Vol 21, No 4 (2020): 100th anniversary of the GOELRO plan

Welcome speech of K.K. Dolgov
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):221
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Welcome speech of V.G. Gusakov
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Abstract
RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):222-223
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Creation of integrated energy supply systems
Andreev V.M., Barinov V.A., Varfolomeev S.D., Lachuga Y.F., Matyukhin V.F., Panchenko V.Y., Redko I.Y., Sigov A.S., Stennikov V.A.
Abstract

A brief description of the State Electrification Plan of Russia (GOELRO plan), developed on the initiative of V.I. Lenin by the GOELRO commission headed by G.M. Krzhizhanovsky and adopted on December 22, 1920 by the 8th All-Russian Congress of Soviets, as well as key directions of a long-term plan for research on the problem of the creation of the Unified Power System of the Country (UPS), developed by the commission under the leadership of G.M. Krzhizhanovsky in 1957, which laid the foundation for the formation of the UPS - the largest in the world at the end of the 80s centrally managed interconnected power system, is presented. The indicators of development and efficiency of the country's electric power industry are given. The essential part of the reforms in the electric power industry of Russia carried out at the beginning of the 21st century, their shortcomings that led to a decrease in the efficiency of the industry and the emergence of various kinds of bottlenecks and imbalances are analyzed. The processes of transformation of energy systems in the world are considered, as a result of which a new architecture of energy systems is created. The primary tasks facing the Russian power industry in these conditions are formulated.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):224-237
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System methodology of energy research: for the 100th anniversary of the State Electrification Plan of Russia
Voropai N.I., Stennikov V.A.
Abstract

The conditions of State Electrification Plan of Russia (GOELRO plan) preparation as common unified state economic plan are under consideration. Plan was prepared during the pressed period less one year since February to December of the 1920 by State Commission GOELRO including twenty very qualified engineers and scientists and involving time by time additionally about two hundred specialists. A relation of GOELRO plan and development of energy policy of former USSR and current Russia is discussed. GOELRO plan was the comprehensive technical, financial and social oriented plan for qualitative restoration of Russia. But later state energy policy lost social oriented sense and now it is formal set of documents inside energy industry. Taking into account digitalization and intellectualization of economics and social sphere the social oriented role of energy sector as infrastructural industry is growing. Basic points of comprehensive energy method are presented. It was the main methodological instrument for preparation of GOELRO plan. Prerequisites and key aspects of energy system research methodology are explained. Modern challenges in current power sector are formulated.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):238-243
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Efficiency of using inverter power plants as part of multifunctional energy technology complexes
Redko I.Y., Malozemov A.A., Malozemov G.A., Naumov A.V., Kozminykh D.V.
Abstract

A method has been developed for a comprehensive multi-criteria assessment of the efficiency of using inverter power plants as part of multifunctional energy-technological complexes with technical solutions aimed at reducing the negative consequences of the internal combustion engine operation with an optimal from the point of view of fuel efficiency speed. The method includes: synthesis of the optimal engine speed control algorithm, determination of the complex operating modes under operating conditions, assessment of changes in fuel consumption and harmful substances emissions with exhaust gases and resource consumption rate when the engine is switched to the operating mode with the optimal speed, complex technical and economic assessment of the inverter power plants efficiency. On the example of an inverter power plant with a capacity of 100 kW, the need to apply the method is proved. It was found that the engine operation with the optimal from the point of view of fuel efficiency speed and without additional design measures entails an increase in the damage accumulation rate by 1.7-2.1 times and therefore is economically inexpedient, despite a decrease in fuel consumption by 1% or more. It was found that a decrease in the compression ratio with a simultaneous increase in the boost pressure makes it possible to increase the engine resource up to a functional failure due to damage accumulation by 43% and to a parametric failure due to wear by 32%, while the operating costs of the inverter power plant will decrease by 3.7% relative to the base (no changes) power plants. The emission of soot particles will decrease by about 2 times, nitrogen oxides - by 2%, hydrocarbons - almost to zero.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):244-253
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Electron cyclotron converters of microwaves in wireless power transmission systems
Pirogov Y.A., Kazaryan G.M., Savvin V.L.
Abstract

A proposal to use special electron cyclotron devices as effective converters of electromagnetic waves into direct current in modern microwave systems for wireless transmission of electrical energy to the Earth via a microwave channel from solar space power plants located on board geostationary satellites is considered. Such converters are a product of domestic development, they can have a conversion efficiency of more than 80%, they are insensitive to overloads and are several orders of magnitude more economical than the well-known semiconductor rectennas (rectifying antennas). Semiconductor rectennas, assembled from a multitude of individual semiconductor diodes with a Schottky barrier, in the process of nonlinear conversion of microwaves, generate parasitic radiation that forms a powerful electromagnetic background, which seriously interferes with the stable operation of information systems of special and general civil communications. In addition, the cost of semiconductor rectennas is several orders of magnitude higher than that of electron-cyclotron converters with the same input microwave power. Due to the high compactness of the electronic converters, they can also be installed on an intermediate satellite platform in the stratosphere, receiving the energy of the Sun through a laser beam from a geostationary orbit and transmitting it to the Earth with practically no loss through the microwave channel. The possibilities of using electron cyclotron converters in ground-based systems for wireless energy transmission are also promising. Already the first electron cyclotron converters, created at the “Torii” enterprise according to the project of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, had an efficiency of over 60% at an input microwave power of 10 kW.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):254-259
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Electrification of agricultural mobile power facilities based on the traction and energy concept of technology development
Lachuga Y.F., Strebkov D.S., Godzhaev Z.A., Redko I.Y.
Abstract

An important component of complex integrated energy supply systems is the electrification of mobile power facilities of the agro-industrial complex, which will significantly affect the synthesis of energy systems. The basis of mobile energy facilities are multifunctional energy technology complexes (MEC) of the traction-energy concept with multi-channel distribution of energy flows of different physical nature. Based on the logical analysis of the mobile MEC, a technological scheme consisting of three subsystems is constructed: 1) factors of external conditions; 2) general design and layout solutions; 3) energy and operational properties of the mobile MEC. Energy connections are established between these subsystems and the system elements. A differentiated method for evaluating the energy efficiency of using alternative fuels and an original mathematical model of the generalized mobile MEC have been developed, which will allow determining the type of MEC, optimal design and layout solutions, operating modes and parameters at the design stage.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):260-270
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Multijunction solar arrays for space and terrestrial applications
Andreev V.M.
Abstract

Photovoltaic conversion of the solar energy is the most prospective direction of the renewable power engineering. Solar arrays ensure power supply of spacecrafts and are gaining increasingly more application on the Earth. In the majority of developed countries, laws on state support of the “green” power engineering assisted in a substantial increase of power of the solar photovoltaic systems have been adopted. The main barrier to increasing the terrestrial solar photovoltaics development rates is a relatively high cost of the “solar” electric power. The ways for reducing the cost are the rise of the efficiency of power systems and the reduction of the material consumption for arrays based on multijunction solar cells. Results of multijunction solar cells and modules developments for space and terrestrial solar arrays are discussed in the article. In the last years, a significant experience on creation of multijunction solar cells was accumulated. Cascade solar cells and solar photovoltaic installations on their base with sunlight concentrators have been developed. At present, the terrestrial cascade solar cell efficiency exceeds 45%, which is substantially higher than that in conventional Si and thin-film solar arrays. The cascade solar cell efficiency increase has been achieved at the expense of “splitting” the sunlight spectrum into several intervals by the solar cell semiconductor structure fulfilling more effective photon energy conversion of each of these intervals in a definite parts of this structure. It is shown that multijunction solar cells provide the highest efficiency and they are the basic components of space arrays. Multijunction solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiency of concentrated sunlight as well. It opens prospects for decreasing the solar cell area and cost proportionally to the sunlight concentration. Developed concentrated photovoltaic installations are promising for wide applications in the high scale terrestrial solar photovoltaic energetics.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):271-280
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Reusable interorbital tugs of megawatt class: problems and prospects
Melnikov V.M., Razoumny Y.N.
Abstract

The possibilities of creating solar reusable megawatt-class interorbital tugs are analyzing. A comparison of solar and nuclear power plants is given, and the advantages of using solar systems are justified. On the basis of a comparative analysis of analogues, such as solar sails, solar reflectors for illumination from Earth's orbit, solar panels of space power plants, the advantages of using frameless centrifugal solar panels in comparison with frame analogues are justified. It is indicated that the design and development, as well as the production and technological reserve and test base are sufficient for the creation of a solar power plant in the Russian Federation. The authors point out the prospect of using oxygen-hydrogen fuels obtained by electrolysis of water in space, which greatly increase the speed of transport operations, and the need to create electro-magnetic accelerators for launching from Earth with large cargo flows. The design evaluation of the parameters of centrifugal solar panels with a capacity of 1 and 5 MW is given. The necessary funding for the work was estimated.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):281-289
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State Electrification Plan of Russia - an example of a systematic approach to the long-term development of the national electric power industry
Vorotnitsky V.E.
Abstract

A brief history of the State Electrification Plan of Russia (GOELRO plan) development, established in 1920, and its execution during 15 years is considered. It is shown that the basic statements of the GOELRO plan were developed and discussed in pre-revolutionary Russia, and actually it was a state plan for the development of the country's economy for a long-term period. The analysis of the main trends of development in the world and national electric power industries based on the use of new technologies and techniques for the production, transmission and distribution of electricity is also presented. A list of key systemic problems in the modern Russian electric power industry aroused as a result of its reform in the post-Soviet period is discussed. The conclusion about the need of more active state government participation in the industry management, in the creation of a new regulatory framework to improve the efficiency of the management was done based on the analysis of the mentioned problems. It is suggesting the developing of a new GOELRO plan, which has to take into account modern trends in the development of world energy, the achievements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution; the positive experience of many years in the functioning of the Unified Power System of Russia and the prospects for the economic development of its regions.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):290-301
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Analysis of the formation of large and small power generation in the Southern Urals
Kirpichnikova I.M.
Abstract

The description of the state of power engineering in Russia in the pre-revolutionary period, data on the production of electricity per capita are presented. A brief history of the creation of a commission for the development of the State Electrification Plan of Russia (GOELRO plan) and some results of its implementation are provided. The construction of the first large power plant in the South Urals, built according to the GOELRO plan, - Chelyabinsk State District Power Plant, which at that time was of great importance for the development of the region's industry and remains one of the most powerful power plants at the present time, is described. The possibilities of using renewable energy sources, in particular local hydropower resources for energy production, are disclosed. The problems of the Porozhskaya Hydropower Plant - the oldest and unique hydroelectric power plant in the Urals are designated, the characteristics of small hydropower plants in the Southern Urals are given, the prospects for using the hydropower potential of the Chelyabinsk region are revealed. The potential of solar and wind energy is discussed, the characteristics and features of solar power plants in the Urals and wind power plants with a vertical axis of rotation, developed at the South Ural State University, are specified. It is established that biomass as a resource for energy production has good prospects for use, but due to climatic conditions, this direction has not yet been developed. It is shown that small and distributed energy is still an important component in the general energy of the region and the country.

RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches. 2020;21(4):302-308
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