PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER - AUTHOR OF THE FIRST GRAPHIC FOOD CHAINS SCHEME

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Abstract


The drawing of Netherlandish painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder “The Big Fish Eat the Little Fish” reflects perhaps not political allusions, as it is interpreted in the history of art, but a graphic food-chains scheme. It is possible that the picture engraving, stored in the British Museum, has influenced the creation of the food-chains concept by British ecologists Johnstone [1], Hardy [2] and Elton [3]. The taxonomic attachment of organisms depicted in the drawing has been determined.


About the authors

A A Nikol’skii

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Author for correspondence.
Email: nikolskiy_aa@rudn.university
Miklukho-Maklaya str., 6, Moscow, Russia, 117198

Nikolsky Alexander Alexandrovich - Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor; Professor of the Department of System Ecology of Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia.

E V Mikodina

Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography

Email: mikodina@vniro.ru
Verkhnyaya Krasnosel’skaya str., 16, Moscow, Russia, 107140

Mikodina Ekaterina Viktorovna - Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor. Head of the postgraduate department of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography.

E A Vanisova

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Email: vanisova_ea@rudn.university
Miklukho-Maklaya str., 6, Moscow, Russia, 117198

Vanisova Elena Aleksandrovna - Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Department of System Ecology, Faculty of Ecology, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Phone: +7 (495) 952-89-01, 8-916-141-39-57.

References

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  2. Hardy A.C. The herring in relation to its animate environment. Part I. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Fishery Investigations. 1924. Issue 2. Vol. 7(3). P. 1—39.
  3. Elton Ch. Animal ecology. N.Y.: Macmillan Co, 1927. 207 p. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.7435
  4. Sellink M. Bruegel: The Complete Paintings, Drawings and Prints. The Classical Art Series. Ghent: Ludion Press, 2007. 302 p. https://doi.org/10.1353/ren.0.0162
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  12. Summerhayes V.S., Elton C.S. Contributions to the ecology of Spitsbergen and Bear Island. Journal of Ecology. 1923. Vol. 11(2). P. 214—286.
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  15. The British Museum. [Internet]. Available from: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1335366&partId=1 (accessed: Oct 10, 2016).
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Copyright (c) 2017 Nikol’skii A.A., Mikodina E.V., Vanisova E.A.

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