Vol 28, No 3 (2020)

Geoecology
The radiation balance of oak forest ecosystems of the Crimean Peninsula
Gorbunov R.V., Gorbunova T.Y., Tabunshchik V.A., Drygval A.V.
Abstract

Studying the response of forest ecosystems to climate change is one of the urgent tasks of modern ecology. Regional manifestations of global climate change lead to special reactions of forest ecosystems. The main source of energy for all processes in ecosystems is solar radiation. It starts all the processes of transformation of matter, energy and information in the ecosystem. A change in its income leads to a restructuring of the ecosystem functioning system. For the Crimean Peninsula today the response of forest ecosystems to climate change remains poorly studied. This determines the relevance and purpose of this work. On the base of the landscape-typological map of the Crimean Peninsula, open reanalysis databases, and GIS modeling, the elements of the radiation balance of the oak forest ecosystems of the Crimean peninsula are estimated under the conditions of modern climate changes. The basic laws of the radiation balance formation of oak forest ecosystems and the features of its interannual dynamics are shown.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(3):201-212
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Peculiarities of accumulation of heavy metals and arsenic in medicinal plant raw materials of plain thousand, collected in urban and agribiocenoses of the Voronezh region
Dyakova N.A.
Abstract

The Voronezh region is traditionally the most important area of crop production and farming. The purpose of the study was to study contamination by heavy metals and arsenic of medicinal vegetable raw materials of the Voronezh region on the example of plain thousand-year-old grass collected in urban and agro-ecological systems with different anthropogenic effects. The study was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry on the basis of atomic absorption spectrometer MGA-915MD pharmacopoeia methods, accumulation of heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, cobalt, chromium) and arsenic was studied in 51 samples of large planter leaves. Comparing the data on heavy metal content in the upper soil layers of the region and the content of these elements in the grass of the common thousand, it can be argued that there are significant physiological barriers to the accumulation of ecotoxicants in the plant, which is particularly noticeable for elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and chromium. The thousand-year-old is able to selectively concentrate some heavy metals entering the active centers of enzyme systems (such as copper and zinc, for example) if their environmental content is below some vital level; With significant content of these elements in soils, the plant also physiologically blocked their entry into the above-ground part of the plant. The results of studies have shown that plain thousand grass is able to accumulate toxic elements from soils in a significant amount, which is important in planning the places of production of medicinal vegetable raw materials and assessing its quality.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(3):213-224
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Monitoring of the erosion processes and the vegetation cover of the reclaimed landfill solid municipal waste
Krasnoperova S.A., Borisova E.A.
Abstract

Depositing of the solid municipal waste in landfills that do not provide for a set of measures to protect the environment from negative impacts leads to significant pollution of ecosystem components: soil cover, surface and underground water, plant and animal life. One of the most dangerous components in waste disposal is filtrate, which includes nitrate and nitrite ions, as well as many heavy metals. The study of chemical analysis of the filtrate of multiple landfills and landfills shows that there are biologically dangerous organic substances, various compounds of nitrogen and sulfur forms, heavy metal ions, and pathogenic media that exceed the maximum permissible concentrations in the places where waste is deposited. It follows that the implementation of effective environmental measures necessary to control the state of wildlife components in places where solid municipal waste is buried, which reduces the adverse impact on the environment, is the most urgent problem. In the course of the study, erosion processes and the state of vegetation cover of the reclaimed SMW landfill along the Sarapulsky tract were monitored. Its levels of environmental hazard were identified.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(3):225-236
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Factors influencing to formation of geosystems of southern slope of the Greater Caucasus in the Republic of Azerbaijan and assessment of landscape-environmental capacity
Mammadova J.S.
Abstract

The Azerbaijani part of the Greater Caucasus consists of mountain ranges, mountainous depressions and sloppy plains. Different types of relief forms and landscapes have been formed during the repetition of endogenous and exogenous processes that have emerged as a result of the mutual influence of internal and external forces on the relief. The factors which influence the southern slope geosystems of the Greater Caucasus were first studied by us. Landscape-ecological assessment of the area was carried out using suitable, satisfactory, tense, crisis-critical and standard criteria, and a landscape map was compiled on its basis. The materials include the steppe expedition data. The applied methods are landscape-geomorphological, historical, comparative, mathematical-statistical, cartographic. Resistance of natural landscapes to anthropogenic influences is determined.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(3):237-251
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Atmospheric pollution of the Irkutsk region as a result of natural fires and public health risk assessment
Vashchalova T.V., Garmyshev V.V.
Abstract

Pollution of substances entering the atmosphere as a result of natural fires significantly affects the morbidity level of the Irkutsk region population. The development of measures to reduce it requires an assessment of the risk level and analysis of spatial differences in the composition and number of major issuers. The study is based on statistical data on natural fires in the region in 2014-2019. The comparative analysis of the composition and mass of substances from natural fires on three categories of land have done. These are: forest lands; residential, suburban, recreational lands; peat and peat soils. Peat fires are the most dangerous for health according to the weight and composition of pollutants. The level of health risk as a result of natural fires varies by region within two orders of magnitude. It is affected by the proportion of the area of smoke from the total area of the district, nonuniform distribution of the population within the district, sparsely populated and difficult to access, economic specialization, and others.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(3):252-262
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Ecology
Remote monitoring of green plants of Ufa in 1988-2018
Rakhmatullina I.R., Rakhmatullin Z.Z., Kulagin A.Y.
Abstract

Green spaces of the city are an integral part of its ecological framework. When planning urban space, information is needed on their actual distribution, condition and dynamics. To do this, it is advisable to use satellite images. The purpose of the work is to conduct remote monitoring of green spaces of Ufa using Landsat satellite images over the past 30 years. Image processing, including radiometric calibration, reducing the amount of data from 6 channels to 3 main components, uncontrolled classification of images, grouping classes to 5 types of underlying surface (open soil, no vegetation, grassy vegetation, tree and shrub vegetation, underwater), matrix construction changes were made using the tools of the SAGA GIS software product. As a result, a map was constructed showing spatial changes of the “tree-shrub vegetation” type over 30 years. The plots on which this type is preserved make up 16 073 ha, on which it was replaced by another type of underlying surface - 3700 ha. Plots characterized in 1988 by other types, and in 2018 converted to the “tree-shrub vegetation” type, occupy 8665 ha. On the one hand, there is a positive trend in the conservation and increase in the area of tree-shrub plantings. But this is not characteristic of the entire urban district, but mainly of the forests of the Ufa urban forestry, which are located mainly on the outskirts, around the central part of the city. For intracity tree-shrub plantings that are not related to the forest fund and located in the built-up part of the city, stable negative dynamics and a change in other types of underlying surface are characteristic.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(3):263-274
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Distribution of photosynthetic species in grotto type caves of different regions
Mazina S.E., Popkova A.V.
Abstract

The article discusses the ecological significance of the phototrophic communities developing in entrance zone of grotto type caves as ecotones and refugiums. Species intrazonality and the dependence of cave species’ composition on geographic location were considered. The aim of present study was to identify similar caves of different regions based on the species composition of phototrophic communities using own data and data from literature. The empiric basis for investigation was present by phototropic species lists of own studies conducted by standard methods for phototropic species identification, as well as species lists from literature. The most frequently encountered phototrophs were species Chroococcus minutus and Chlorella vulgaris. Their occurrence in all the studied caves was revealed based on the taxonomic analysis. Thus, the intrazonal nature of the flora developed in grotto type caves is partially confirmed. Cluster analysis applying Euclidean distance was used to estimate similarity of the phototrophic communities developed in grotto caves of various genesis. Four clusters were identified: cretaceous caves of the Voronezh region; limestone grottoes of Ukraine and Abkhazia; monastic cells of Moldova and Ukraine; caves of Italy and Hungary. The dependence of the phototrophs biodiversity on the composition of the rocks and the genesis of the cavities was established. The geographical trend of photosynthetic species distribution in the grotto type caves was revealed.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(3):275-284
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Diversity and abundance of copepods on the north coast of Angola during hot season 2014-2016
Castro I.J., Coelho P.A., Vanisova E.A.
Abstract
The present work is aimed at discovering the diversity and abundance of copepods in the zooplankton community on the north coast of Angola, during the hot season 2014-2016. The samples were collected during the research cruise on board the Norwegian research ship “Dr. Fridtjof Nansen” in February - March on the Congo River and Luanda monitoring lines. Zooplankton sampling was performed using a multinet net in an oblique trawl (2014) and a WP2 net in a vertical trawl (2015 and 2016), both with 180 µm mesh. The samples were fixed in 4% formaldehyde and analyzed in the oceanography laboratory of the National Institute of Fisheries and Maritime Research in Angola. In the three years of sampling, copepods were present in the zooplankton community. The diversity of copepods on the northern Angolan coast, from 2014 to 2016 in the hot season, included 27 genera corresponding to 19 families. The Copepoda class was the most abundant group in the zooplankton community, corresponding to more than 80% of the abundance, having been represented by the orders Calanoida, Cyclopoida and Harpacticoida.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(3):285-292
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Environmetal defence
Influence of the shape and size of the ground targets on the accuracy of photogrammetric processing
Elsheshtawy A., Gavrilova L.A., Limonov A.N., Elshewy M.
Abstract

The materials obtained from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are used to solve many problems, including large-scale mapping and monitoring of linear objects, as well as the ecological situation and monitoring of emergency situations. The promptly obtained photographic materials make it possible to reveal the consequences of man-made human impact associated with degradation of the soil cover, flooding of lands, salinization and pollution of the soil layer, and changes in the vegetation cover. Control points are used for absolute orientation of the generated models in the most projects of photogrammetric processing of aerial photos and images obtained from UAVs. In areas with low contour, before aerial survey, targeting is carried out in the required zones. The research is devoted to the study of the influence of the shape of ground targets on the accuracy of photogrammetric processing. It involved three different types of ground targets located on the land cover along the survey path at a distance not exceeding 1 m from each other. The targets were used as ground control points in the photogrammetric processing of the materials from the UAV. Two three-stripe photographic surveys of the 900 m long track were carried out: with UAV DJI PHANTOM 4 PRO camera FC6310 at a scale of 1:3400 and ground resolution of 1 cm and with the DJI Mavic PRO UAV camera FC220 at a scale of 1:12 700 and ground resolution of 2 cm. In both cases, the direction of flight is north - south, 36 targets were included in the photogrammetric processing. In the first case, 502 images were processed, in the second - 152. The photogrammetric processing for the orthophoto mosaic generation was carried out using the Agisoft Photo Scan Professional software. Four different contrasting sites in the study area were selected for the study: green grass, dry grass, clay, sand. Accuracy was assessed according to two criteria: 1) the degree of visualization of the target on the images; 2) the accuracy of the orthophoto mosaic, generated using various targets.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(3):293-304
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