No 2 (2015)

Articles
EDITORIAL
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Abstract

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):7-8
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The Language Context in Modern Morocco
Baghana J., Tupeyko D.V.

Abstract

The article describes the current language situation in Morocco. The authors point out its distinctive features and focus upon the existing main languages used in the country: Arabic, Berber, French, English and Spanish. Attention is also drawn to the status of these languages within the language context of the country and their role in public life at different levels of Moroccan society. The article considers the historical changes that have affected the language system and led to the present language situation. As a corollary, the authors define the position of the French language as against the other languages in use in Morocco and describe the position of the Francophone in relation to the international community. They elaborate upon the French language in Morocco as a territorial variant. The authors note the significance of language interference in Morocco and take into account the development of multilingualism in the linguistic situation within the overall communicative processes in different contexts of language use in society.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):9-15
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Writing is Connecting Thread of Time: Cyrillic or Latin charatcters (the article in the genre of review)
Bakhtikireeva U.M., Dvoryashina V.S.

Abstract

The article is dedicated to an actual problem of script change, what about has been actively spoken for the last quarter of century in some parts of Russian Federation and Turkic near abroad countries. Script changing system as a scientific problem tends to be difficult complex of questions, which demands comprehensive discussion and interdisciplinary approach. The authors emphasize an importance of seeking the answer to the problem that has been initiation by some of the researchers of script changing system in Kazakh language from Cyrillic to Latin, which may lead to ruinous circumstances for the fortunes of society, intergenerational links, nonstop development and succession of cultural inheritance, knowledge. The main attention is being paid to the research and appreciation of monographic research of the famous linguist Mahanbet Dzhusupov “Kazakh script: yesterday, today, tomorrow (Cyril or Latin)” (2013), with the position of which authors are totally share. The research of monograph work by M. Dzhusupov’s who is not the proponent of the transition to system from Cyril to Latin and moreover who is anticipated with the necessary excursus to the question history and assessment of the problem development state. Further it is given the critical evaluation of separate chapters of the book, also listed the facts to the benefit of Kazakh language compliance to Cyril customs that admit some particular changes taking into consideration the specificity of this language. Sequentially it is stated the position of the expert in Kazakh language script matters, that is based on the analysis of similarities and differences in conception of alphabet formation in order writing type changes in Kazakhstan as well as in substantiation of inexpediency of in script type changing in highly educated country that has centuries-old traditions. Moreover this article emphasizes deep recognition by M. Dzhusupov of writing importance as the main condition in business proceeding maintenance of national and government unity.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):16-24
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‘I Was the First Westerner, the Only English Person’: Discursive Construction of National Identity
Dubrovskaya T.V.

Abstract

This study focuses on the issue of discursive construction of national identity. It aims to reveal how pragma-linguistic tools are exploited to construct and re-construct national identity, as well as to define how flexible it can be and how identities of the speakers correlate in dialogue. The research can be viewed as a case-study; the data for analysis come from three issues of the English language talk-show ‘Insight Germany’ on the German TV channel Deutsche Welle. Certain claims from social theories of identity are taken as a point of reference. In terms of methodology, the study draws on pragma-linguistic analysis, which takes into consideration both linguistic features of the text and extra-linguistic factors, such as personalities and their social characteristics as well as pragmatic purposes. As a result, the authors identify three levels of discursive construction of national identity: meaningful, communicative and meta-linguistic. The meaningful and meta-linguistic levels are described through the listing of tactics. The communicative level embraces heterogeneous phenomena and demands further explorations. The range of linguistic resources used to construct national identity is not limited and includes nominative units for nations and ethnicities, geographical names, names of languages, evaluative adjectives with negative and positive connotations, phonetic variants of words, and lexical and syntactic expressions of modality. The presenter’s role in interactive construction of national identity is also defined.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):25-40
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New Words in Interaction of Languages and Cultures
Bogdanova L.I.

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of functionality of new words and their ability to fill the language gap and meet functional needs. The study examines the revitalization process of lexical and phraseological units (mostly borrowed) under the influence of new media. It was revealed that new words are used to indicate important aspects of modern life, among which a special place is occupied by an interest in the future, the need for long-term planning, the need for understanding the concept of success / failure, and others. The analysis enables the authors to make observations about the nature of an unstable relationship between the cognitive and the evaluative compounds of the meanings of the selected terms. The methodology of our study is based on onomasiological approach to language learning by relying on the definitional analysis, component analysis and modeling method. The material was taken from the language of mass media, dictionaries of the Russian language and Internet sources. This study is promising, because it gives an opportunity to reveal the cognitive mechanisms of forming new meanings demanded by society and getting accepted as new lexical and phraseological units
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):41-50
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Hyper-Hyponymic Relations in Terminology Expressing Investor Relations
Sarangova T.A.

Abstract

The study described in this paper is a novel approach in the research of “Investor Relations”. The article draws attention to the phrase “Investor Relations” in Russian and English languages and carries out a comparative analysis of hyper-hyponymic relations with reference to nomination of people associated with Investor Relations. The main methods of research are component and definitional analyses, narrative and semantic-logical method. The research defines the term “Investor Relations”, and analyzes related terms from modern Russian and English such as: investor , analyst , shareholder , director , broker , manager. A comparative analysis of this thematic group reveals the distinctive characteristics of hyper-hyponymic relations of IR terminology. This analysis shows common features in the structural organization of this thematic group and the logical coherence of terminology. These findings are valuable not only for linguists, but also specialists in investor relations, employees of financial and investment companies and banks. It aims to promote more efficient communication in professional and business relationships.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):51-59
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Lexical Structure in American Youth Slang: A Study
Tambovtseva K.D.

Abstract

This article analyzes the methods of word formation in slangs used by the American youth. The relevance of the study is justified by a large interest to examine the ways of word formation in non-standard vocabulary and the sociolinguistic factors influencing this process. The aim of the study is to determine the most common methods of word formation among the American youth in their use of slang, i.e. to identify the sources of slangisms, characterize and support them by proper examples, analyze them and generate an appropriate classification. The slang expressions are taken from movie scripts of modern American cinema for the young. A sample of about 1000 units served as data for this study. The authors use standard methods of data collection, observation of the subjects - native speakers of American English-, data classification and comparative analysis of the collected material. This article would be useful for researchers working in the field of colloquial vocabulary and social dialects, word-formation processes in language, for socio-linguists and teachers of English. The result of this research has been fruitful: based on slangisms collected from the scripts of modern American movies, the authors were able to classify methods of formation of American youth slang, describe them on the basis of empirical data and provide relevant examples.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):60-69
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Precedent Names of Chinese National Culture
Lenintseva V.A., Burukina T.N.

Abstract

The article presents an analysis of precedent names as symbols of precedent phenomena in the material and spiritual culture of the Chinese. An evaluation of daily events and the attitude of the Chinese towards the world are reflected in the vocabulary of their language. The symbols of precedent phenomena can be proper names (anthroponomy, names of places), the date, as well as figurative and expressive means of language (idioms, sayings). Precedent names as symbols of precedent phenomena vividly and accurately capture the above-mentioned points, and encompass almost all spheres of life, history and spiritual development. The subject of our study are national precedent phenomena that define the ethno-cultural specificity, reflecting the history and culture of the Chinese people and their national character. Representatives of different cultures have different perceptions of the same precedent phenomena. Inadequate understanding of national invariants of precedent phenomena is often the source of communication failures. The aim of this paper is to highlight precedent names as a symbol of precedent phenomena in the discourse of the Chinese linguocultural community. For this purpose a classification of precedent names in Chinese was carried out. Precedent names which play an important role in shaping the Chinese national consciousness were taken from the Chinese-Russian Dictionary.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):70-89
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Speech Act Classification of German Advertising Texts
Mamedov A.N.

Abstract

This paper uses the theory of speech acts and the underlying concept of pragmalinguistics to determine the types of speech acts and their classification in the German advertising printed texts. We ascertain that the advertising of cars and accessories, household appliances and computer equipment, watches, fancy goods, food, pharmaceuticals, and financial, insurance, legal services and also airline advertising is dominated by a pragmatic principle, which is based on demonstrating information about the benefits of a product / service. This influences the frequent usage of certain speech acts. The dominant form of exposure is to inform the recipient-user about the characteristics of the advertised product. This information is fore-grounded by means of stylistic and syntactic constructions specific to the advertisement (participial constructions, appositional constructions) which contribute to emphasize certain notional components within the framework of the advertising text. Stylistic and syntactic devices of reduction (parceling constructions) convey the author's idea. Other means like repetitions, enumerations etc are used by the advertiser to strengthen his selling power. The advertiser focuses the attention of the consumer on the characteristics of the product seeking to convince him of the utility of the product and to influence his/ her buying behavior.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):90-103
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Communicative-Pragmatic Organization of Scientific Technical Text
Popova T.G., Rudneva M.A.

Abstract

Scientific texts constitute different speech entities from the perspective of communicative and pragmatic structures. These structures are formed by text components such as communicative and pragmatic components and pragmatic settings. Topics, descriptions of research results, findings and conclusions are outlined as communicative-pragmatic blocks. The typical means of expressing communicative pragmatic blocks are certain clichéd constructions that are characterized by special speech means in the speech text plane. The scientific text also includes such pragmatic setups as prognostic, compensating, evaluative, non-verbal means of exposure which materialize in specific speech means on the textual plane, the so-called pragmatic actualizers, understood as a system of multi-level linguistic units incorporated on the basis of their impact functions. All this allows us to consider the communicative-pragmatic structure of scientific texts as multi-dimensional and comprehensive.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):104-112
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Politeness Strategies Employed By Americans and Russians When Declining an Invitation
Schelchkova E.B.

Abstract

This paper examines the features of discourse Americans and Russians employ when declining an invitation. It contains the results of an empirical comparative study conducted among 126 American and 120 Russian respondents. Based on the Politeness Theory by P. Brown and S. Levinson, as well as the Principle of Politeness by G. Leech, it shows that in both communicative cultures the speech act of declining an invitation is regarded as an act that can threaten the addressee’s positive face, which is why it is carried out with the use of positive politeness strategies serving to mitigate a possible face threat. It also reveals a number of differences in the use of the above mentioned strategies by Americans and Russians. Knowing these features can be effective to improve proficiency in discourse and, thus, develop cross-cultural communicative competence. The main research methods used are contextual analysis, discourse analysis, experimental method, comparative and statistical analysis, a survey research, semantic, quantitative and qualitative analysis.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):113-123
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Emotive Character of a Diplomatic Discourse
Belyakov M.V.

Abstract

Diplomatic discourse as one of the most closed types of institutional discourse has of late drawn considerable attention. This article is devoted to the investigation of lexical structures, characteristic syntactic constructions, and the complex system of semantic relations within this discourse. Special interest underpins the need for research of emotivity in diplomatic discourse, because contrary to the assumption that diplomatic protocol undermines expression of emotions in diplomatic texts and interviews, expression of emotions and evaluations of an event is nevertheless present. Taking examples from texts and interviews of senior diplomats dealing with modern military and diplomatic conflicts, lexical and syntactic structures typical of the diplomatic discourse, expressing emotions and appraisals have been revealed, using the method of text and semantic analysis. There are some examples of both explicit and implicit emotivity and the question of admissibility of changing connotations in this type of discourse is also discussed.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):124-132
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Pragmatics of Emotions in Modern French Advertising
Borisova A.S., Rubinshtein K.E.

Abstract

Due to its communicative specifics studying of modern printed discourse of advertising basing on the theory of emotivity is of special interest to the scientists. The manifestation and expression of emotions in the context of advertising communication is an intention of the author of the advertisement message to cause a specific emotional reaction from the recipient (target audience), to influence her/him in a sought way. The aim of this article is to elicit forms of verbal explications of emotional dominants, actualized in modern french advertising discourse and to determine their roles in the realization of its pragmatic orientation. Basing on methodology of linguistics of emotion, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and methods of pragmatic, discursive, comparative, cross-cultural analysis we have allocated emotional/ emotive representations pragmatic orientation of which correlates with the extent of emotional openness or restraint of the participants of the discourse of advertising, touches upon the field of social norms of emotional behavior and is determined by national cultural specifics. Particular attention is given to appellative models/strategies, relevant to this specific type of discourse. The peculiarities of emotional argumentation are analyzed in comparison with rational ones on the basis of modern printed advertising texts.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):133-147
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The History of Punctuation Marks in Spanish
Borzenkova A.A., Koteniatkina I.B.

Abstract

This article is devoted to the history of the evolution of punctuation marks in the Spanish language. Punctuation is one of the fundamental tools for the organization of written language. At the same time this system causes many difficulties in learning both in the mother tongue and in foreign language. Moreover, this aspect of the language system is often omitted in Russia. The authors of this article have the objective to show the stages in the development of punctuation, which emerged from the Greek interpunction and punctuation system in Latin, in the Spanish language. Basing its arguments on this assumption, the article also names the background of these changes (including extra-linguistic factors). The key moment in the history of the punctuation was the foundation of the Royal Spanish Academy that went into the codification of Spanish (Castilian) language. As a result, the punctuation norm was for the first time ever fixed and described for the whole Spanish country. For the same reason a lot of attention in the article is paid to the detailed analysis of the Orthography of the Spanish language starting with the edition of 1741 and finishing with the edition of 2010. The authors are confident that this article will be interesting for language experts, translators, teachers and for those who want to take an exam of DELE of C1 and C2 levels.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):148-155
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Some Functional Speech Features of Inflective Patterns of Plural in the Pashto Language
Kozlov M.A.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the application of plural nouns in Pashto. It enumerates the means of conveying the plural of nouns and identifies the main patterns of their use. Sentences used as examples contain nouns, which show capability of word change and word formation. Particular attention is paid to the indirect use of the plural to change the meaning of the word. This phenomenon affects both the vocabulary borrowed from other languages and words of native Afghan origin. Apart from that there are examples of reduplication and distributive meaning of some nouns. The author offers a detailed picture of ties and subordination between parts of sentence taking into consideration the factors of ergativity and substantivization in creation of new forms as well as meanings for the number of parts of speech. The article includes several conclusions. The first one states that the Pashto language is rich in word-formation with respect to all the parts of a sentence. There is a conception that all the suffixes of plural form of the Pashto noun in their direct function express the meaning of plurality of countable objects. There are only solitary cases of their use with abstract nouns. Analysis of sentences is based on data from the contemporary Afghan media and the sample size exceeds over one hundred newspapers and science-based magazines.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):156-165
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Mikhail Lermontov’s “The Demon”: Reverse Translation as a Source of Intertextuality
Chesnokova O.S., Talavera-Ibarra P.L.

Abstract

This article examines the English translation of “The Demon”, one of the masterpieces of the great Russian poet Mikhail Yu. Lermontov, in a version done by Avril Pyman (born 1930), a renowned British scholar in the field of Slavic studies. The intertextual relationship between the original text and its translation is drawn throughout the parameters of the verse form, the plot, the artistic content, and the emotive resonance. Within the field of translation studies, our approach dissects the changes in genre and style, and it resorts to literal reverse translation as the most efficient device to trace the intertextuality between the original poem and its translation. Then, based on its findings we peruse the aesthetics in the rendition of the naming resources of the poem, mainly the naming of the Demon, of the poetic forms of speech manners, of the biblical anaphora, the alliteration, the colour epithets, and the Caucasus realia . The article determines that Avril Pyman’s translation serves as a prime example of a careful treatment of the meter, sense, and aesthetics of Lermontov’s masterpiece. The unavoidable meaning displacements in the translation did not alter the artistic message of the poem. Therefore Avril Pyman’s translation of “The Demon” is valued as the object of a meaningful aesthetic experience by the English reader.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):166-179
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Polysemy of English Legal Lexis and the Problems of Translation
Ozyumenko V.I., Chilingaryan K.P.

Abstract

The present article analyses English and Russian lexemes denoting core legal professions and positions and emphasizes the problem of their translation equivalency. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that although legal terms are characterized by a single meaning and are context-independent, they can also be polysemantic and even enantiosemic, i.e. containing opposite meanings within a single word form. This fact poses a serious problem in translation. The article compares the semantic dimensions of the terms, analyses their distinctive features, and marks their stylistic and functional differences. The authors limit their research to the lexemes of the semantic groups of defence and prosecution . The data is taken from dictionaries, legal texts, media and BNC. The study implements definitive, distributive, contextual, and contrastive analyses. The above approach enabled the authors to specify the semantics of the English terms, their functional and cultural features and suggest some practical recommendations for their translation. The results of the study can be applied in the theory and practice of translation and in teaching Professional English to Law students.
Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):180-193
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The 11th Shmelev Academic Conference. Moscow, 23-25 February 2015
Dementiev V.V., Stepanova N.B.

Abstract

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):194-196
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International Research and Practice Conference “Modern Spanish in Globalized World”. Moscow, 21-22 April 2015
Mikheeva N.F.

Abstract

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):197
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Eleonora Dussenovna Suleimenova: Scholar and Teacher. Honoring the Seventieth Anniversary
Jarkinbekova S.K., Zhuravleva E.A., Agmanova A.E.

Abstract

Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):198-200
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ANNOUNCEMENTS
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Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):201-206
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Contributors to this issue
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Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):207-212
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INFORMATION FOR CONTRIBUTORS
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Russian Journal of Linguistics. 2015;(2):213-214
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