DIVERSITY OF MODERN ECOLOGY

Abstract



INTRODUCTIONAccording to E. Haeckel, ecology is the science about interactions between organisms and environment, which consists of a variety of elements of inorganic and organic origin. However a strongly modified by human environment becomes a habitat for today’s organisms in contradistinction to the mid-19th century, when the term “ecology” [1] was firstly introduced. In this regard the relationship with factors of changed environment means the adaptation of living organisms to the different effects of human impact. Todayecology is not just “a science about home”, not just a system of conceptions of interactions between biotic and abiotic nature. It has become an integrated discipline, linking the physical and biological phenomena and forming a bridge between the natural and social sciences. In ХХI century ecology is considered as a kind of ideology of “modern developed post-industrial society and the theoretical basis of human behavior in the nature” [2].It is hard to find a natural science which is not related to ecology. Therefore our journal covers research in all areas of ecology, including classic ecology, eco-engineering, health- related environmental studies and related scientific areas (geographical and geological), as well as methods of environmental research and ecological education.The diversity of scientific and applied missions and ideas about ecological, social- and-ecological issues enables to cover debatable papers, and the authors’ idea does not always coincide with the ideas of editorial board members. As a result this creates a basis for discussion, for which the readers are called.REVIEW OF THE JOURNAL CONTENTEcologyEcology section is a key section of the journal. This section of the first journal issue includes the studies about adaptation mechanisms, effects of abiotic factors on the organisms’ life, biodiversity and mathematical modeling of global carbon cycles.One of the most important abiotic factors is light, especially for photosynthetic green plants. Photosynthetic rhythmicity patterns (daily and seasonal) are determined by the daylight time (reducing in autumn and increasing in spring). The plant organisms have developed specific mechanisms responding to the duration of the daily illumination period, in particular there are the changes in a pigment apparatus.The results of the study on chlorophyll and carotenoid content in the leaves of birch Bétula péndula growing in parks under active light human impact and woodland are presented in the article of N.V. Kutafina, A.N. Krasnopivtseva entitled “Physiological bases of adaptation of plant organisms in conditions of urban environment”. This study suggest the idea that plants of urban ecosystems adapt not only to soil and air changes, but also to changes of the daylight time duration due to evening and morning artificial illumination in the second half of the growing season. In natural conditions the intensity of photosynthesis reduces due to plastids degradation and chlorophyll and water content reduction in leaves by the end of vegetation season. Changes in pigment plant complex under urban illumination conditions are poorly studied and therefore this study is believed to appeal to the readership. The authors of the study have established that the photosynthetic pigment content reduction in plants of parkland was less prominent and the processes of photodestruction was decelerated. The increase of chlorophill and lipochrome lamina content of park area trees is explained by the adaptation of pigment apparatus to prolonged light period. The authors belief that obtained data are indicative of a high resistance and adaptation of parkland plants to human impact.Temperature is considered as a vital adiabatic factor. The temperature factor is characterized by seasonal and daily fluctuations, which have an important signal value for the activity of organisms. The effects of temperature are considered in the study ofE.B. Melnikova “Seasonal variability of hydrobiont luminescence intensity in the south- western shelf of Crimea”. Investigations of bioluminescence fluctuations were conducted in the Black Sea (south-western part of the Crimea and Sevastopol bay).The intensity of bioluminescence is considered by author as an indicator of ecological state of water ecosystems affected by the increased anthropogenic stress. The changes of the factor affecting the bioluminescence of hydrobiontes, which is the fluctuation of water temperature in different seasons, were used to assess the role of anthropogenic load. The peaks of luminescence activity are largely associated by temperature conditions in winter period and the depth of the reservoir.The article of A.V. Bazdyreva and E.B. Murzakhanova “State and conservation of the waterfowl in South and North Kulunda Baraba in summer period” is dedicated to applied research connected with assessment of biodiversity. The studies were conducted by support of the “Program of improving the competitiveness of the TSU” at the expense of the grant RFBR № 12-04-90851-mol_rf_nr project “Conservation of white-headed duck in Russia” (Conservation Leadership Programme) and contractual work with the Department of Wildlife Conservation in Novosibirsk region to identify the habitat of protected species of birds.The pecularity of the study area, which is one of the ornithological territories of international importance, is characterized by a combination of changing environmental conditions and intensive anthropogenic load, which affects the number of waterfowl. Services on accounting waterfowl allowed authors to develop recommendations for the conservation of biodiversity and reform of the system of protection of their populations.The series of articles dedicated to regional features of manifestations of the global carbon cycle in the biosphere (A.I. Kurbatova, A.M. Tarko, E.V. Kozlova “Impact of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on the ecological parameters of plant communities in Central and South America”) are presented in the issue. The joint study of the members of Ecological Department and Computing Center of Russian Academy of Sciences is based on the application of spatial mathematical model of global carboncycle.The changes of environmental parameters and the climate resulting from carbon dioxide emissions caused by fossil fuel combustion, deforestation and erosion have been calculated and provided. Different situations common in different regions of the world, such as the BRICS countries, Indo-China, Russia, the United States, the Gulf countries and others (1 in 2016, 2 in 2015, 1, 2015) were consistently considered and described. Moreover, the possible scenarios of climate change Central and South America counties were analyzed.The article of N.V. Kutafina and T.A. Belova “Physiological aspects of platelet activity of first year calves under the conditions of the Central Black Earth Region” considers the autecology issues. Based on the idea that the optimal dynamics of the functional characteristics of the hemostasis associated with elements of the blood condition, in particular platelet, authors established the age-related changes of platelet aggregation opportunities in the early stages of ontogenesis of calves. Data was received in the course of laboratory studies of newborn calves blood. It is shown that during the early ontogenesis of calves increased platelet activity reflects the activation of adaptive mechanisms in respond to environmental effects on the animals.Environmental AssessmentAfter the summit “Rio-92” the national concept of sustainable development of regions and countries, as well as the creation of indexes and indicators of this development occupies a key position in the list of published articles.One of the most important indices that determine the economic component of sustainable development, adopted in our country, is the ecological-and-economic index, defined for all subjects of the Russian Federation.After of the inclusion of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol in the Southern Federal District, the researchers from the Sevastopol State University G.A. Sigorova,L.A. Nichkova, T.Y. Khomenko conducted the work on EED calculation. The first results of this work are represented in the article “Ecological and economic index as an indicator of safe sustainable development in the regions”. The research allows to determine the place of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol in the Southern Federal District and to outline the basic sectors of the economy, namely tourism, industry and agriculture, the development of which will ensure sustainable development of the region.Biological testing or active monitoring is one of the top environmental assessment methods. The biotest can detect a variety of stress factors on the basis of the reaction of test organisms. In general for these purposes various organisms having a specific, clearly expressed reaction to biologically significant environmental impact are used. Test- organisms can determine the rate of change, the ways and places where toxic substances accumulate in ecosystems, as well as the degree of hazard of specific substances or their combinations threatening humans and biota. The biotesting is considered as multipurpose and cost effective way to determine the toxicity of the environment (soil, waters, air).Bioindication issues are described in the study of I.Y. Korneeva “The use of indicator index of worms and plants for assessing the ecological status of soil”. Several species of worms and crops (wheat and lettuce) were chosen as test organisms, while the leather and cement industrial waste as soil pollutant. The study revealed that the indicative features of pollution are those related to cold resistance, reproductive activity, recovery ability of the population in case of using worms, while the growth indicators were used for wheat (Triticumaestivum L.), and water-holding capacity and water content of leaves for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).GIS mapping based on the use of remote sensing data have become one of the most important modern techniques of mapping of large regions since the mid 80-ies. This method is successfully used in geological and geographical sciences, however it is also applied in ecological studies, allowing promptly prepare mapping data about environmental status. An example of such a work is the article of T.Y. Gorbunova, S.V. Gapon andR.V. Gorbunov “Mapping of ground covers types of Submediterranean lowland landscape by geomatics tools (the South-Eastern Crimea as a case study)”. The vegetation cover is an important indicator of the environmental state, since it is easily recognized based on satellite imagery data. Moreover it reflects the level of anthropogenic impact on the territory and land use structure. The method of modeling was present and the accuracy of the plant communities’ identification was estimated in the study.Modeling is widely used in all fields of science, including ecology. The behavior of organisms in nature is much more difficult to adequately describe by the means of mathematics than the most complex physical processes, but the model will help to establishsome patterns and general trends in the development of individual populations and communities. Modeling allows us to study the processes and systems, establish forward and backward linkages, identify causal relationships, assess the dynamics of biological processes and predict the speed and direction of migration changes toxicants, which may occur in the environment as a result of the impact of some factors. This model allows to find the best way to solve it. As ecology science advances and modelling methods become more sophisticated, the scientific and applied issues become more complicated and challenging.Primarily the results of mathematic modelling had represented only theoretical interest, but consequently they became practical. A review of modelling application for resolving radioecological issues is present in the article of S.A. Pavlova “Modeling of radioecological processes”. A compartmental model described the migration of radionuclides in ecosystems as well as structural-and-logical models and modelling of spatial aggregation of ecosystem components are discussed in the present study. It allows making a detailed forecast of accumulation and dynamics of radionuclides in ecosystems’ components.Environmental protectionToday the environmental protection is one of the top issues which are solved by joint activity of government, social associations and scientists from the majority of world countries. Search of new technologies with closed cycle of production process, decrease of harmful emissions and faulting, finding of new renewable sources of energy and ecofriendly types of fuels as well as waste management are the adequate solution in present situation.The present journal section contains the articles related to fire safety (V.V. Garmishev “Retrospective estimation of individual death risk as a result of fire in Irkutsk region”). “Advanced technologies and resources of extinguishing in petroleum storage depot” byT.A. Budikina, and K.Y. Budikina, and protecting against noise pollution (A.N. Skvortsov“Theoretical calculation of sound damping of cellular panel”).It was mentioned that fire dominate on all technogeneous incidents in Russia [3] Appearing both in industry and in the houses, it leads to considerable financial and human losses. Fire safety is related to the determination of fire risk, which is defined as a probability of fire hazard, its effects on people and their property [4]. Data of fire risk calculated for Irkutsk Region is present in article of V.V. Garmysheva. A review of modern technologies of extinguishing fires at oil depots is provided in the article of Budykina T.A., Budykina K.Y. Green building being one of the priorities of the environment protection allows to reduce the consumption of resources (energy and material) throughout the building’s life cycle, and improving the quality of construction and convenience of the internal environment. This result can be achieved by applying high-tech solutions as well as methods of passive architecture. However the variety of natural conditions of our country should be considered during creation of the green building technologies. The analysis of the impact of natural conditions on the macro, meso and micro-levels is presented in article of T.O. Korol “The role of natural and environmental factors in the implementation of green building technologies in Russia”. The research was carried out with the support of the RFBR grant № 15-05-01788 A.The author points out the main factors, which arethe climatic characteristics, such as solar radiation income, heat and humidity conditions. To calculate the efficiency of the use of green building technologies, the author proposes the use of computer modeling techniques enabling to reconstruct and analyze the landscape and climatic conditions of the region applying a series of specialized computer programs.BiogeochemistryBiogeochemistry being an independent field of natural science plays a significant role in ecological studies. Biogeochemistry considers qualitative and quantitative parameters of the transformation and movement of matter in a human modified environment providing insight into the chemical composition of living matter. Generally ecobiochemical works are focused on identification of the influence of the chemical elements, including heavy metals and other pollutants on plant productivity [5]. Often these studies are conducted on the basis of simulation experiment and comparison of samples with different levels of pollution with reference ones. The results of such a study are presented in the article written by D.A. Askarova “The effect of coal dust on the accumulation of Pb, Cd in legume sprouts.” The research was conducted using traditional approaches with the determination of heavy metals in soil and plant samples as well as calculation of accumulation indecies and biological absorption (Kn) index. The studies have shown that the accumulation of Pb and Cd in sprouts has an acropetally character, and the phytotoxic effect is not observed.Human ecologyHuman ecology occupies a special place among multidisciplinary sciences concerned with the study of patterns of interaction between human and environment. The study of human health and the analysis of the impact of environmental factors on individuals and population are the main objectives of human ecology. This priority was outlined at the All-Union Conference in 1983. Among the environmental factors that determine human ecopathology, chemical pesticides are considered to be one of the most significant. The research focused on the abovementioned issues was conducted by a group of authors from the Kursk Medical University (V.A. Korolev, Y.D. Lyashev, V.N. Ryzhaeva, N.E. Kirischeva,I.V. Korolev and E.S. Nikitina “Relative environmental risk of the gastrointestinal tractpathology of the adult population of Kursk area in the conditions of intensive use of insecticides”). The Kursk region is known as a region of a high level of agricultural development, and, consequently a high level of pesticide use. Studies were based on the comparison of areas with different levels of soil contamination by insecticidal preparations and different levels of prevalence of diseases. As a result, the connection was detected between 3 insecticides and studied nosology.CONCLUSIONSumming up the review of the articles included in the first issue of the Bulletin PFUR series Ecology and life safety, it should be noted that the subject of published articles is very diverse. But of course it is not fully reflect the entire spectrum of issues and areas of modern ecology research, which the editorial board understands as interdisciplinaryscience about close relationship of living organisms, climatic, geological and geographical environment and human health.A variety of study areas gives us rise to invite specialists from different fields: ecology, biology, geography, geology and life safety.

M G Makarova

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Email: mgmakarova@yandex.ru
Podol’skoe shosse, 8/5, Moscow, Russia, 113093 PhD, Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor of Geo-ecology Department, Ecological Faculty, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

M M Redina

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Email: redina@yandex.ru
Podol’skoe shosse, 8/5, Moscow, Russia, 113093 PhD, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Head of Department of Applied Ecology, Ecological Faculty, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

A V Popkova

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

Email: popkova_av@mail.ru
Podol’skoe shosse, 8/5, Moscow, Russia, 113093 postgraduate, Ecological Faculty, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia

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