters special, jus post bellum theory. Postwar justice hasn’t received detailed consideration from ancient and medieval philosophers, but in modern era beginning from Kant has drown many thinkers’ attention. In contemporary post war justice conception key research subject is the moral foundations of the compromise between all conflict parties in order to early violence’s cessation. However, despite growing interest in the issue, a whole range of related questions remains unresolved, e.g. who is responsible for postwar justice restoration? what kind of measures should include the process of return to the world? how to justify these actions in accordance with international law, in particular the UN Charter? Proposed in the article system of measures could be one option to these questions.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):401-406
views
LEADER AS AN EXPOUNDER OF ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN MANAGEMENT
Glazov A.Y.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the most important characters of leadership for the purpose of defining leader as an expounder in the ethical development of the enterprise stuff. Leader’s adherence to ethical principles is the key element of modern management. Leader as an expounder of ethical principles provides the general guidelines, ensuring the effectiveness of management in the professional environment.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):407-410
views
THE PECULIARITY OF THE PERCEPTION OF VIEWS AND IDEAS F.M. DOSTOEVSKY IN CHINA
Zhang R.
Abstract

History of study of Dostoevsky in the twentieth century in China is characterized by insta-bility and difficulty. This article examines four historical stages of perception of the views and ideas of F.M. Dostoevsky (1821-1881) in China: acquaintance with the works of Dostoevsky; the promotion of the ideas of Dostoevsky; a decline in the popularity of studies on Dostoevsky; a new perspective on the study of his works and ideas.

RUDN Journal of Philosophy. 2017;21(3):411-418
views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies