Vol 29, No 1 (2021)

Ecology
Current condition of populations and spatial-environmental features of habitats of russet ground squirrel Spermophilus major
Tukhbatullin A.R., Brandler O.V.
Abstract

The russet ground squirrel (Spermophilus major ) is known in the literature as a numerous widespread ground squirrel species. In recent decades, a decline in its abundance was found in some parts of its range. We have assessed the condition of this species in most parts of its distribution area based on our observations and interviews with local people. Spatial, landscape and vegetation cover parameters of S. major settlements have been studied. The research results showed a decline in the number, disappearance of settlements and a decrease in suitable habitats for this species. Small and medium-sized settlements with relatively low density of burrows, associated with low grass meadow communities typical for pastures and cattle grazing, prevail among the found settlements. One of the main factors for the decline in the number and disappearance of settlements of russet ground squirrel is, apparently, a decrease of pasture cattle grazing intensity. The continuing trend of degradation of pasture ecosystems may pose a threat to the existence of this species.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):7-22
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Diversity of vascular plants and zooplankton communities in regard to the ecological assessment of the territory of the ecological park “Samara Venice”, Samara Region, Russia
Senator S.A., Mukhortova O.V., Nurova O.G., Sopina K.V.
Abstract

The results of the floristic and hydrobiological studies performed in May - August 2020 on the territory of the ecological park “Samara Venice” (Samara Region, Russia) are presented. These data form the basis for the ecological assessment of the territory. The diversity of vascular plants is presented by 4 divisions, 65 families, 205 genera, and 309 species. Among them, 66 species (21.4%) belong to the alien plant species, including nine invasive. Habitats of the plants included in the regional Red List are found. The zooplankton diversity comprises 60 species and morphs. The zooplankton community has undergone significant transformation, manifesting by an increase in the total biomass and in the biomass of crustaceans and rotifers, and by a decrease in absolute and relative species richness. It is revealed that a number of the studied water bodies belong to the transitional type, and may be characterized as of middle position between the meso- to eutrophic type (moderately polluted and polluted waters).

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):23-31
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Analysis of changes in biological diversity within the boundaries of the nature monument “Serebryany Bor” on the example of rare and protected animal species
Sorokina A.A., Zubkova V.M.
Abstract

The data on the analysis of changes in the number of rare species of birds, mammals and reptiles living within the boundaries of the specially protected natural territory - the natural monument “Serebryany Bor” for 2018-2020 is presented. The research used the method of visual accounting, winter route accounting, the method of route accounting of birds by E.S. Ravkin. As a result, rare species of animals listed in the Red Book were found, which indicates the biological diversity of the studied territory and justifies the need to use environmental measures within its borders to preserve rare species in the future.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):32-38
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Geoecology
Dynamics of air temperature in the main types of mountain Crimea regional ecosystems
Gorbunov R.V., Tabunshchik V.A., Gorbunova T.Y., Safonova M.S.
Abstract

Climate change in Crimea is characterized by spatial heterogeneity in the displacement of air temperature fields, due to the influence of regional and local factors. There are currently no works devoted to the study of the reaction of regional ecosystems to changes in air temperature in Crimea. Based on open databases of reanalysis, geoinformation modeling the results of studies of the dynamics of air temperature in the main types of ecosystems of the Mountain Crimea under conditions of climate change are presented. For each circulation epoch and period of the Northern Hemisphere, maps of average annual temperatures were obtained along the landscape contours of the Crimean Peninsula. A map of the standard deviation of temperature within the landscape contours was made. For key areas, the mean annual air temperature, standard deviation, and factorial entropy were calculated. The main regularities of air temperature dynamics in the main types of Mountain Crimea ecosystems with the change of circulation epochs and periods of the Northern Hemisphere are revealed. Based on the analysis of the dynamics of the standard deviation and factor entropy, the role of changes in air temperature in the formation of strategies for the development or stabilization of the main types of regional ecosystems in Mountain Crimea is shown.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):39-54
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Climate challenges and hydraulic power industry as a powerful tool to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement
Tetelmin V.V.
Abstract

Fossil fuel energy and increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere cause global climate change. In pursuance of the goals of the Paris Agreement, the global power industry must switch a significant part of fuel energy production to renewable energy production. The expected share of various sources in the global power industry by the end of the 21st century is provided. However, the limited possibilities of the biosphere make the current level of energy production from renewable sources nearly impossible. The most preferable scenario is proposed to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by reducing the use of coal by 170 million tons per year, which will ensure a corresponding reduction in emissions by 620 million tons per year and the achievement by 2050 of the material balance of carbon in the “emission - flow” system. Under the most preferable scenario, it will be necessary to commission alternative replacement powers of about 160 GW per year; at the same time, the average global temperature will additionally rise by 0.6 °С compared to the current one. The prospects and advantages of the development of the Russian hydraulic power industry as an environmentally and economically efficient alternative to “coal projects” are considered. In the emerging reality, Russian hydraulic power companies are advised to determine their ambitious share of the Russian quota for reducing emissions and commissioning 30 GW of replacement hydraulic power capacities by 2050 with additional electricity generation of up to 120 TWh per year.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):55-71
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Safety of human activity
Analysis of the requirements for halal products when they are exported to Turkey and the UAE
Sultanov S.Z., Nigmatullin A.T., Satuev B.B., Lebedeva A.V., Milutka A.S., Kurbatova A.I.
Abstract

The provisions of the halal standards in force in the Republic of Turkey and the United Arab Emirates are examined. The differences in the requirements for halal products established in the indicated countries are analyzed. Halal products are gaining popularity in the consumer market. According to the results of the report on the Islamic economy, the growth in popularity by 2020 will be 6.5%. At the same time, there is a constant trend o f growth in market volumes. There is a report from the Center for Development of Islamic Economy in Dubai that Muslims spent $ 2.2 trillion in 2018, while by 2020 this amount was $ 2.4 trillion. The global development of the halal food market and its frequent discrepancies in the concept, the lack of uniform rules for handling products leads to disunity of the rules for handling products. It should be remembered that the Republic of Turkey and the United Arab Emirates, being members of the Islamic Cooperation, are also the main suppliers of halal goods. Moreover, both states should have the same requirements for halal, which nevertheless differ. In the Republic of Turkey, halal food requirements and slaughter rules are set out in one standard TS OIC/SMIIC 1 “General Guidelines for Halal Foods”. In the UAE, the same requirements are set out in two standards: UAE.S GSO 993 “Requirements for slaughtering animals in accordance with Islamic rules” and UAE.S GSO 2055-1 “Halal Food. Part 1. General Requirements”. A study of the requirements for halal products and processes, set out in the standards of the two countries, showed that on fundamental issues they coincide. But there are also certain differences in the requirements that can become a problem when supplying the same products to Turkey and the UAE.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):72-81
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Environmetal defence
Minimization of the impact of rubble production wastes on the environment by their involvement in the compositions of road'building materials
Konovalova N.A., Pankov P.P., Bespolitov D.V.
Abstract

The impact of Taldan crushed stone plant and wastes formed in process of its activity on the environment is considered. About 2.9 million tons of siftings of rock grinding were accumulated in dump massifs with a total area of 600 hectares. Therefore, elimination of accumulated harm to the environment that has arisen over many years of operation of Taldan crushed stone plant is the actual task. One of the technological solutions of liquidation of objects of accumulated harm to the environment based on physicochemical impact on wastes is stabilization or artificial stone formation. Drawing of siftings of rock in soil concrete compositions (artificial stone materials) allows to solve complex of acute environmental problems due to their largetonnage direct use. The use of siftings of rock in road building will contribute to the rational and cost-effective use of natural mineral raw materials, since this process will not entail an increase in the costs of its extraction and processing. A set of modern methods (atomic-emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray phase analysis, infrared spectroscopy) were used to study the chemical, phase composition and properties of siftings of rock to substantiate the possibility of its utilization in the composition of soil concrete. It is shown that the introduction of an 8 wt. % of mineral binder and polymer stabilizing additive “Element” (1, 5, 10 wt. %) allows to get soil concrete with a mark of strength М100.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):82-91
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Exploring environmental connection: ecological network opportunities in the Shahdagh National Park, Azerbaijan
Jabrayilov E.A.
Abstract

The high growth rate of consumption of natural resources by people in the last century have seriously and negatively affected ecosystems and led to the loss of biodiversity. At present, it is important to take the necessary measures to ensure sustainable development and biodiversity conservation. Ecological networks play an important role in maintaining and controlling the stability and balance of communication between ecosystem complexes. For this purpose, the possibility of creating an ecological network that includes core areas, buffer zones, ecological corridors and restoration areas in the section of Shamakhi district of the Shahdagh National Park was explored. The designated buffer zone of the national park includes 14 villages and 1 settlement type administrative unit. Mountainous landscapes predominate in the area, and the absolute height ranges from 500-200 m. Riverbeds, intermountain depression, mountain passes, trails and forests which should be planted in the areas we offer, were considered as main factors during the construction of ecological corridors in the national park and the buffer zones. The materials obtained from the literature and our field studies, also, vector and raster data were used during the site identification. The data was processed in software such as ArcGIS 10, ERDAS Imagine, Global Mapper, Google Earth, etc. Existing ecosystems were identified, and areas were calculated in separate elements of the ecological network in the study area.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):92-102
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Industrial Ecology
Development of environmental measures to reduce the dusty emissions of stone coal in loading and unloading works
Lukanin A.V., Klevanova E.S.
Abstract

Now Russia is one of the world’s leading coal producers. Particles inevitably pass into an aerosol state, forming dust, which is subsequently emitted into the atmosphere during the extraction, crushing, sorting and transportation of coal. This dust negatively affects the health of workers in the mining industry, as well as the population of the residential area. In this regard, the question arises about the effective air cleaning in the working area from coal dust and reducing its concentration. The work purpose is to develop a comprehensive cleaning of gas-air emissions from coal dust in the working area where it is transported. The main task is to create an additional degree of air purification from coal dust. For this purpose, a vortex absorber was used, which is a cylindrical apparatus in which a contact element with perforated holes is located. The geometric dimensions of the absorber and its main parameters have been determined. The absorber developed by the authors has shown very good results as a device for the final purification of gas-air emissions. The efficiency of trapping small solid particles in the presented scheme reaches 99%. At the same time, as a result of the introduction of this installation, effective air purification from dust particles with a diameter of about 0.2 microns is carried out and the coal briquettes production is increased by 144 tons per year.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):103-111
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Environmental Economics
Methodology for the economic estimation of the environmental damages caused by land, soil and air pollution in Kenya: a review of previously used methods
Mamboleo M.
Abstract

Environmental compensation is a form of payment for pollution of nature and the environment and the destruction of land, plants or animals. One of the challenges in ensuring waste management in Kenya is how to measure the negative effect of industrial activities and waste on the environment, economy, and human health. Although the amount of compensation should be established on the basis of the environmental-economic assessment of the appropriate environment, it should also be sufficient to implement measures aimed at restoring, reproducing and improving this environment. Kenya has not yet developed a clear legal framework for compensation for environmental damage even through it has a clear and elaborate Environmental Management and Coordination Act for the protection of the environment. Previous studies on the cost of environmental damage in Kenya have successfully used two methodologies: emergency costs and soil, air, and water pollution. This works examines the essence of these methods, as well as the possibility of their application in assessing the cost of damage to the environment as a result of human economic activity.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2021;29(1):112-120
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