Vol 28, No 2 (2020)

Industrial Ecology
Analysis of thiram derivatives use in plant complex of the Kursk region
Korolev V.A., Medvedeva O.A., Ryadnova V.A., Losenok S.A., Nikitina E.S., Korolev I.V.
Abstract

The impact on the biosphere of anthropogenic factors is a serious environmental problem. Today, pesticides are becoming one of the important chemical factors that cause adverse environmental changes. Pesticides enter the human body through a contaminated hydrosphere, atmosphere, and food. Modern man is not able to grow and maintain crops without the use of pesticides. Penetrating into the human body, they cumulate, thereby contributing to the creation of threatening health situations. Despite this, modern human civilization cannot do without them. The purpose of the review was to study the circulation volume of derivatives of thiram, such as vitalon, vitavaks, vitasil, vitaros, tir and TMTD (Tetramethylthiuram Disulfide) in the agricultural complex of the Kursk region for the period 2007-2016. The data obtained at the Kursk Regional Plant Protection Station, as well as agrochemical protection station “Kurskaya”, were subjected to statistical analysis using the application “Statistica 6.0”. Circulating volumes of thiram's derivatives were examined in agro-industrial complex of Kursk area over a 10-year period. The proportion of fungicides of thiram's series with the release of agrochemicals dominant in the structure of seed crops cultivation technologies was investigated. A study of the structure of sown areas with the allocation of priority crops grown in the region was conducted, the total number of which amounted 80.76%. The ranking of the region by thiram’s derivatives was made. All studied fungicidal products of thiram are widely used for the cultivation of crops in the Kursk region. Identified regions with the biggest amount of making this group of agrochemicals in the soil are treated as high anthropogenic load zone and require the development of environmental protection. The volume of circulation of the studying group of pesticides can be dangerous to humans and animals, influence the formation of peoples’ somatic pathologies.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(2):103-111
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Geoecology
Hazard indicators of urban soil contamination with polycyclic hydrocarbons on the example of monitoring results of the RUDN campus
Redina M.M., Khaustov A.P., Li X., Kenzhin Z.D., Silaeva P.Y.
Abstract

The characteristics of the hazard of urban soils pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered: naphthalene (Naph), anthracene (An), phenanthrene (Phen), pyrene (Py), fluoranthene (Flu), chrysene (Chr), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFlu), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkFlu), dibenzo[ah]antracene (DBa), benzo[ghi]perylene (Bghi), indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene). On the example of monitoring data on the RUDN University campus and the adjacent South-West Forest Park, modern approaches to assessing the hazard of pollution levels and the environmental risk of soil pollution are demonstrated: RQ indicators, total relative toxicity in comparison to BaP, carcinogenic risk, behavior of the representative PAHs. On the basis of a critical analysis of the pollution indicators, the optimal approaches to assessing the danger of the presence of polyarenes in the soils of urban areas are demonstrated. The leading sources of pollution (influence of vehicles) were identified. Different levels of environmental hazard of polyarene soil contamination in different functional zones of the analyzed territory are demonstrated: relatively clear territory in the middle zone of the park and a specific configuration of the pollution field on the rest of the territory. The necessity of developing ecosystem standards for urban natural complexes is justified, taking into account the individual characteristics of soils, the role of soil microbiota, the specificity of the use of the territory and the characteristics of pollution sources.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(2):112-130
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Environmetal defence
Research of composition and properties of ash and slag waste from the Thermal Power Plant of Trans-Baikal region for decrease of anthropogenic impact on environment
Pankov P.P., Konovalova N.A., Bespolitov D.V.
Abstract

The anthropogenic impact on environment of ash and slag waste of CHP 1 and CHP 2 (Chita) and CHP “Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union” (Krasnokamensk) is considered. These wastes cause irreparable damage to the environment, occupy a significant area, lead to a deterioration of the environmental situation in the surrounding areas. Liquidation of such objects of accumulated harm to the environment is the most important state task in the areas of national economy and environmental protection. Rapid recycling of ash and slag waste is possible in road construction (the main material-intensive sector of the national economy) due to large-capacity direct use. This will effectively reduce the anthropogenic impact on the environment and significantly reduce the use of mineral raw. The principal possibility of using of fly ash as a secondary mineral raw material in compositions of road soil concrete is substantiated. The methods of atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry were used to study the composition and properties of fly ash of CHP, which is a first-class mineral raw based on the specific effective activity of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K), which allows their use in the construction industry without restrictions. It has been established that fly ash is non-porous, its hydraulic properties are classified as latent-active and can be added to road cement soils modified with additives of different nature.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(2):131-141
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Life condition assessment of scotch pine in the area of location of municipal solid waste landfill “Zhiroshkino”
Baeva Y.I., Kamaletdinova K.R.
Abstract

The bioindication method is used to assess the general vital condition of coniferous phytocoenoses growing at different distances (0.25, 0.75, 1.4, 2.4 km) from municipal solid waste landfill “Zhiroshkino” (Moscow region, Domodedovo district). The object of study is ordinary pine ( Pinus sylvestris L. ), as the most sensitive to the action of pollutants and often used in Russia phytoindicator. The state of generative organs (number of old and new cones, increase of shoots), defoliation and depigmentation class were selected as diagnostic indicators; the category of vital condition was determined and the stand state index was calculated. It was found out that closed objects of production and consumption waste disposal have a negative impact on the stand of an ordinary pine tree. Thus, trees growing at a distance of 250 m from the landfill within its sanitary-protective zone, according to the stand status index are characterized as “strongly weakened”. At the distance from the waste landfill the tendency of increasing the number of healthy trees in the structure of phytocoenosis was recorded, and their vital condition was assessed as “weakened by the growing stock”. The index of stand condition, classes of defoliation and depigmentation, the number of generative organs have reached the control values (Kuzminsky Forest Park, the prevailing category of “weakened trees”) at the distance of 2.4 km from the disposal site. However, the values of these indicators are much lower than the background ones (Prioksko-Terrasny Reserve, the prevailing category “healthy trees”) for all studied coniferous phytocoenoses. The conclusion is made about the possibility of bioindication method using morphological features of ordinary pine as an express method of assessment of negative impact of waste disposal objects on the environment.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(2):142-152
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Ecology
Anthropogenic impact on the Himalayan marmot population in Nepal
Nikolskii A.A., Vanisova E.A.
Abstract

Anthropogenic impact on the Himalayan marmot population in Nepal is discussed. Above the upper border of the forest, human shares the same habitats with marmots on the alluvial terraces of river valleys. Human buildings and farmland lead to fragmentation of the marmot population, and overgrazing leads to pasture digression, worsening the food supply of these rodents. At the same time, people regularly catch marmots with loops, while, in accordance with the criteria of the IUCN Red List, the population of the Himalayan marmot in Nepal should be classified as Endangered (EN) - a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(2):153-159
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Use of activated peat for remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum products
Adelfinskaya E.A., Myazin V.A.
Abstract

One of the most serious environmental problem in the Far North of the Russian Federation is the pollution of the territory by oil and oil products. Ecosystems of this region are extremely vulnerable, their remediation after anthropogenic impact, such as spill of fuels, can last for decades. This is the reason for necessity of the development of effective methods for cleaning and restoring oil-contaminated lands. As a result of undertaken laboratory study, the possibility of bioremediation of soils contaminated with oil products using activated peat as a sorbent and organic fertilizer was shown. Two weeks after the addition of activated peat, the content of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil decreased by 22-47% due to dilution of pollution and improvement of air and nutrient regime. After reclamation, the germination rate of the seeds of a test culture increased by 1,6-3,7 times. The optimum amount of peat required for adding into contaminated sandy soil, depending on the degree of contamination, has also been established. Based on the studies, recommendations for the remediation of the contaminated area of 0.07 ha located in the north-west of the Murmansk region using peat and mineral fertilizers were developed.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(2):160-171
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Water quality assessment of La Tembladera wetland in Ecuador using Water Quality Index
Arias Ordonez P.J.
Abstract
In developing countries, tropical wetlands are essential for human livelihoods since they storage and provide freshwater for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Unfortunately, tropical wetlands are subjected to anthropogenic impacts, such as direct discharge of municipal, industrial and livestock wastewater, leading to water pollution, and thus, affecting directly or indirectly people's health. Therefore, water quality assessment of these unique ecosystems using practical tools, such as Water Quality Index (WQI) is of great importance. This study aims to assess the water quality of one tropical Ramsar wetland La Tembladera for human consumption in wet and dry tropical seasons using WQI. This index was calculated using the following physical, chemical, and biological parameters: potential hydrogen (pH), turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chloride ions (Cl-), sulfates (SO42-), nitrates (NO3-), iron (Fe2+), Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), and Clostridium perfringens ( C. perfringens ). The WQI calculations revealed high values for the wet and dry tropical seasons, displaying values of 416.63 and 427.1, respectively. The obtained values indicate that the water of La Tembladera wetland is unsuitable for human consumption. These results might be valuable for legislative decision-makers to develop further recommendations and plans to improve the water quality, either for drinking purposes or other needs.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(2):172-182
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The zoobenthos of the river Tzraudon, the Terek river basin
Dzhioeva I.E., Cherchesova S.K., Novatorov O.A., Tsagaeva Z.K.
Abstract

The paper provides information about the fauna of amphibious insects that live in the river Tsraudon, discusses the ecology of species, the dynamics of species diversity. The collected material in the classes Turbellaria (Tricladida), Crustacea (Amphipoda), Arachnida (Hydracarina), Insecta (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Diptera), Gastropoda (Pulmonata), is represented by 55 species from 29 families; among zoobenthos, Insecta dominates (87 %). All insects except the order Odonata are represented by litoreophilic, stenothermic species.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2020;28(2):183-191
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