Vol 29, No 2 (2021)

Ecology
Variability of leaves of Betula pendula Roth during the growing season in the recreation area in the industrial center
Tagirova O.V., Kulagin A.Y.
Abstract

Research was carried out at the Ufa Industrial Center on the territory of recreational zone. Morphological changes in birch leaves (Betula pendula Roth) during the growing season of 2019 are shown. Model birch trees grow on a permanent trial plot. On the trees, 10 leaves were numbered. During the growing season (June - September) photographs of each leaf were taken. The integral indicator of the stability of leaf development is calculated on five grounds. Statistical processing of the data obtained. It has been established that there are deviations in the morphological development of birch leaves. It is shown that an individual trajectory of morphological development is characteristic of leaves. The phenomenon of adaptive polymorphism of birch leaves is noted. Moreover, the morphological and functional features of the leaf are inextricably linked.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):127-137
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Agroecological assessment of changes in cadmium content in spring barley plants under the influence of selenium and silicon
Lapushkina A.A., Alenicheva A.D., Vernichenko I.V., Schuklina O.A., Voronchikhina I.N.
Abstract

A large amount of agricultural land is located in close proximity to the metropolitan areas, it means near industrial enterprises and highways which giving rise the inevitable soil pollution by heavy metals, the most toxic of them are cadmium, mercury and lead. The plant products harvested from such areas are most frequently contains heavy metals which make them unsuitable for human or animal consumption. Studies have shown that pre-sowing treatment of spring barley seeds by selenium and silicon allows to mitigate the negative impact of abiotic stresses on plant growth and development, deliver the crop yield level, laid down by crop biology under these conditions - 3,7-3,9 t/ha. Moreover, this agricultural method reduces the level of cadmium accumulation in the finished products (grain) on 11-12% when growing of spring barley on soils with high concentration of cadmium.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):138-146
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State of Anemonoides altaica (C.A. Mey.) Holub cenopopulations in the south-east of the natural area
Ilyina V.N.
Abstract

Population ontogenetic studies are an important component of bioecological monitoring. The ontogenetic structure plays a role in determining the current state of natural populations, assessing the rarity status of a species in the region and throughout its range, and predicting the further development of the species. In the Samara region, natural cenopopulations of Anemonoides altaica (C.A. Mey.) Holub were studied on the territory of the Trans-Volga region (Sokol'ya mountains). According to the delta - omega criterion, most of them are mature, some are transitional and young. The revealed features of the ontogenetic structure and the calculated demographic indices of populations indicate the undoubted rarity and vulnerable position of the species in the region.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):147-154
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Sexual dimorphism of the body size of a multicolored lizard in the south-eastern Lower Volga
Mishustin S.S., Polynova G.V.
Abstract

The investigation in the population structure of the western subspecies of the multicolored lizard ( Eremias arguta deserti Gmelin, 1789) was carried out in semi-deserts of the Lower Volga region. The purpose of the study was to find out the features of the population morphometric data. The main research methods: measuring the length of the trunk and tail with an accuracy of up to a millimeter, statistical data processing using the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test in the STATISTICA 12 program. Statistical analysis showed the presence of sexual dimorphism in the population in terms of body parameters: the length of the tail of males is significantly greater than that of females. The calculation of the statistical significance of the differences between the average length of the trunk and the length of the tail confirmed that males and females have longer tails than the trunk. Yet sexually mature males and females do not differ significantly from each other in terms of body size. At the same time, females have a certain variability of morphometric data, which serves as one of the main indicators of intra-population variability.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):155-161
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Geoecology
Study of the role of natural and anthropogenic factors in the formation of water quality in small rivers on the example of the Veletma river in the Nizhny Novgorod region
Smirnova M.V., Batanina A.I.
Abstract

Small rivers of Central Russia often experience a high anthropogenic pressure, and at the same time their study and measures taken to preserve them are incomparably more modest than for large rivers. On the example of the Veletma river in the Nizhny Novgorod region, the factors affecting the formation of the water quality of the small river are considered. The ecological and geographical characteristics of the Veletma river are given. It is shown that the current methodology for assessing the water quality of large rivers by the Specific Combinatorial Water Pollution Index does not allow to determine what is the contribution of anthropogenic pressure to the deterioration of water quality, and what is the contribution of natural factors. Studies of a number of physical and chemical characteristics of the waters of the Veletma river have shown that on a short section of the river, which is less than 400 m, there are significant changes in the physical and chemical composition of water, reaching 45-95%. Such significant changes are associated on the one hand with the influence of the treatment facilities of the city of Navashino, and on the other hand, with the special location of the lake Zelenoe in the path of the river. Satellite images of the Veletma's confluence with the lake Zelenoe show the plume. It is suggested that the lake is characterized by the same processes that take place in the confluence of large and medium-sized rivers into the seas and lakes, called marginal filter, in which not only suspended but also dissolved impurities are retained. This fact is confirmed by laboratory studies.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):162-173
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Industrial Ecology
Purification of wastewater of industrial enterprises from phenols by modified energy waste
Nikolaeva L.A., Aikenova N.E., Demin A.V.
Abstract

With the development of engineering and technology, industrial enterprises have an increasing impact on the environment. One of the problems of our time is the pollution of water bodies with industrial toxic waste. Innovative in the field of environmental protection are methods of using inexpensive adsorbents for wastewater treatment, where cost factors play a major role. For quite a long time, an urgent task has been the development of inexpensive adsorbents that can be alternative to those existing at wastewater treatment facilities. Inexpensive alternative adsorbents can be obtained from a wide range of raw materials that are abundant, cheap, and highly absorbent. The article discusses the possibility of purification of industrial wastewater from phenols of oil refining industries on the example of LLP “Aktobe Oil Refining”. In the treatment of industrial wastewater, the method of adsorption treatment is widely used, which allows not only to purify from pollutants to maximum permissible concentrations (maximum permissible concentrations), but is also cost-effective when introduced. Economic efficiency is characterized by the use of industrial waste as adsorption materials, which in turn show high cleaning efficiency and resolve the issue of disposal of production waste. In this work, energy waste is used as an adsorption material - carbonate sludge from the chemical water treatment of the Aktobe TPP. To achieve a high degree of purification from pollutants, a modified carbonate sludge was obtained, which is used as an adsorption material in filters. A method for obtaining modified carbonate sludge from chemical water treatment is considered. A basic technological scheme of wastewater treatment from phenols has been proposed, a sorption filter for wastewater treatment with a filler - modified carbonate sludge has been selected and calculated. To implement the technology of purification of wastewater from phenols, the economic efficiency and the prevented environmental harm were calculated using the example of the enterprise LLP “Aktobe Oil Refining”. The technology of regeneration of waste carbonate sludge is considered. The heat effects of combustion of spent carbonate sludge as a fuel material are calculated using the example of Aktobe TPP.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):174-181
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Utilization of overburden in formulations of environmentally friendly compositional materials for road construction
Konovalova N.A., Bespolitov D.V., Pankov P.P., Rush E.A., Avseenko N.D.
Abstract

The possibility of utilization of overburden rocks of the Chernovsky brown coal and Baleysko-Taseevsky gold occurrences (Trans-Baikal Region) in the road construction industry is studied. Polymeric additives “Cryogelite” and “StabOL” were chosen as stabilizing additives in the compositions of road-building composites. The initial mineral samples were examined by methods of atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma, powder diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the introduction to formulation of composites with use of overburden rocks of 8 wt. % Portland cement and 10 wt. % fly ash, as well as stabilizing additives “Cryogelit” (Chernovskoe occurrence) and “StabOL” (Baleysko-Taseevskoe occurrence), allows to obtain samples with strength grade M40 and frost resistance grade F15. The biotesting method proved that the obtained composites do not have an acute toxic effect on test objects and are safe for the environment and human health.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):182-191
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Environmental education
Linguistic and extralinguistic implementation of environmental activism in the English language media discourse of Russia, China and Southeast Asia
Guslyakova A.V., Guslyakova N.I., Valeeva N.G., Beisembayev A.R., Zhuravleva Y.A.
Abstract

The research focuses on the analysis of the English language media discourse dedicated to the problem of environmental activism in the present-day emerging countries of Russia, China and other Southeast Asian states. The main purpose of the study is to understand the linguistic and non-linguistic implementation of the phenomenon of environmental activism in developing countries through the English language media perspective. Taking into account the role of the English language as a lingua franca in the world today, the research hypothesizes that the English language media discourse has turned into an influential tool of the promotion of green sustainable ideas, including environmental activism in the states with the emerging economies. The findings of the study received through the quantitative and qualitative data processing in the software program “QDA Minor”, proved that the English language media discourse can affect the evolution of people’s eco-consciousness in the emerging countries like Russia, China and other states of Southeast Asia. Despite having different ideological values and national and international strategic purposes, the countries with the developing economies are getting used to the ideas of environmental activism and begin to adopt a more sustainable lifestyle.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):192-203
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Environmental disciplines taught to foreign students participating short term exchange programs in RUDN University: experience and approach
Ledashcheva T.N., Pinaev V.E.
Abstract

The article examines experience and approaches of teaching to foreign students who came to the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the RUDN University for short-term exchange programs (2-3 months). The short duration of the exchange programs imposes additional restrictions on the order of studying the material - it is necessary to give an idea not only about the requirements of environmental protection legislation applied, for example, in Russia and the European Union, but also to give students the opportunity to actively participate in the classes during the workshops, taking into account the adaptation period when in their thoughts they are still at home, but are already in the host country. As an example, the courses conducted at the RUDN for students from Indonesia who arrived to participate the program “Sustainability management” and studying Environmental Impact Assessment and Management of Environmental Risks courses. The experience of teaching these disciplines shows the expediency of practical tasks related to the homeland of students - this allows them not only not to miss their homeland, but also to study in more detail the requirements of their country legislation related impact assessment on the environment, but also the impact of various types of industries on the environment. Thus, the students not only does not fall out of the educational context in home country for several months, but also independently receive more in-depth knowledge. As an exam at the end of the course, it is advisable not to give a traditional test with questions, but to prepare a project that can be carried out jointly with colleagues who have remained at the university in their homeland and allows applying the knowledge gained through the exchange program to create a visually evaluated result (project) on environmental protection in their homeland.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):204-208
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Environmental Economics
Green economy as the main way of development of society
Zharov A.N., Isaev K.V.
Abstract

The 21 century put society before a choice on which path to develop further, which model of economic development to choose. The existing economic model of development generates certain contradictions. Economic development is accompanied by the emergence of crisis phenomena, predatory use of natural resources, changing landscapes, unjustified environmental pollution. An alternative way of economic development of society could be a model of a green economy, which is being formed today, before our eyes. The research is devoted to the consideration of three of the six directions of the implementation of the green economy model. The current state of clean energy, agricultural energy, and sustainable agriculture, including organic agriculture, is analysed. The steps taken to switch to the green economy model are analysed. According to the results of the study, conclusions are drawn related to the transition to this model of economic development.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(2):209-216
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