No 1 (2015): East Asia: the rise of the PRC, development cooperation, partnership with the Russian Federation

Articles
Towards Development Cooperation as Inter-cultural Dialogue: ODA and Japan’s Experience of “Self-help”
Takahashi M.
Abstract
This paper aims to clarify uniqueness, strengths, and weaknesses of Japan’s Official Development Assistance (ODA). Western countries have been criticized of its tendency to impose their own values through provision of ODA, ignoring differences in cultural contexts and failing to build interactive relationship. The origin of this tendency can be found in fundamental shortcoming of the Western intellectual approach, which Habermas critically described as monologue . Japan’s ODA appears to be an alternative since the country has been emphasizing respect for recipient countries’ own initiative and heralded the idea of “Support for Self-help”. Yet, Japan’s ODA is not rooted in a deep understanding of cultural aspects of development, which would enable the donor country to have interactive dialogue with recipient countries. Japan’s unique approach reflects historical relations with Asian recipient countries in which Japan has shared interests with others. Japan’s ODA is not value-based as Western donors but interest-based, and the country has likewise lacked imagination of differences in cultural contexts. Emerging donors, while claiming that they are not imposing values, can risk the failure same with Japan. It is recommended that recipient countries themselves express their own cultural uniqueness so that development cooperation could be a process of creative inter-cultural dialogue.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):5-14
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Evolution of Korea's ODA Policy
Lim E.M.
Abstract
Since joining the DAC in 2010, Korea has made a great deal of effort to enhance its role in international development cooperation. This paper reviews the evolution of Korea’s ODA policy by discussing how the Korea’s development experience as a recipient and its accession to the DAC have inextricably shaped the ODA policy and strategies. It shows that the different interest and motivation of the Ministry of Strategies and Finance and Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade have been strongly reflected in Korea’s ODA policy. The Korean government has committed to bridge developed and developing countries by proposing “the Korean ODA model”. This paper argues that integration of DAC principles and norms into the Korean ODA model remains a challenge.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):15-23
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South-South Cooperation, North-South Aid and the Prospect of International Aid Architecture
Huang M.
Abstract
South-South Cooperation (SSC) and North-South Aid (NSA) arise from different historical conditions and there are great differences between their philosophies, principles and paradigms. Against the background of a changing global environment, developed countries realized that the original development aid architecture must be reformed on one hand, and that developing countries are increasingly important in the aid architecture on the other. Hence, Western donors began to rethink their aid principles and methods, and accepted the concept of development effectiveness gradually, an attempt to establish global development forum and global partnership including emerging donors, beneficiary countries, civil society and the private sector. Nevertheless, being developing countries themselves, emerging donors are faced with unsolved domestic poverty issues and imperfect aid management institutions, which means that the emerging donors are unable to take a dominant position in the current aid architecture. Hence, the future dialogue and cooperation between traditional and emerging donors should feature the principle that the responsibilities taken by each party are collective but not identical, with developing countries bearing the main responsibilities in promoting poverty reduction and economic development in developing countries. They should be mutually tolerant about the different philosophies and share useful experiences. Moreover, emerging donors should promote development capacity building in recipient countries through win-win cooperation and solve their domestic development issues at the same time.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):24-31
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China-Africa: New Directions of Cooperation
Ponomarenko L.V., Soloveva T.M.
Abstract
This article analyzes the policy of fifth generation of Chinese leadership with regard to African states. The article deals with the concept of “Chinese Dream”, which was first declared in Africa, an innovative model of international cooperation in the framework of the formation of “economic zone of the Silk Road”. The authors reveal three basic directions of cooperation - political, economic and humanitarian cooperation. Political cooperation is characterized by the activation of mutual visits at the highest level, the interaction in the framework of the UN General Assembly, participation in UN peacekeeping operations. Economic cooperation is characterized by the activation of bilateral trade, the transition to a “modernized version of” investment cooperation, implementation of the strategy of “going abroad” of Chinese products, imports of natural resources from Africa, creating jobs for the local population, financing of infrastructure projects, the transfer of labor-intensive industries in Africa. Humanitarian cooperation includes training program for Africa, the implementation of the Sino-African programs, technology partnerships, research and exchange, and the China-Africa Forum “Think Tank”. Cooperation in health care also plays an important role. The authors note that the new Chinese leadership declares transition to an upgraded version of the Sino-African cooperation.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):32-42
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The Arctic - A New Region for China's Foreign Policy
Yagiya V.S., Kharlampieva N.K., Lagutina M.L.
Abstract
Article is devoted to foreign policy of China in the Arctic. Main attention is paid to strategic view of the China concerning the Arctic, to bilateral and multilateral cooperation on the Arctic issues, also to opinion of Russian experts about discussing of Russian-China economic partnership. It was shown interests of the People's Republic of China in the Arctic: use Arctic transport system from the Pacific Rim to Europe; possibility of access to the Arctic resources; seeks of partners for the realized of Arctic projects and programs. It was pointed six directions of China cooperation in the Arctic: a) scientific researches, b) natural minerals, oil and gas issues, c) tourism, d) routes of the Arctic navigation, e) use of high technologies in development of regional economy, e) cooperation in the cultural and educational spheres. Authors are summarized that at the initial stage of the international cooperation in the Arctic polar scientific researches become as the tool of “he soft power”, and in the long term - the Northern Sea Route of the Russian Federation is included in the Strategy of China Economic belt and the Maritime Silk Route in the XXI century.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):43-52
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The Evolution of the Conceptual Basis of the Foreign Policy of the PRC (1950-1990)
Tsvyk A.V.
Abstract
This article is devoted to the analysis of the conceptual basis of the foreign policy of the PRC (1950-1990 period), the «Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence», the «Three Worlds Theory», the concept of the «intermediate zones» as well as the «four modernizations» are under consideration. Since the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949 Asian state has passed several stages of the formation of an independent foreign policy, foreign policy, which not only allows to respond to the contemporary challenges of international relations, but also to gain a decisive voice in the world. And if in the early 50-ies China relies solely on foreign experience in this area, after ten years the government was forced to develop a new foreign policy concept, independent of the USSR and the USA. In the 70-ies of XX century, China not only transformed foreign policy into the tool of economic development promotion, but in fact became the leader of the «Third World». It is noteworthy that China still considers itself as developing country. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the bipolar system Beijing had to adjust its foreign policy settings once again, what eventually led to the strengthening of the desire to create a polycentric system of international relations. The study concludes that the modern concept of China's foreign policy was the natural result of the evolution of China's foreign policy doctrines since its inception.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):53-59
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Russian and Chinese Policies of Soft Power in the Central Asia (the Case of Kazakhstan)
Wang G., Zhuravleva E.V.
Abstract
The policy of “soft power” has lost some of its power in the Russian foreign policy, but continues to dominate in the minds of researchers. There are a lot of scientific and journalistic articles on this subject. The notion has already become a kind of trend, not only in the field of international relations and in the field of political science. The key criterion for determining the impact of “soft power” is “attraction”, that is how the subject can woo the object in order to have some influence on it. Both Russia and China have a set of instruments of “soft power”, which in varying degrees, allow them to influence the objects, including the countries of Central Asia, especially Kazakhstan. Due to the fact that the KR unofficially became the leader of the region, its example can be most clearly trace the desire of Russia and China to become the most attractive partner for Kazakhstan. The study is based on the Comparative Approach, which allows not only to identify the characteristics of the “soft power” of Russia and China, but to compare their effectiveness. The activities of the two countries is analyzed through the prism of tools used in the region of “soft power”, including investment, educational, scientific and cultural programs.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):60-69
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US Foreign Policy as a Factor of Rapprochement between Russia and China
Kabasakalova M.G.
Abstract
The article presents the foreign policy course of the USA towards Russia and China, as well as bilateral U.S.-Russian and U.S.-Chinese cooperation. The author attempts to discover the main reasons and retrace the process of rapprochement between Russia and China in the context of the Washington’s foreign policy implementation on the world stage. Analyzing the particular foreign policy steps of the U.S. since the late 1990s up to the events of 2014, the author focuses on the fact that Washington’s global foreign policy strategy not only meets the national interests of Russia and China, but also poses a threat to their national security. This is an additional factor for rapprochement between Moscow and Beijing both in bilateral relations and issues on a global basis. Consequently, the author concludes that the U.S. foreign policy causes the rapprochement between Russia and China, which should be considered as a strategically well-targeted step of the both states, based on the desire to achieve mutually beneficial cooperation and support, the similarity of positions on many international issues and common approaches to adaptation in a changing world order.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):70-78
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Orthodoxy in the Context of Modern Russian-Chinese Relations: the Views of Chinese Scholars
Liang Z.
Abstract
Orthodoxy is a significant symbol of the spiritual and social culture of Russia, is one of the factors of internal and foreign policy. Following the election of Vladimir Putin in 2012 as president, the Russian-Chinese relations have acquired a more intense character, and Orthodoxy has come to play an important role in them. Activities of Orthodox missionaries had largely influence on the development of not only the Russian-Chinese relations, but also on Sinology in Russia, which significantly strengthened the political and spiritual ties between the two countries. The article describes the history of the “orthodox issue” between Russia and China, reveals the views of Chinese scholars on the subject of Orthodoxy in the framework of strategic cooperation between the two countries at the present stage. Particular attention is given to the prospects of Orthodoxy in China and possible options for its promotion in this country. The study concludes that in the short term Orthodoxy won’t be widely popular in China due to various features, including government policy, special attitude to religion among the Chinese themselves, as well as unadjusted Orthodoxy for the PRC. However, according to the author, there is a chance that the situation will change with time.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):79-87
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Russian-Chinese Humanitarian Cooperation in 1990-s
Ganshina E.I.
Abstract
The article is devoted to Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation in the 90-ies of XX century. The author emphasizes the special importance of humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China for the promotion of national interests and the expansion of Russia's presence in China after the collapse of the USSR, as well as creating a positive image of the Russian state in China by applying the mechanism of “soft power”. The author notes that the 90-ies of XX century were the starting point of cooperation between Russia and China in the humanitarian sphere, it laid the legal foundation of Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation, moreover, the main directions and priorities of cooperation between the two countries in the humanitarian field have been identified. However, the author stresses that the practical realization of the objectives of the signed intergovernmental documents was carried out in an insufficiently wide format. And the main reason is the deep socio-economic crisis, which Russia had faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and, as a consequence, the lack of funding for joint Russian-Chinese projects in the humanitarian field.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):88-97
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Competition between Chinese and Indian Oil & Gas Companies and its Implications for Sino-Indian Bilateral Relations
Shikin V.V.
Abstract
This article concerns overseas oil & gas assets acquisitions made by Chinese and Indian national oil companies (NOCs) within the last two decades. The paper analyzes whether these companies pursue commercial interests of their shareholders or political will of national governments. To answer this question the author examines Chinese and Indian corporations’ organization and ownership structure foundations of which were laid in the 1990s when both countries’ energy sectors faced structural reforms resulted in transforming archaic governmental organizations into modern competitive state-owned corporations that could compete with the leading Western oil and gas companies. The article also scrutinizes competition between Chinese and Indian companies so as to find out if it is able to affect political relations between Beijing and Delhi, exacerbates existing conflicts or cause the emergence of the new ones. To address this issue the author analyzes some cases of Sino-Indian clash of energy interests in different regions of the world.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):98-107
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Interregional Partnership of Russia as a Tool of Realization of National Priorities of its Economic Development
Andreeva E.L., Golovin A.N., Ratner A.V.
Abstract
The analysis of interregional economic partnership existing simultaneously with the concept of traditional regionalism is proposed in the article. The cases of Trans-Pacific strategic economic partnership agreement (TPSEPA) which is created already for some decades; Transpacific agreement on strategic and economic partnership plan (2012), under which the US and the EU are going to form a Transatlantic FTA (TAFTA); initiative of Asia and Pacific countries (presented at the summit of these countries in 2012) to form a Regional comprehensive economic partnership (RCEP) are described. The case of BRICS is analyzed in details. The economic factors joining the countries - participants of the group are analyzed. The prospects of broadening of its partnership - with participation of economies of South America are highlighted. Russian external trade is touched by machinery production and accompanying services with the countries-partners mentioned. It’s shown that these economic relations can be used by Russia for solving of the tasks of substitution of import, neo-industrialization and export stimulating.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):108-116
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The Role of Stratagems in China's Diplomacy
Bogdanova N.A.
Abstract
The article investigates the stratagems and their role in China's diplomacy. Originated in ancient times and the related techniques of military and diplomatic struggle, stratagem has not lost its importance and influence on foreign policy and diplomacy of China. Moreover, stratagems have long become an attribute not only of Chinese diplomacy, but also of other states. Despite the fact that the stratagems were primarily a tool of diplomacy, they take their origin from the martial arts. Usually the stratagem means long waiting of more favorable conditions and achievement of the goals by any means. The basic idea of all stratagems is the postulate of a true warrior who fights and wins without a fight. Such tactics can be seen in the modern foreign policy of China, which in the last decade try to use the concept of “soft power”, promoting their own interests, without using violent methods. Based on the analysis of Chinese sources, as well as using a wide range of literature, especially the works of the Chinese researchers, the author shows the characteristic of Chinese strategic thinking tactics “victory without the use of force”, based on the traditional philosophy of Confucianism.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):117-124
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South Africa’s BRICS Presidency: Regional Power at the Helm of a Global Governance Forum
Larionova M.V.
Abstract
The paper presents the analysis of South Africa’s BRICS Presidency which formally started with the summit in Durban on March 15-17, 2013 and finished in June 2014 with the BRICS leaders’ Fortaleza meeting. To assess the Presidency effectiveness the author applies “supply-demand” model fine-tuned to achieve a balance of external conditions and national priorities of the country chairing informal summitry institutions, such as BRICS, G20 or G7/8. This analytical paradigm allows reveal to what extent the Presidency has managed to ensure: 1) a high level of response to the key global governance challenges in the summit agenda and decisions; 2) a balance between internal demand (domestic priorities) and external demand (other members’ interests and global governance challenges) in the Presidency priorities; 3) maximal use of the institution’s capabilities. Conformity of the role chosen by the Presidency (organizer, mediator, political leader, national representative) to the combination of external and internal conditions is also considered as it is a major factor of the presidency success. Content analysis, comparative analysis and functional approach were used in the study. The primary sources of the research included the BRICS documents, national documents of the member states, the leaders’ addresses. The study reveals that the major factors of the South African BRICS presidency success were commitment to implementation of the Durban decisions and action plan as well as the will to utilize the BRICS capabilities for African countries development and South African regional leadership. In the former case the foundation of success was reinforced the chair’ choice of the organizer role, whereas in the latter a combination of the political leader and national representative roles proved to be the most productive for the presidency.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):125-134
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Eurasian Union on the Viewpoint of China: Geopolitical Perspective
Cheng G., Chen L.
Abstract
This article is about geopolitical strategic analyze of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s “Eurasian Union” strategy from Chinese viewpoint. The article describes historical background of Eurasian Union, its geopolitical purposes, achievements and weakness, particularly from China's national strategic design and stance of Central Asia in Eurasian Continent. The geopolitical analysis of possibility for Sino-Russian Alliance and realistic difficulties of it are provided. Different point of Chinese experts on Russia-West relations are given. Some of them believe that he Warsaw Pact and the Cold War revival in the CIS, its purpose is to play as geopolitical blunders against the Western countries under the leadership of NATO, IMF and the United States. While others, take into consideration the US-Russian Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, and Russia’s actively participation in the former Group of Eight, accession to WTO and other initiatives that indicates the current Moscow is not the Soviet Union, and does not exclude cooperation with existing international system dominated by the Western world. And finally, China's own Eurasian strategy design is represented, especially China’s foreign policy options on Central Asia as solutions to some current existing geopolitical differences between China and Russia’s own Eurasian Strategy in order to achieve mutual win-set goal.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):135-141
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Georgia-China: Political, Economic and Humanitarian Aspects of Cooperation
Machavariani G.G.
Abstract
The article overviews the policy of China in the South Caucasus. It analyzes the means of so-called “soft power”, which are used by Beijing for expansion of its influence, in particular over Georgia. This research embraces the historical period since the collapse of the Soviet Union up to the current period. Political processes bringing about for the last years throughout post-soviet space are considered within the context of confrontation between global players in the South Caucasus trying to establish their domination - Russia, the USA and EU and from recent times China. Rivalry between them for the influence in this region is accompanied by mass of capital into the economics of the region. In particular, consolidation of Chinese presence in Georgia was marked by growth of Chinese investments into the state economics. In conclusion the author points that China represents power with ability to compete with Western states and Russia for important geostrategic position in Transcaucasia.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):142-151
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The Persian Gulf Region as a Field of China’s Geopolitical Interests
Ilminskaya M.F.
Abstract
The article analyzes the political situation in the Gulf region in the light of China’s vital interests. Particular attention is paid to Chinese energy diplomacy, mechanisms for bilateral and multilateral cooperation, the Chinese project that is expected to revive the «Great Silk Road» and the priority areas of Chinese energy security. The author considers China as the largest world energy consumer whose economy is directly dependent on oil supplies, primarily from the Persian Gulf region. The article also analyzes the reasons of acute energy shortages in China and its growing interest in the Gulf region. The author reveals strategic significance of such important water transport arteries, as Straits of Hormuz and Malacca, touches on the issue of global players’ competition over ownership and control of hydrocarbons. The article focuses on flexibility of Chinese diplomacy and foreign policy maneuvering techniques in the region, successfully applied by Beijing to maximize the benefits for the implementation of its own national interests.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):152-161
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SINOLOGY IN RUSSIA. Interview with Deputy Director of Institute for Far Eastern Studies of Russian Academy of Science Vladimir Portyakov
Zhuravleva E.V.
Abstract
In his interview, the famous sinologist Vladimir Portyakov talks about the achievements of Chinese Studies in Russia, the development of domestic science and main thematic trends. He points out a significant expansion of the research areas, which affects currently civilizational foundations, art, literature. He describes the most important scientific projects that currently are realized by the Institute for Far Eastern Studies of Russian Academy of Science, including six-volume encyclopedia of the traditional culture of China, taiwanese scientists project on the Oral History of Chinese Studies, Russian archives of Chinese Studies, ten-volume Chinese history from ancient times to the beginning of the XXI century, and others. The main centers for the study of China in Russia during the Soviet era (Moscow, Lenigrad and Chita) and nowadays are indicated and the trend for a significant geographic expansion of the study of China is designated. The basic modern Russian sinologists and the role of the Confucius Institute are also described. Vladimir Portyakov provides a detailed analysis of the problems and prospects of Chinese Studies in Contemporary Russia.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):162-168
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The Role of the Uighur Diaspora in the Struggle for Independence of Xinjiang
Mavlonova A.S.
Abstract
The article contains analysis of the activities of the Uighur diaspora abroad and its role in struggle for independence of Xinjiang. The author comes into conclusion that the role of the Uighur organizations located and incorporated in the western countries in activization of separatist in Xinjiang is huge. Such organizations are financed by the governments of the western countries, mainly by the United States. The most popular organization among them is “The World Uyghur Congress”, headed by Rebiya Kadeer. Despite the various internal disagreements, Uigur organizations located on the territory of western countries, pay special attention to the issue of self-determination and respecting of the rights of Uigurs in China. As a result of stabilization and improving of relations between Central Asian countries and China and formation of joint security system of countries within The Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the governments of the countries follow the policy based on the principle of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Additionally, according to the author the fact that China has obtained support from the Central Asian countries in avoiding of separatism helps to keep Uighur organizations under strict control of the officials. Currently the Uigur diaspora is divided into many organizations established during the last several decades. The attempts to establish the single powerful organization that would support interests of the Uighur people and would be able to influence the world community were not successful.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):169-176
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The Role and Place of “Circassian Question” on US, EU and Turkey' Politics in the North Caucasus
Belyakova N.S.
Abstract
The Circassian diaspora is the biggest North Caucasian diaspora whose members live in almost every continent. In some countries, “Сircassian question” has acquired an evident political tint in relation to the Olympic Games in Sochi in 2014. This article discusses come elements of the North Caucasian policy of the USA, EU and Turkey relation to the problems of the Circassian people. In the US and the EU “Circassian question” is usually used as a tool of negative pressure on Russia. In this regard, “Circassian question” is not the most important place in the politics of America and Europe, and is is activated only when it has to be used against Russia. In Turkey, the “Circassian question” has very important inner meaning, since there resides the largest Circassian diaspora. The Turkish authorities pay attention to this issue in connection with the problem of national identity of Turkish society. Also, “Circassian question” is used as a tool for rapprochement with the peoples of the North Caucasus in order to spread its influence and education of pro-Turkish population. In the Turkish policy “Circassian question” plays the role of a bridge between Turkey and the North Caucasus, and is an example of positive coexistence of titular nation and a national minority in a modern state.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):177-184
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The Effects of Political Changes in the Relationship between Bangladesh and Russia (USSR) in 1971-2014
Drong A.
Abstract
The article presents an overview of Bangladesh’s foreign policy. It analyzes the main directions of Bangladesh’s cooperation with its leading partners. The author studies the changing pattern of Bangladesh’s foreign policy since it gained its independence in 1971 till the present. He focuses on the changing pattern of foreign policy of Bangladesh regarding bilateral relation with Russia during different regimes under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Sheikh Mujib), General Ziaur Rahman (Zia), General H.M. Ershad (Ershad), Khaleda Zia, Sheikh Hasina and the Caretaker Government. The author seeks to link the domestic changes in the country in 1970-2000-ies, namely the change of governments and regimes, with the adjustment of the foreign policy priorities, including relations with Russia. The article shows dependence of Bangladesh’s foreign policy priorities on interests of successive power political forces.
Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):185-191
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Our Authors
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Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):192-194
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Editorial
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Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. 2015;(1):195-198
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