Vol 27, No 4 (2019)

MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING ISSUES
Theory and practice of corporate strategies implementation on the example of automotive industry enterprises
Zhilkin O.N., Kiryukhina S.E.
Abstract

The article deals with the theoretical aspects of the development and implementation of corporate strategies and practical actions of enterprises of the automotive industry in order to obtain competitive advantages in the dynamically changing conditions of business development on the example of enterprises-leaders in the field of automotive industry. The article attempts to identify new areas of strategic development of the automotive industry, taking into account the current trends of companies such as German BMW Group and Volkswagen AG and actively developing Chinese manufacturers - BAIC, Chery, Geely, JAC, JAV. The focus is on the production of hybrid and electric drive vehicles. Special attention is paid to the prospects of development of the Russian segment of production of cars with hybrid and electric drive and identification of the problems hindering its advanced development and the reasons hindering the expansion of the segment of use of cars with hybrid and electric drive of both Russian and imported production.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):623-635
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Calculation of the amount of funding for world-class research centers depending on the amount of work performed
Zolotaryov D.V., Belov F.D.
Abstract

This article presents the methodology recommended by the authors for calculating the amount of grants provided from the federal budget in the form of a subsidy for state support for the creation and development of world-class research centers, including international mathematical centers and world-class research centers that carry out research and development on the priorities of scientific and technological development. The methodology involves the distribution of the grant to world-class research centers, depending on the volume of work performed. This is relevant in that at the moment, grants are distributed evenly between world-class research centers every year, and therefore there is no incentive for the centers to intensify work in order to achieve higher values of performance targets. The article thoroughly disclosed the logic of the proposed methodology, presented calculation formulas with explanations. The article discusses the implementation of the tasks of the national project “Science” in terms of creating world-class research centers. The number of centers created in 2019, their types and directions of scientific activity, as well as the number of world-class scientific centers that will be created in subsequent years are indicated in this article. Target performance indicators of the created centers and planned achievements by 2024 are presented. In conclusion, the data presented in the article are summarized, and the positive prospects for Russian science resulting from the creation and functioning of world-class research centers are examined. The conclusion also indicates how the technique developed by the authors can stimulate world-class research centers to fruitful scientific activity.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):636-644
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Economic features and mechanisms of energy saving management in housing and utility sector
Safronova N.B., Budakov A.S.
Abstract

The development of the national economy as a whole - the subjects and municipalities in particular-in conditions of limited financial subsidies depends on their economic condition, technological equipment, organization of measures to save energy resources. The housing and communal services sector, which has a high energy saving potential, accounting for about 70 % of the total energy efficiency potential in the Russian Federation, is currently one of the main consumers of energy resources of the Russian Federation. Cost optimization and cost reduction are the main tasks in improving the economic conditions for the development of housing and communal services and management of residential property complexes, some features of which will be considered in this paper. The main purpose of energy-saving measures in housing and communal services is to reduce costs and production costs and the cost of utilities, and as a result of reducing the level of utility bills for the owner in an apartment building. The segment of apartment buildings in housing and communal services is one of the most problematic, in terms of savings, as the main part of energy costs in it is aimed at providing hot water and heating. In the framework of this study, the results of the activities of one of the management companies of Saint Petersburg on the implementation of energy-saving measures are reflected.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):645-662
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GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
Militaryeconomic cooperation of the CSTO and EAEU member states with third countries: challenges and threats to Russia
Degtereva E.A., Chernysheva A.M.
Abstract

The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) was founded in 1992 for military-economic cooperation of member countries and mainly reflects the intention of Russia to maintain its zone of influence on the territory of the former USSR. In continuation of this policy, an agreement was concluded on the foundation of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), which began its operation in 2015 and provides a certain freedom of movement of goods (services), capital and labor. These organizations provide effective interaction between the CSTO member states and the EAEU including common space between the countries and their development in a single trajectory, which allows to obtain a synergistic effect on the international arena. Thus, it is necessary to monitor the level of military-economic cooperation between the CSTO and EAEU member states. The purpose of this article was to study the challenges and threats to the Russia of military-economic cooperation of the CSTO and EAEU member states with third countries. To achieve this goal, military-economic cooperation of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia with third countries was examined and proposals were made for replacing purchases on the arms market with Russian counterparts. Some CSTO and EAEU countries seek to diversify their purchases in the arms market, providing a program of independent military development with the development of military-industrial cooperation with third countries. This situation forces Russia to ensure the development of plans for the import substitution of military products with Russian counterparts on the market of the CSTO and the EAEU. To test this hypothesis, we reviewed and analyzed publicly available statistics and documents, including data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. In the course of data analysis, it was proved that Belarus, Kazakhstan and partially Armenia diversify their purchases of military equipment and weapons by actively developing military-economic cooperation with third countries, including China.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):663-678
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Digital Single Market: Europe in the race for IT services market leaders
Krasavina V.A.
Abstract

The paper considers the process of digital transformations within the framework of creating a Digital Single Market in the European Union. The author uses standard tools to identify strategic areas in which the transformation of the European market takes place. The importance and relevance of the development of the digital economy for the countries of the European Union in the context of the deepening globalization process and the rapid development of information technology is emphasized. In the framework of stimulating the economies of the EU countries, as well as with the aim of improving the quality of educational, medical services and solving other social problems - creating a single information market without geographical barriers, simplifying and standardizing Internet trade laws throughout the EU, ensuring a favorable legal and tax environment to expand the electronic trade in goods, services, technologies, become paramount tasks. The paper analyzes the key areas on which the creation of Digital Single Market is based: facilitating the access of consumers and businesses to goods and services via the Internet throughout the European Union; creating favorable conditions for the development of digital networks and services and promoting the maximum growth of the potential of European digital economics. It is shown that during the transformations in some areas, certain successes have already been achieved: the abolition of roaming, the increase in the volume of online trade in goods and services, the cross-border portability of digital content, including the successful coordination of the use of the 700 MHz band for the large-scale implementation of 4G broadband communications, which will further facilitate the deployment of networks 5G in 2020.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):679-692
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Tendencies and potential of formation of common gas market in EEU
Tkachenko M.F., Allaiarova N.I.
Abstract

The article discusses the relationship of the EEU member states in the gas sector. Based on the analysis of existing problems and contradictions, as well as the agreements reached in the EEU, an assessment is given of the prospects for the formation of a common gas market within the framework of a single economic space. The formation of a common gas market is seen as the key to ensuring its energy security and harmonious socioeconomic development of both suppliers and consumers of gas in EEU. The lack of a price model of the gas market, heterogeneity and incompatibility of the potential of national gas markets, the complexity of the unification of the rules of the market, export problems and other equally important issues determine the relevance of the study of the functioning and development of gas markets of the EEU member states. The aim of the work is to analyze and identify the main problems affecting the development of the gas industry in EEU. The results obtained in the course of the study suggest that the functioning of the common gas market of the EEU is possible in the conditions of achieving institutional homogeneity of national gas markets.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):693-705
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The prospect of dual-use products production in the CSTO and EAEU countries
Yampolskaya D.O.
Abstract

The ongoing sanctions and growing tension in the field of global trade leads to the necessity of looking for various economic relations schemes between the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and the Collective Security Treaty Organizations (CSTO). All participating countries need to strengthen ties and find ways to produce dual-use goods to more successfully confront global challenges, both in the economic, political and military spheres. The problem of cooperation can be solved by focusing on the strengths of the economies of the CSTO countries. Identification of production opportunities for goods and dual-use services would aim at the direction of cooperation in of various countries. This article is devoted to studying the production capabilities of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan for the production of dual-use products under import substitution programs. Studies have shown that almost all countries of the economic union possess numerous natural resources that are used in the production of innovative products. But there are significant problems in the development of technologies for the production of dual-use goods and, unfortunately, the Russian Federation cannot fully rely on the potential of the CSTO countries in this matter.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):706-721
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Mineral fertilizer market consumption trends
Dyuzheva N.V., Tinkova A.A.
Abstract

The research renders the analysis of the trends in the global mineral fertilizer market. The study aims to define the factors that correlate with fertilizer consumption. Objectives of the study are to analyze the dynamics and structure of demand, supply, foreign trade, market factors, and characteristics, and forecast its development; to analyze the correlation between fertilizer consumption, arable land scale, cereal yield; to study the phenomenon of mineral fertilizer consumption in Russia. The paper answers the question, where is the fertilizer consumption concentrated, and why? The defined market producers are China, Russia; the global consumers are Brazil, India, China, and the USA. The countries with the highest cereal yield in the world do not coincide with the largest fertilizer consumer countries. Cereal yield and the level of fertilizer application per hectare of arable land in the most significant mineral fertilizer consumer countries are not directly correlated. The countries with the highest cereal yield are mostly well developed with relatively small arable lands. Most of them have soil which is unsuitable for farming. When arable land scale (hectares) rises on 1%, the fertilizer consumption increases by 0.7%, with a probability of 99%. According to this model, Russia consumes 10 569 thousand tons of its estimated volume. The data were classified using Excel and analyzed via econometric modeling software Eviews.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):722-731
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Central Asia as an area of China’s and Russia’s interests
Egorycheva E.A.
Abstract

Over the past decades, Russia and China have been steadily deepening their cooperation. It is seen in many fields: mutual trade agreements, investment and scientific cooperation, ecological and environment solutions to global issues. Russia is actively engaged in the Belt and Road Initiative proposed by China. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan are engaged in it as well. Some of them are also members of the Eurasian Economic Union. The paper aimed to identify China’s and Russia’s current interests in these countries, as Central Asia (CA) is the area where Russia’s and China’s interests coincide. Trade relations between the analyzed countries are considered in it. The paper also addresses investment projects under Belt and Road Initiative, which China has been financing in CA countries.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):732-742
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ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The path of catching and the path of innovative development: what will Russia choose?
Zavyalova E.B., Shumskaia E.I.
Abstract

Over the past half century, global GDP growth has been exceptionally rapid, helped by significant labor force growth and increased labor productivity. Employment growth from 1964 to 2014 decreased from 1.7 to 0.3 % per year. Over the past 20 years, overall productivity growth in OECD countries has also slowed significantly. However, the introduction of digital technology is already changing the picture for the better in developed countries. Therefore, achieving the desired economic growth is seen in increasing labor productivity through the active development and implementation of key technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, but with the need to effectively redistribute existing resources within countries, both developed and developing. As a hypothesis, the thesis was put forward on the need for scientific and technological development as the main answer to the challenges of our time with the aim of further growth and development of the Russian economy. However, the study proved that in modern conditions the main solution for Russia is a more efficient distribution of existing factors of production and, as a result, economic activity. At the same time, further technological and innovative development is necessary from the point of view of long-term economic growth, since the catch-up path has its own logical limit.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):743-752
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China venture market overview
Reshetnikova M.S.
Abstract

Today the Chinese economy has rapidly begun the transition to a new stage of development. Its basis is high-tech production and national breakthrough technologies. This process happens due to the transformation of the government strategy in the direction of scaling up innovation through the inclusion of small and medium enterprises. China has been able to raise venture investments for its new development plan. However, since 2016, the rapid growth of the Chinese venture market has raised many concerns. The purpose of the study was to analyze and assess the current state of China's venture capital market. The research proved that, despite signs of overheating, it is still premature to talk about the formation of a “bubble” in the Chinese venture market. The article concludes with a discussion that China is transforming itself again and that the next wave of innovation and private entrepreneurship will be the wave of the future, with substantial global consequences.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):753-760
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Comparative analysis of the infrastructure basis for the transition to the digital economy of Latin America
Revinova S.Y., Chavarry Galvez D.P.
Abstract

In the last decade, almost all countries of the world have developed strategies for the transition to a digital economy. The introduction of digital technologies is observed in all spheres of our life: from simple household consumption to public administration. Latin American countries have not been left out of this process. However, the readiness for such a transition varies for the countries of the region. The purpose of this article is a comparative analysis of the infrastructure base of Latin American countries for the transition to a digital economy. The starting point for this transition is the provision of public access to the Internet and the ability of the population to take advantage of the opportunities provided by digital technologies. The basis for the study was the database of the World Bank, the online portal “Statista” and other open sources. Comparison and pattern matching methods were used in the process. The analysis showed that Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Costa Rica are among the leading countries in the readiness of the infrastructure base for the transition to a digital economy. Countries lagging in this indicator - Haiti, Nicaragua, Honduras, Venezuela. It is noted that in these countries it is necessary to create new institutions, stimulate innovation. In general, the Latin American region at the moment belongs to the middle group of digitalization but has great potential and good prospects.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):761-773
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National innovation system of India: genesis and key performance indicators
Bokachev I.N.
Abstract

The article discusses the formation of the India’s national innovation system (NIS), which passes through the phases of protectionism, liberalism and duality. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities of the India’s innovation system based on efficiency indicators, such as gross domestic expenditures on research and development, exports of high-tech products, as well as foreign direct investment in high technology sector. The paper notes that India is one of the most attractive countries for investing in the innovation sector. The author also highlights the negative aspects of NIS development in India, such as imbalances in income and wages, low literacy and high levels of poverty, uneven inflow of foreign investment in different regions, lack of innovation culture in manufactured products, etc. The article especially notes that India after the start of the process of economic liberalization has grown economically in terms of GDP, exports, employment, investment, the inflow of foreign technology and investment, the ICT industry, and the internationalization of investment in research and development sphere.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(4):774-785
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