Vol 26, No 2 (2018)

Ecology
Lichen biota of the park of the museum-reserve “Abramtsevo” (Moscow region)
Muchnik E.E., Cherepenina D.A., Polynova O.E.
Abstract

The article considers diversity of lichen biota as an indicator of the state of the Moscow region park communities. It is a case study of the park of the museum-reserve “Abramtsevo”. The study examined the species diversity. Taxonomic, ecological and sozological analyses of the investigated lichen biota have been carried out. On that basis, an assessment of the level of anthropogenic transformation of the lichen biota has been made. Recommendations are developed for the conservation of the habitats of rare lichen species in the park of the museum-reserve “Abramtsevo”.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(2):175-184
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Fish parasite fauna of the middle reaches of the Lena river and its tributaries under growing man-caused impact
Platonov T.A., Kuzmina N.V., Nyukkanov A.N., Protodyakonova G.P.
Abstract

On the middle course of the Lena river there is a large extent of infection of fish with parasites with a complex development cycle. Infection of the pike with plerocercoids of Diphyllobothrium latum is caused by contamination with communal sewage. In the parasitofauna of the fish of the Vilyui river, an increase in the simplest gill trichodinis observed, which is associated with the eutrophication of the reservoir. The fish of the Aldan river showed a greater extent of invasion by myxosporidia than in fish from the middle reaches of the Lena river. The focus of diphyllobothriosis in the middle reaches of the Lena river is facilitated by the contamination of the reservoir with municipal waste from urban sewers and discharges of river vessels during navigation. In general, the epizootic situation in reservoirs, subject to anthropogenic impact, and adjacent territories is not entirely satisfactory. It may be improved with the decreased contamination of the external environment and hence the increased resistance of the fish organism.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(2):185-194
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Geoecology
Assessment of changes in the content of toxic elements (Pb, As, Hg, Cd) in aboveground parts of wheat Triticum vulgare Vill under the influence of insertion into the soil an aqueous suspension of humic acids with different forms of iron
Osipova E.A., Lebedev S.V., Kanygina O.N., Korotkova A.M.
Abstract

Lack of iron leads to a weakening of plant growth and lower yields. A promising solution to this problem is the use of nanoparticles of iron, iron oxides as biostimulators of growth of agricultural plants. However, the special properties of nanoparticles can enhance the mechanisms associated with toxic effects on living organisms, lead to trace elements. The response of plants to the impact of iron is highly variable and depends on their genotype and species. Literature data on the influence of fine iron particles on the elemental composition of the plant species Triticum vulgare Vill (soft wheat) is not enough, in addition, virtually no study of the interaction of these particles with natural sorbents - humic acids, which control the bioavailability and transport of elements in natural objects. Therefore, the article presents data on the content of toxic elements (As, Hg, Cd, Pb) in the aboveground part of wheat plants Triticum vulgare Vill. Wheat is cultivated in the soil under the influence of aqueous solutions Fe0 spherical iron nanoparticles (diameter of 80 ± 5 nm), magnetite Fe3O4 (50- 80 nm width and a height of 4-10 nm), ionic forms of diand trivalent iron sulphate with addition of humic acids isolated from the brown coal of the Tulgan deposit. The results of the study showed that under the influence of iron and magnetite nanoparticles, the replacement of more toxic mercury with less toxic cadmium is observed, but the total number of these elements remains constant. An aqueous solution of trivalent iron sulfate with a concentration of 0.0001 g/l contributes to the maximum reduction of toxic elements (lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium) in the aboveground part of wheat plant.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(2):195-206
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Spatial-temporal trends and factors of soil cover pollution in Moscow
Kosheleva N.E., Tsykhman A.G.
Abstract

The distribution and factors of heavy metal and metalloid (HMM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) accumulation were studied in soils of 9 administrative districts (ADs) of Moscow, according to monitoring data in more than 2200 points for 2007-2016, accomplished by the State environmental institution “Mosekomonitoring”. The main physicochemical properties (pH, organic matter Corg and texture), the total content of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Hg, As and BaP in soil samples were determined, land-use zoning of sampling sites was carried out and monoelemental geochemical maps were compiled. A twofold increase in the content of Cu, Cd, As in the Central AD (CAD) and Cd in the Eastern AD (EAD) and the North-Eastern (NEAD), as well as As in the CAD, NEAD and EAD was established; in all the ADs the soil pollution with Zn, Pb and Hg has been reduced. Concentration of BaP in almost all the districts decreased by 4-8 times. Anthropogenic and soil-geochemical factors of accumulation and dispersion of pollutants were determined using the regression tree method. Spatial factor is the most significant, because the quantity and geochemical specialization of pollution sources vary greatly in different parts of the city. The spatial geochemical heterogeneity of the urban soils caused by atmospheric fallouts is enhanced due to the influence of physical and chemical properties of soils: a rise in pH and Corg values leads to an increase in the content of Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg and Cd, As, respectively; changes in the texture affect the content of Zn, Ni, Cd, As and BaP. Comparison with MPCs/TPCs showed that the traffic zone is influenced by the greatest anthropogenic press in CAD and EAD, the residential one - in the CAD, EAD, South-Eastern and Western ADs, the recreational - in the CAD, EAD and Nothern AD, the industrial - in the Eastern, South-Eastern, North-Eastern, and Northern ADs. By 2016, the MPCs/TPCs of pollutants in the urban soils were violated less frequently.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(2):207-236
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“Dirty” cities in Russia: factors determining air pollution
Klyuev N.N., Yakovenko L.M.
Abstract

The analysis of quality of atmospheric air in cities of Russia for 2000-2016 has been carried out. During this period 4 cities (Bratsk, Magnitogorsk, Chita and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk) almost every year fell into the “black lists” of Roshydromet - both chronically and extremely polluted cities. Among Russian regions on high level of atmospheric pollution the cities of Irkutsk region (Bratsk, Irkutsk, Zima, etc.), Krasnoyarsk region (Krasnoyarsk, Norilsk, Minusinsk, etc.), as well as Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Tagil, etc.) and Chelyabinsk (Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk, etc.) regions are allocated. The leading factors of formation of environmental situation in cities depending on their localization, specialization and population size have been revealed: 1) large industrial emissions (Norilsk, Novokuznetsk, etc.) and transport emissions (Moscow, Yekaterinburg, etc.); 2) emissions of mostly unidentified sources of pollution (Selenginsk, Zima, etc.); 3) high natural potential of atmospheric pollution (Neryungri, Chita, etc.); 4) “import” of pollution from external sources due to an unfavorable ecological and geographical location (Minusinsk, Yasnaya Polyana, etc.). Possible mutual influences of environmental situation in cities and regional development have been considered.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(2):237-250
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Environmetal defence
Justification of environmental policy at the university level
Kruglova L.E., Redina M.M., Khaustov A.P.
Abstract

This paper presents the rationale for environmental policy at the university level, its main constituent elements identified on the basis of the analysis of the environmental policies of Russian and international universities, as well as the fundamental concepts formed for the Russian state. The method on the basis of which it is possible to identify weaknesses of ecological safety of the university requiring special attention is shown. This method is the world ranking of universities GreenMetric (GreenMetric world University Rankings), the purpose of which is to rank universities around the world, depending on the sustainable environmental development of campuses and the creation of an energy-saving model of university management. The calculation is made according to this rating on the example of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia and the reasons for the received values are considered in detail, since these results give the university grounds to strengthen the unfinished moments by the relevant paragraphs of environmental policy.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(2):251-260
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Sustainable development: interdisciplinary aspects of academic course development
Vashchalova T.V.
Abstract

Important for the improvement of the course “Sustainable development” is to familiarize students with the basic principles of the system analysis of interdisciplinary problems, risk analysis methodology and various aspects of the impact of sociocultural characteristics of society on the environment and the safe functioning of the technosphere.

RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(2):261-268
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Short announcements
Natural heritage and modern armed conflicts: ethical approach and international humanitarian law
Gorbunov S.S.
Abstract
In the short announcement, we offer an idea about International convention for protection of natural heritage in armed conflicts, based on principles of nature protection, international humanitarian and international environmental law.
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety. 2018;26(2):269-272
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