Vol 27, No 1 (2019)

Estimates of greenhouse gases emissions reduction potential in Kazakhstan by 2030 in connection with its commitments in the Paris Climate Agreement
Istomin I.S., Dronin N.M.

Prospects for achieving the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Kazakhstan in the framework of the Paris climate convention was assessed through projections of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions of 31 large energy enterprises by 2030. The total CO2 emissions of these enterprises reach 86,9 million tons or 26,5 % of the country’s GHG emissions. For projection of the GHG emissions of the selected power plants three scenarios - “business as usual” (trend), “moderate modernization” and “full modernization” - were designed. “The unconditional target” would remain unachievable in the “business as usual” and even “moderate modernization” scenarios. However, the scenario of “full modernization” allows reaching “the unconditional target” with a good reserve. Moreover, this scenario allows reaching “the conditional target”. Our assessment of potential for reduction of the GHG emissions shows that Kazakhstan’s commitments in the Paris climate convention are very responsible. To meet these commitments technological modernization of the entire industrial sector of the country would be required. It could be achieved only by full mobilization of material and financial resources.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(1):7-16
Assessment of soil erosion of Burundi using remote sensing and GIS by RUSLE model
Nijimbere G., Lizana C.R.

This present work is the results of study on water erosion in Burundi, a landlocked country amid the African Great Lakes region where East and Central Africa converge. The agriculture is developed in areas where the slopes is very steep and some factors such as land-use methods weaken soils and lead to water erosion and the results in soil degradation rendering it infertile. Production on this way is becoming insufficient for the rapidly growing of population. The extension of cultivated land often not linked to anti-erosion measures exposes the soil to intense erosion. The results get it of processing satellite images (Landsat 8) allowed to identify the main places where erosion is very severe. Lost soil was estimated by the RUSLE method and using four raster images corresponding to factors related to precipitation, soil erodibility, topography, slope length and vegetation cover. The results obtained allow the identification of areas around all the country where the interventions of government and environment protection institutions are necessary to limit the processes of soil degradation.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(1):17-28
Biodiversity of microbial communities on some species in the class Gastropoda common in coastal waters in Central Vietnam
Chu T.B., Do T.H., Le X.T., Ngo C.C., Pham T.H., Hoang T.D., Nguyen T.T., Britaev T.A.

Gastropoda is a large class in coastal waters in Central Vietnam. The interaction between microorganisms and Gastropoda mainly consists of symbiotic and parasitic relationships. In this study, biodiversity of microbial communities on some species of Gastropoda is evaluated, thereby predicting their interaction. From 12 samples of Gastropoda including 3 species: Trochus maculatus , Cypraea eglantica , Chicoreus bruneus , 101 microorganism strains including 79 bacterial strains (78.2%), 18 yeast strains (17.8%) and 4 actinomycetes strains (4.0%) were isolated. There were 15 strains (including 8 yeast strains, 5 bacterial strains and 2 actinomycetes strains) selected to identify based on sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region (yeast) and 16S rRNA gene (bacteria and actinomycetes). Based on the identification results, it is possible to predict the nutritional relationship between microorganisms and species of Gastropoda.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(1):29-38
Comparative analysis of heavy metals accumulation in the soil - plant system by the geo-accumulation index and transpiration rate of Zea mays L
Sukiasyan A.R.

The aim of work is the assessment of the effect of water deficiency in the soil, taking into account the characteristics of the migration of heavy metals in the soil - plant system using the example of mays ( Zea mays L . ). The samples studied grew in the coastal areas of the Debet, Shnogh and Araks rivers. The selection of plant material was carried out during the growing season at the test sites in clear dry weather. The analysis of the coastal soil and annual plant on the content of Mn, Cu, Co, Zn, Mo was performed using the “Thermo Scientific Niton XRF Portable Analyzer”. According of obtained results the coefficient of the geo-accumulation index was calculated, identifying the main migration characteristics of heavy metals in the soil - plant system. Drought tolerance was identified at the seedling stage by changing the growing conditions by changing of watering of the plot. Calculation of the intensity of transpiration revealed changes in the water balance in plants depending on the soil and climatic growing conditions. According to the obtained results, it is noted that with an increase in the geo-accumulation index of heavy metals in the soil, the plant shows a significant decrease in the intensity of transpiration. Thus, in the course of the experiments, it was established that samples of corn from the arid region of Hushakert had a low level of transpiration, compared with samples from the moderately humid region of Shnogh. Combining the results on the content of heavy metals in corn kernels with the intensity of transpiration made it possible to investigate the correlation between the cumulative ability of the studied chemical elements and the regulation of water balance in the plant in response to drought. Among the main factors contributing to the increase in the migration of heavy metals is the content of potassium and calcium in the plant sample.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(1):39-50
The using of ecological properties of plant-hyperaccumulants for reducing man-made load on adjacent to the Moscow Domodedovo Airport territories
Soltanov S.K.

The article presents the chemical elements with the highest content of gross and mobile forms in the soil solution of ground near the aerodrome area of the Moscow Domodedovo Airport. The most important types of plant-hyperaccumulants, which can stabilize the geochemical situation around airport are considered in the paper. The types of plants which can sorb in shortest time some metals-pollutants are brought together in tables. Thanks to the research, the features of pollutants of the soils near the aviation hub are defined. Part of the study had become the development recommendations on reduction of environmental burden on adjacent to the airport lands through the creation of phytobuffers.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(1):51-58
Short announcements
Forms of protective behavior of synanthropic birds in response to the biorepellent effect
Enaleev I.R., Sergeev S.A.

The purpose of this scientific and practical research is to increase efficiency of the use of biorepellent (birds of prey) while ensuring the ornithological safety of facilities for the municipal solid waste recycling and disposal. Various forms of gregarious protective behavior of synanthropic birds (Corvidae, Laridae) are considered. A new form of protective behavior has been revealed in the Corvidae family.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(1):59-64
Environmental Economics
Water supply regulation in Nigeria: problems, challenges, solutions and benefits
Balogun O.R., Redina M.M.

Even though Nigeria is recognized for her rich vegetation and tropical weather and blessed with surplus water resources, the country still faces challenges on getting clean water supply around the country and mostly depend on alternative water supply like well, borehole and river. These alternative water supply systems are not efficient and viable enough for water supply systems especially in a country with large population. The country is characterized by irregular water supply and water management laws are also weak and mostly not in conformity with today's standard and needs. Proper management and conservation of the water supply services and resource has not given adequate attention by the government. It is, therefore, important to identify such factor that inhibits the implementation of water regulations and proffer a solution to these. In a bid to provide an understanding of the effect of implementing and enforcing stringent water regulation and providing adequate water supply, we compare forecasted population with investment capital expenditure (CAPEX) for water supply by Millennium Development Goal (MDG+) targets. The result shows that in year to come, the country will significantly benefit from investing and providing regular water supply through employment availability and revenue generated through utility water bills, spending less on epidemic of water-borne diseases thereby improving the lives and health of its citizen.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2019;27(1):65-81

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