Vol 27, No 1 (2019)

ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Concentration of students in higher education on the map of the Russian Federation
Gabdrakhmanov N.K.
Abstract

The article discusses the effects of concentration of students in the system of higher education in the regions of Russia and methodological approaches to their assessment. The issues of accessibility and inequality in higher education are increasingly being put on the agenda by a number of researchers. Historically, universities are located in large cities, new universities also follow this example, thereby enhancing the effect of concentration. The policy of the Ministry of Education and Science and Federal Service for Supervision in Education and Science, aimed at combating low-quality programs and universities, has led to an increase in the concentration of universities in major cities. This fact is confirmed by the calculated Theil and Herfindahl - Hirschman indices and the coefficient of variation. Thus, we can talk about the formation of university oases and deserts. According to performed research, more than half of the territory of the Russian Federation constitutes an educational (university) desert.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):7-17
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Service sector (services) key features of Russia and Azerbaijan
Savlov M.E.
Abstract

The presented article gives a general description of the sphere of non-material production of Russia and Azerbaijan, which is based on the key macroeconomic indicators. The internal heterogeneous structure of the sector is also illustrated, structural features of the service sector and its individual segments in both countries are revealed. The objectivity and adequacy of the sphere characteristics of non-material production of Russia and Azerbaijan is based on intercountry comparisons. Macroeconomic indicators of main developed countries (the USA, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom), the BRICS countries and the former Soviet republics serve as a background for the illustration of the service sectors of Russia and Azerbaijan. It is too early to refer Russia and Azerbaijan to post-industrial countries, even considering only one economic parameter - the structure of the economy. Considering the gross value added (GVA) of the service sector per capita in current prices and the GVA of the service sector per capita in constant 2010 prices, Russia and Azerbaijan lag behind the leading economies of the world, some BRICS countries and even some former republics of USSR. In this regard, the study of the sphere of intangible production is not so popular in Russia and Azerbaijan, as the economic background for the actualization of these studies has not been yet created.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):18-34
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The human capital rationale behind the economic growth of the European Union countries: application of the advanced methods to enhance an efficiency of national human capital stocks
Stabinskaite I.A.
Abstract

Human capital is an important factor of economic growth, as has been underlined by recent theoretical models. The main goal of this article is to elucidate the relationship between human capital and dynamics of economic growth in the European Union (EU). For the purposes of this article human capital is defined as knowledge, skills as well as other individual factors which lead to higher productivity. Therefore, the greatest attention is focused on the multi-dimensional assessment of human capital in the processes of economic development of the European countries. A detailed evaluation of human capital in the EU is represented at interregional and international levels. Furthermore, author suggests a guidance for designing and planning strategies aimed at sustainable economic development by using the model predictive control algorithms.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):35-48
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Laffer points, area of fiscal contradictions and taxpayers’ acceptance power
Shcherbakov G.V.
Abstract

The Laffer curve is the eternal problem of mathematical economics. Attempts to find the Laffer curve functions lead to new results that do not give the function in coordinates “tax burden - tax revenues” but give results in larger dimensions. Purpose of the article is developing tools to access the excessive tax burden on organizations. The general methods used in the article are analysis, generalization, synthesis. Special methods are mathematical induction, mathematical methods. In the study previously proposed mathematical models of Laffer curves by V.G. Papava (Ananiashvili, Papava, 2010) and E.V. Balatskii (Balatskii, 2000) are generalized and clarified. Taxation limit concept is expanded and necessity of determining the lower taxation limit is shown. The new approach to determining the values of Laffer points based on the use of tax burden and current assets turnover ratio is proposed. The determination of taxpayers’ acceptance power (in meaning “exponent”) is introduced and the property linking it with area of fiscal contradictions is shown. The constancy of the location of the first and second kind Laffer points is proved. Conditions limiting the sets of values of Laffer points are given. As a result the concept of the area of fiscal contradictions is divided with concepts of Laffer curves and Laffer points.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):49-62
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Contents and principles of stability of the banking system
Shubbar H.H., Guirinsky A.V.
Abstract

The main approaches to understanding the essence of “stability of banking system” are conducted in the article. The basic principles are also given, inherent in a stable banking system. Further, the main factors affecting the stability of the banking system are considered. The article determined the components of ensuring the assessment of the bank’s financial stability. The basic principles of effective banking supervision are the actual minimum standard for prudent regulation and supervision of banks and banking systems. Initially issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in 1997, they are used by countries as a guide to assess the quality of their surveillance systems and to determine future work towards achieving a basic level of rational oversight practices. The core principles are also used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in the context of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) to assess the effectiveness of banking supervisory systems and country practices.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):63-71
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INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION MARKETS
HIV/AIDS pandemic and agricultural production in Cameroon
Tambi M.D.
Abstract

Whether HIV/AIDS affects agricultural production in Cameroon is purely an empirical issue due to controversy in results over the years. This study has as objectives to assess factors that affect the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and to explore the influence of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production in Cameroon. The 2007 Household Consumption Survey is use as our source of data together with other variables imported into the survey data from the ministries in charge of public health and agriculture. Estimates are obtained using instrumental variables two-stage least squares regression method. The result shows that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS pandemic in Cameroon is strongly influence by level of education, age, occupation and environmental characteristics, while the main result reveals that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS correlates negatively with agricultural production. These results have implications for agricultural policy instruments that could offer interventions to HIV/AIDS affected persons to mitigate the negative effect on agricultural production.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):72-89
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Russian companies in the international oil and gas business: innovative vector of development
Lavrov S.N., Dyakin B.G.
Abstract

The paper deals with the problems, the resolution of which determines the specificity, direction and validity of the optimal positioning of Russian industry companies in the international business in the oil and gas sector. The driving force of this process is the use of the advantages of international business for scientific and technical re-equipment of the oil and gas sector of the Russian fuel and energy sector. The productive use of profiling capabilities implies a mutually beneficial transfer of technologies, localization of production of modern equipment in Russia in cooperation with global manufacturers and expansion of access to the world markets of natural and produced assets of hydrocarbon origin. The conclusion reached by the authors is that the identified areas and the nature of the impact of the increased involvement of Russian participants in the international oil and gas business contribute to their competitive advantages.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):90-101
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Pharmaceutical industry in Russia: problems and prospects of development
Nezhnikova E.V., Maksimchuk M.V.
Abstract

The paper analyzes the changes in the Russian pharmaceutical market and discusses the prospects and trends of the Russian pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of the work is to identify the main directions and problems of development and functioning of the pharmaceutical industry of the Russian Federation. Over the past few years, the state has created a strategy for the development of pharmaceuticals, which can bring the industry to a new level. However, existing problems and the lack of an integrated approach hamper the fulfillment of this task. Based on the analysis, the author provides a list of recommendations to improve the efficiency of the functioning and solving the main problems of the pharmaceutical industry, special attention is paid to increasing the investment potential, strengthening the legal framework of the industry, and the importance of increasing the innovative potential of the industry.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):102-112
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REGIONAL ECONOMY
The specificities of the research in the economics’ development of Sevastopol
Piskun E.I., Khokhlov V.V.
Abstract

A comprehensive study of regional processes implies a qualitative analysis of indicators over time, which is necessary not only to identify current trends, but also to make forecasts that are used in the development of regional development strategies and programs. In order to study the development of the city of Sevastopol on the basis of statistical data on the state of the economy in the Ukrainian and Russian periods, as well as determine the possibility of their use for making forecasts, it is necessary to solve the issue of homogeneity of the series of economic indicators. The existing criteria for verifying the homogeneity of data are not applicable to the solution of the issue of compatibility of multidimensional series belonging to different time intervals. The article proposes the use of exploratory factor analysis to solve this problem. However, the lack of statistical data leads to a degeneration of the matrix of pairwise correlations of economic indicators. To obtain estimates of the parameters of the factor model, a generalized inverse matrix is used, which is obtained as a result of a matrix iterative procedure. Exploratory factor models for the Ukrainian and Russian periods of Sevastopol have fundamental differences, and the corresponding multidimensional series cannot be combined for a holistic study of economic processes in the region.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):113-121
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Geo-cultural potential of small historical towns of the Voronezh region
Proskurina N.V.
Abstract

In the article small historical towns of the Voronezh region are considered. The studied towns have the status of historic due to the high historical and cultural “content” of their territory. Modern historical towns of the region are important reference centers of settlement system of the Voronezh region, among a sharp disproportion in the development of the regional center and all the other urban settlements and high proportion of rural settlements in the region. The investigated towns are important geo-cultural potential of the Voronezh region, which can provide additional sociallyeconomic effect, as for the development of small urban settlements themselves and for surrounding territories.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):122-131
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Spatial differentiation in the development of territorial systems of public service (an example of Saransk city)
Semina I.A.
Abstract

Spatial saturation of a city of consumer product and services leads to the formation of territorial systems of servicing, where service spheres is interacting actively, to complement each other and competing for the consumer. This process covers all of residential area, it differentiats between areas of the city, stands out the centers and complexes of service. They performs only regional function in some urban areas, but there are centers of educational, medical and merchant services citywide and regional significance. It was allocated areas by the nature of the service of the population, security of services, comfort conditions for people’s lives with consideration the complex development social infrastructure and provision of public services in territory of Saransk city. These areas has relatively high complexity of territorial organization of social infrastructure and high endowment the population of services combined with a satisfactory level of comfort of people living conditions; with average complexity of the territorial organization of social infrastructure and high complexity of population services in combination with a low level of comfort of living conditions (influenced by industrial enterprises and highways); with relatively low complexity of territorial organization of social infrastructure and low complexity of population services in combination with a satisfactory level of comfort of living conditions - the private sector of one-story buildings, old buildings. Area has the average complexity of the territorial organization social infrastructure and average endowment of the population services in combination with a satisfactory level of comfort of living conditions for residential peripheral districts of Saransk city. The average complexity of the territorial organization social infrastructure and average endowment of population services in combination with a low level of comfort of living conditions determines to the districts remote from the centre of the city and located in the former industrial plants. The existence of these areas confirms concentric development model spatial structure of Saransk city.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):132-139
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Symbolic (image) capital of Perm region cities: semantic approach to assessment of quality of the urban environment
Stolbov V.A., Tezhikova E.Y.
Abstract

An important role in the development of the territory is the ability to identify its unique features and form a positive image of the place. Semantic analysis of urban space allows to solve the problem: to find attractive and unattractive features of the city and to give recommendations on creation of a unique brand of the territory. The study is based on the results of a survey of students of Perm universities: showing their attitude to a particular city and the idea of an ideal urban space. Opinions of respondents were distributed on a 3-point scale of diametrically opposite qualitative characteristics of the urban environment, for example, compact - extensive, bright - dim, etc. In addition, the population assessed the urbanized spaces of the Perm Territory on the basis of its cognitive perception by other senses (the categories “taste”, “color”, “sound”, “smell”). Semantic analysis allowed to form an idea about the cities of Perm Krai as relatively comfortable and positive, but not enough bright, clean, friendly and green places. Other parameters of the urban environment were identified, which made it possible to give recommendations on the formation of a favorable image (brand) of urban settlements in the Perm Territory. The attraction of the population to a much green, clean and quiet urban space demonstrates the trend of greening and ruralization of citizens. Semantic analysis allows to give a subjective assessment of the place and to indicate the prospects of increasing its symbolic capital, using diametrically opposed characteristics of the territory. A positive feature of the technique is the possibility of its application to each territory.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):140-152
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INTERNATIONAL LABOR MARKET AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
The interpenetration of migration and tourism: the case of Russian-speaking tourism in Nha Trang, Vietnam
Ohashi K.
Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to explore the interrelationship between tourism and migration by the case study on Russian-speaking tourism phenomena observed in Nha Trang, Vietnam. The case challenges us to reexamine our static interpretations of tourism/migration concepts and to focus on the interpenetration of them. This paper tries to educe the multiple intermediate forms of human mobility that go beyond the simple framework of binominal confrontation between tourism and migration.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):153-158
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Trends and strategies of labor emigration from Tajikistan to OECD countries
Rakhmonov A.K., Manshin R.V.
Abstract

The article discusses the trends and strategies of labor emigration from Tajikistan to OECD countries. Waves and types of emigration from Tajikistan, adaptation of emigrants from Tajikistan to OECD countries. As well as the migration policy of the OECD countries in relation to immigrants from Tajikistan. Tajik labor migrants are becoming increasingly brighter than the prospect of getting a job not only in the CIS countries, but also in Europe, Asia and North America, where working conditions are better, and wages are much higher than in Russia and Kazakhstan. The OECD countries can rightfully be considered as new directions of Tajik emigration. An important feature of the tendency and strategy of labor emigration as a result of our research would be to note the combination of educational and vocational qualifications, resettlement and seasonal labor, labor migration - mostly unskilled and skilled with retraining and internship of labor migration from Tajikistan. Adaptation of immigrants is accompanied by some difficulties. The main one is job searches, which usually take several months. For the most part, the emigrants of Tajikistan consider Eastern Europe and Greece as countries of temporary residence, their main goal being moving to Western Europe (Austria, Germany, Scandinavian countries, etc.). There are cases of intentional destruction of their passports by Tajik migrants when they move to Germany with subsequent appeal to the authorities under the guise of refugees from Afghanistan, since both Tajiks and Afghans speak Farsi (Dari) to receive refugee status and corresponding benefits in Germany. In the OECD countries, new Tajik communities are being formed, which may become, in the near future, networks of attraction for new migrants from Tajikistan.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):159-168
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INNOVATIONS IN THE MODERN ECONOMY
External and internal barriers to innovation in the oil and gas complex of Russia
Korenevskaya A.V.
Abstract

The article deals with the external and internal barriers and the results of the impact of such restrictions on the development of the innovation process in the oil and gas complex of Russia, as well as an objective assessment of the current situation in the field of innovations in the oil and gas industry. The aim of the study is to analyze the current barriers and opportunities to overcome them on the way to unlocking the potential of Russian import substitution programs, as well as the introduction of new technologies in the oil and gas industries. The study is based on the hypothesis that process innovations in the oil and gas sector have an obvious impact not only on the final results of specific companies in the industry, but also on the overall state of the national economy. Today we can observe the process of transition of the Russian economy to an innovative way of development. Such a transformation is of great importance for the further development of the country, and the strategic directions of transition to an innovative type of economic development were identified in the Concept of long-term socio-economic development in 2020. One of the long-term goals was to increase the share of innovation in the economic growth of the Russian Federation. The process of innovation in enterprises is usually long-term and involves some barriers that require systematization and substantive consideration. Thus, the article assesses the potential economic damage from the existing barriers to the innovative development of the oil and gas sector. The analysis of the sanctions pressure of Western countries on the Russian oil and gas complex companies and the effect of sanctions restrictions in the long term. The scientific base of the work is based on the data of state statistics, analytical data of fuel and energy complex companies, foreign sources, as well as on the assessments of independent experts.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):169-179
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The development of a three-phase methodology of assessment of preschool education management in the innovative development of the first level of the education process
Fokina O.V., Chirkova E.V.
Abstract

According to the adopted Federal Law No. 273-FZ of December 29, 2012 (as amended on June 27, 2013) “On Education in the Russian Federation”, preschool education is the first level of the educational process. Precisely in a preschool children, for the first time, ideas about the surrounding world are formed, a system of values, as well as knowledge and skills, that can only be corrected but not radically changed. Numerous studies have shown that, thanks to investments in the early development of man, tremendous results can be obtained in the future through the formation of national human capital, which is the basis of the country’s innovative development. However, in modern theory and practice of management in the field of education, there is no universal mechanism responsible for assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of management. Questions about the criteria, methods, indicators of this assessment and, as a result, the problem of improving the methodology for managing human capital have not been resolved. The article provides an analysis of the state of affairs in the management of the activities of preschool educational institutions and gives recommendations on improving innovative management activities in the field of preschool education, as well as a three-phase methodology of estimation of the effectiveness and efficiency of preschool education in the interests of Russia’s innovative development with appropriate approbation of the results.

RUDN Journal of Economics. 2019;27(1):180-189
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