Vol 22, No 2 (2021)

Synthesis of a mobile robot spatial stabilization system based on machine learning control by symbolic regression
Diveev A.I., Mendez Florez N.J.
Abstract

The spatial stabilization system synthesis problem of the robot is considered. The historical overview of methods and approaches for solving the problem of control synthesis is given. It is shown that the control synthesis problem is the most important task in the field of control, for which there are no universal numerical methods for solving it. As one of the ways to solve this problem, it is proposed to use the method of machine learning based on the application of modern symbolic regression methods. This allows you to build universal algorithms for solving control synthesis problems. Several most promising symbolic regression methods are considered for application in control tasks. The formal statement of the control synthesis problem for its numerical solution is given. Examples of solving problems of synthesis of system of spatial stabilization of mobile robot by method of network operator and variation Cartesian genetic programming are given. The problem required finding one nonlinear feedback function to move the robot from thirty initial conditions to one terminal point. Mathematical records of the obtained control functions are given. Results of simulation of control systems obtained by symbolic regression methods are given.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):129-138
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Assessment of the impact of current weather forecasts in the task of space survey planning
Rozin P.E., Smolyaninov Y.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the actual task of planning the work of a group of different types of spacecraft for remote sensing of the Earth. An enlarged algorithm for solving the planning problem for different types of spacecraft is described. The result of the enlarged algorithm is sought in the form of a set of reference plans for groups of similar spacecraft, thinned out by removing some of the conflicting operations of resetting the sensing data. The characteristics of the developed plans largely depend on the methodology used to account for the impact of cloud cover. The possibility of implementing a methodology based on the use of files of current weather forecasts of hydrometeorological centers downloaded from the Internet in the form of a special application is investigated. The created application is being tested on the real data of the hydrometeorological center downloaded from the American server, which covers a large region, including the European part of Eurasia and part of Africa. An application that simulates the distribution of points within a region estimates the number of points covered by weak cloud cover (20% or less). Based on the results of the simulation, it was found that the proportion of points available for shooting lies in the range from about a quarter to a third. Based on the obtained quantitative estimates, it is concluded that taking into account the influence of cloud cover radically changes the reference plans calculated taking into account only illumination, and affects the structure of the enlarged planning algorithm.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):139-147
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Methodology for managing the flows of target information in the remote sensing space system Part 2. Interrelated mathematical models systems formation
Starkov A.V., Emelyanov A.А., Grishantseva L.A., Zhukovskaya K.I., Morozov A.A., Trishin A.A.
Abstract

In the second part of the series of articles, the issues of the systemic organization of mathematical models for solving the problem of controlling the flows of target information in the Earth remote sensing space system are considered. A description of the interrelated mathematical models of the orbital constellation as components of the information system, the main task of which is to survey ground objects and the formation of the initial volume of information for its further processing, is presented. To calculate the time of servicing the request by the space segment, the following methods of formation are proposed: a model of the evolution of the Earth remote sensing spacecraft orbit; model for forecasting possible spacecraft correction intervals to maintain nominal orbital parameters; model for forecasting possible time intervals for on / off cycles of observation equipment; model for forecasting possible time intervals for dumping the received information to the information reception points. When calculating the cost of servicing a single request from the orbital complex, both the cost of servicing one spacecraft per unit of time and the cost of processing a single request from the ground complex were taken into account. In conclusion, a generalized form of representation of the target information flow model of the Earth remote sensing space system is proposed as an interconnected sequence of functions for changing the amount of information when an appropriate processing process (traffic change functions) is applied to it. General approaches to solving the optimization problem are considered.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):148-161
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Analysis of the influence of cutting conditions on the roughness of the surface layer when machining a composite material based on thermally еxpanded graphite
Mikheenko I.S., Smelik A.A., Yegorov S.A., Chernyak V.V.
Abstract

The current trend of replacing metal alloys with composite materials in the manufacture of various types of plain bearings, sealing elements of Assembly units, anti-friction bushings, and other machine parts is very promising for the development of many industries. However, in the manufacture of composite material products by modern methods, such as extrusion, pressing, and injection molding, various types of defects characteristic of these types of processing occur, resulting in the required parameters of the quality of the working surfaces of parts are not provided. This leads to the need for additional mechanical processing the quality of which largely depends on the reliability and durability of the functioning of parts and mechanisms. The article analyzes the main parameters that affect the quality of the surface obtained during turning for metal alloys, as well as for composite materials. The method of obtaining blanks by pressing from the material under consideration was developed, the technological equipment necessary for the research was designed and manufactured, a plan was developed for conducting a full-factor experiment with the creation of a model in the Mathcad program, and an active experiment was carried out to determine the influence of cutting mode parameters on surface roughness. Given the results of the study on the basis of which conclusions about the dependence of various cutting parameters on the quality of the surface layer, defined by the nuances of turning the considered composite material, practical recommendations that will positively affect the timing and success of implementation of fabrication of parts from this material.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):162-171
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Methodology for creating software and mathematical support for modeling the spacecraft dynamic operations
Malyshev V.V., Starkov A.V., Fedorov A.V., Trishin A.A.
Abstract

The basis for ensuring a high level of reliability and safety in dynamic operations is a comprehensive experimental development of products in conditions as close to the real conditions of operation as possible with the use of mathematical and simulation modeling. The technical task of conducting dynamic operations in orbit is analyzed, which in turn boils down to two basic: bringing the initial state of the spacecraft grouping into a given area of space and performing maneuvers in a given area of space during the active life. These management tasks and terminal requirements are considered to be initial in relation to the stochastic and minimax approaches that are offered for use in the construction of working algorithms. The method of developing a software-modeling complex of the decisive task of developing the means of conducting dynamic operations of the spacecraft has been proposed. The application is illustrated by examples.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):172-183
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Theoretical substantiation of new features of rolling bearings operation under combined loading conditions
Kirilovskiy V.V., Belousov Y.V.
Abstract

Rolling bearings are widely used in the products of aviation and space technology. To ensure their long-term trouble-free operation, it is necessary to have accurate and reliable information about the forces acting on the bearings. The required values of forces and, accordingly, the required durability of bearings are usually determined on the basis of the traditional design scheme of a double-support beam (smooth beam mounted on two hinged supports). The paper presents a new interpretation of the features of the operation of bearing units on ball radial single-row bearings installed according to the «cross located» arrangement. It is shown that under conditions of combined loading, including radial and axial forces, the generally accepted theoretical model of a doublesupport beam is not implemented. There is no single calculation model that adequately reflects the nature of the interaction of bearing parts over the entire range of external loads. In the most general case, this model can be represented by a sequence of five statically indeterminate calculation schemes, which are modified and transformed into one another. So, with an increase in the external radial force, the “cantilevered beam with additional hinge support” scheme is first implemented, which, then, is transformed into the “double-sided jamming” scheme, and that, later, is transformed into the “two double hinge supports” scheme. It is also possible to implement two intermediate transition schemes. A specific example shows that in the products of aviation and space technology, determining the durability of bearings based on the traditional model is not advisable, since it can give an overestimated value with an error of 28,37 to 26663,9 times.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):184-195
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Research of the efficiency of using the Miller cycle of an internal combustion engine
Smirnov S.V., Makarov A.R., Zaev I.A., Khudaibergenova G.T.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of the possibilities of improving the technical and economic indicators of an internal combustion engine (ICE) through the use of the Miller cycle with a shortened intake. A review of scientific works on the use of the Atkinson cycle and Miller cycle in an internal combustion engine is carried out. A comparative analysis of theoretical cycles: Otto cycle, Atkinson cycle and Miller cycle is carried out. Calculated studies of the influence of the expansion ratio and the pressure increase ratio on the efficiency of the Atkinson cycle have been carried out. The ratios are presented that allow using the Miller cycle with a short inlet to obtain the same theoretical efficiency of the cycle as that of the Atkinson cycle. At the same time, the implementation of the Miller cycle in a real engine design significantly exceeds the possibilities of using the Atkinson cycle. The results of the study showed that the use of the Miller cycle with a shortened intake is preferable, but it must necessarily increase the compression ratio and intake pressure through the use of boost. On the example of real data of the main parameters of the cycle, it is shown that the use of the theoretical Miller cycle can provide a significant up to 12.2% increase in the efficiency of the cycle compared to the Otto cycle. The ratios, conditions and recommendations are presented that allow the effective use of the Miller cycle with a shortened intake in a real engine design.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):196-204
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Development of the structure, survey and design of the equatorial overpass of the General Planetary Vehicle
Unitsky A.E., Bochkaryov D.I., Artyushevsky S.V.
Abstract

The runway for the General Planetary Vehicle is a unique in scale and complexity infrastructural construction - an overpass with a length of 40 000 km, covering the planet along the equator and combined with a string-rail transport of the “second level”. This high-tech structure is a supporting structure for the General Planetary Vehicle and a communication artery that ensures the movement of passengers and goods, as well as the transfer of large amounts of energy and information. The article discusses the location of the overpass in the plan, indicates the most difficult sections and ways to overcome them. The options for the layout of the General Planetary Vehicle overpass are proposed, the main functional areas and structural elements are described. Significant factors affecting the implementation of the project, the problems inevitable in the development of the main elements, as well as solutions to optimize this transport and infrastructure complex have been identified. Solutions were proposed to optimize the overpass routing to overcome mountainous areas of the earth’s surface, considering the required takeoff and landing characteristics of the General Planetary Vehicle.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):205-216
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Method of biocontrol of vehicle driver fatigue
Ivanov K.A., Kamardina N.V., Danilov I.K., Konoplev V.N.
Abstract

This article describes an example of negligence of drivers transporting passengers and methods of solving it using modern inventions. One of these troubles is driving a car and moving passengers by taxi driver in a tired state. Since not every driver can correctly assess their psycho-physical condition, so to do this, scientists began to create devices for tracking human behavior when he drives vehicle. The purpose of implementing driver fatigue monitoring systems is to ensure road safety and preserve lives and property of citizens. The use of these systems is to facilitate the work of emergency services and taxi company owners, taxi drivers and their passengers. In our article we want to touch on the problem of overwork, specifically taxi drivers, since their work activity is socially significant and non-compliance with the norms of work and rest periods can lead to tragic consequences. Modern taxi drivers often rely on a strong body of car and electronic gadgets in an unexpected situation on the road. Therefore, when driving a car, despite being overworked, they allow themselves to relax beyond the limit and don’t react in time if an emergency occurs. We have studied options for implementing driver fatigue monitoring systems and offer to install them on a taxi car.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):217-224
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Features of formation of lacustrine mineral resources
Rasskazov A.A., Gorbatov E.S., Kotelnikov A.E.
Abstract

The conditions of the formation of nonmetallic and ore minerals in limnogenic structures are considered. It has been established that lakes are natural enriches of a wide range of useful components - silicate, carbonate, water-soluble, ore, organomineral. The most significant minerals of modern lakes, in addition to water, are: sapropel, diatomite, lime and mineral salts. Deposits of sand, clay, oil shale, oil and gas, coal, phosphorites, zeolites, evaporites, bauxites, ferromanganese, copper ores, placer minerals, and some rare and dispersed elements are associated with limnogenic complexes of different ages. It is shown that a greater variety of minerals of ancient lacustrine complexes compared to modern ones is associated both with variations of lacustrine lithogenesis in the past and with post-sedimentation transformations of sedimentary matter. In particular, epigenetic enrichment of ancient lacustrine complexes with ore components is noted. It was revealed that hydrocarbons and diatomites of lacustrine genesis are of a higher quality compared to similar minerals of marine genesis. It is noted that evolutionary changes in the processes of accumulation of limnogenic minerals have affected to the greatest degree biogenic and chemogenic components. An example of this is the progressive accumulation of caustobiolites and the sulfate evolution of evaporites in lacustrine structures during the Phanerozoic. An analysis of the genetic characteristics of lacustrine minerals makes it possible to develop new exploratory traits of a number of sedimentary deposits.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):225-233
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Construction a map of geochemical anomalies for the predicted value of gold in the Lidin ore field of Urup Island
Panasenko Y.M., Markov V.E., Karelina E.V.
Abstract

The purpose of this article is to study the methods of constructing maps of geochemical anomalies using geostatistical methods. The example presented in the article shows the possibility of probabilistic determination of gold in strongly overlapped areas (Urup Island, Kuril Islands). On the site of the Kolenchaty Lidinskoye ore field, the gold ore occurrence of the Kolenchaty is known. It is timed to the incision of the river and disappears outside of it. This is due to the strong overlap of the area by Quaternary sediments. Together with the uneven distribution of gold, these circumstances complicate the construction of maps of geochemical anomalies and the identification of promising areas. To solve this problem, the Statistica program was used. With its help, a matrix of correlations was built, elements of the satellites of gold were selected, and a multiple regression equation for gold was drawn up. This equation was used to probabilistically calculate gold values at each sampling point. In ArcGis, Geostatistical Analyst, geochemical anomalies were mapped from the predicted gold value by kriging, and promising areas were highlighted.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2021;22(2):234-240
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